İstanbul'daki 5 yıldızlı lüks şehir otellerinde halka açık alanların tasarımı üzerine bir araştırma

Çakırkaya, Yeşim
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Beş bölümden oluşan bu araştırmada, İstanbul'daki beş yıldızlı lüks şehir otellerinde halka açık mekanların tasarımında etkili olan faktörlerin saptanıp bunların ışığında tasarımın gelişiminin belirlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Girişte konunun tarihsel gelişimi, araştırmanın kapsamı ve önemi açıklanmıştır. İkinci bölümde otel kavramı incelenmiş, dünyada ve Türkiye'deki zincir otellerinin oluşumları ve sınıflandırılmaları konusunda bilgiler verilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde halka açık genel mekanların tasarlama ve oluşum gelişimlerinin kavranması ve belirlenmesi için mekan kavramı, mekan oluşumları ve mekansal özelliklere değinilmiş, mekan organizasyonu üzerinde durulmuş, kullanıcı ve kullanıcının mekan ile olan etkileşimi üzerine bilgiler verilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde, bir beş yıldızlı lüks şehir otelindeki mekan dağılımı tanımlanmış, bu bilgiler.ışığında- halka açık mekanların tanımları, mekansal, boyutsal ve donanım özelliklerinin oluşturduğu tasarlama prensipleri detayları ile açıklanmıştır. Beşinci bölümde, seçilen dokuz adet beş yıldızlı lüks şehir oteli üzerinde yapılan incelemelerle, dördüncü bölümde açıklanan tasarım kriterleri karşılaştırılmış, mevcut durum, gelişmeler ve yargılara yer verilmiş, elde edilen sonuçlar son bölümde sunulmuştur. Ayrıca, seçilen otel örnekleri üzerinde yapılan analiz çalışmaları eklerde verilmiştir.
Towards the end of the 20th century, the increase in the income level and the intellectual capacity, the developments in transportation and communication facilities in the world have caused diversification in the demands of travellers from accommodation buildings. This has resulted in the formation of a great variety of hotel types all over the world with the aim of satisfying those diverse demands. The latest developments in accommodation industry has caused hotels to expand their regular functions with the addition of various public spaces including food and beverage outlets, convention, meeting and recreational facilities. This work aims to investigate and present the design principles influencing the formation of public spaces in urban hotels in Istanbul. This work consists of five sections. In the first section, the development of -five-star urban hotel design concept in Turkey and Istanbul is explained. Next, the prominence of hotel buildings in urban built environment is described. Also, the aims of the investigation are presented and the scope of the investigation is set as five-star urban hotels in Istanbul in this section. The second section deals with the development of hotel concept which covers the definition of hotel, hotel chains and hotel classification criteria. -xxi- Hotels in general are buildings which provide living accommodations for transient visitors and long term residents and which offers other facilities such as meeting rooms, restaurants, entertainment and shops available to their guests and to the general public. The lodging industry is composed of two basic segments in terms of management:. Independently managed hotels. Chain managed hotels Chain operation refers to operation of several hotels by one organization. This has been a common practice in the lodging industry for the last 50 years beginning with Statler, Hilton and Sheration chains. Being a member of a chain operation provides several advantages to the hotel management. Especially, in purchasing, personnel management, promotion, financing and reservation operations hotel operators enjoy the benefits of being a member of a chain. In Turkey, at present there isn't an efficient and established domestic chain operation as described above, yet whereas many major foreign hotels chains are established in Turkey. In Istanbul, 7 hotels among the 17 urban five-star hotels, are members of foreign hotel chains. Hotels are classified according to the quality of the services they offer and quantity of the facilities they contain. Such a classification is beneficial in providing a basis of comparison among the hotels in the whole world and assures the_." inclusion of certain facilities inherent to a particular hotel class. Also, prices are determined according to the class of the hotel. In Turkey, hotel classification the star rating system is employed with the highest class having five stars. The third section of the work elaborates space concept and its elements. Space can be defined as the conceptual medium in which organisms can move and act and which consists of the combination of planar elements or carving out of three dimensional masses. Space can be -xiii- defined with its objective and perceivable qualities or with its subjective and conceptual qualities. Architectural space can be defined as a component of this space which meets the psychological, physiological and social demands of the occupying users. Space can be classified according to its definition, function or formation. Space has several qulities which assures the achievement of an identity and the determination of character. These qualities are as follows :. Closure in space. Continuity in space. Complexity in space. Dimensional qualities of space. Confining qualities of space Apart from these factors, the creation of space in a hotel is determined by the various qualities of the users. Users can be evaluated in two main groups consisting of guests and the staff. The various types of spaces found in many hotel types is as follows:. Guestroom floors. Public spaces. Administration offices. Service (back of the house) areas Each of these spaces in the hotel have different design principles and criteria. This investigation aims to reveal these principles regarding the public spaces in a hotel. Public spaces serve not only the guests of the hotel but also, the daily users, thus providing the hotel a substantial financial support apart from revenues from the rooms. In general, public spaces in a five-star urban hotel contain the following spaces: -xiv- . Entrance and lobby space. Food and beverage outlets. Functional spaces. Recreational spaces. Additional facilities All of these spaces have different priorities and requirements in hotel design, so the design principles and criteria for each of them differs. Entrance and lobby are the spaces which make the first impression of the hotel on the guests, so the spatial qualities of these spaces must be high enough to convey the superior level of service offered in the hotel. The lobby must be well illuminated and the interior decoration should be attractive. Since, lobby acts as a convention and distribution space for guests, its spatial configuration should enable efficient connections between the major public spaces of the hotel. The front desk in the lobby should be readily perceived by the guests and its location should facilitate more convenient checkin and checkout. Food and beverage outlets constitute a major component of hotel design. Due to their variety and their strict functional requirements, food and beverage outlets in the hotel must be designed carefully in order to achieve efficient and economical solutions. Food and beverage outlets diversify accoridng to the size and the type of the hotel.. Among these outlets, most common ones are specialty restaurant, theme restaurant, coffee shop and various bars. The most important criteria in food and beverage outlet design is the location of the kitchen assuring the shortest distances between food storage, preparation and service. A main kitchen located at the center of all the outlets provides the most efficient and economical solution. These outlets should have separate entrances, if possible, to enable easier access to daily users. interior decoration is an important factor in the design -xv- of these areas. The decoration should comply with the type of service, food and the theme of the restaurant. Technical requirements such as proper ventilation and illumination should be met in all the outlets. Functional areas in a hotel contain the ballroom, banquet rooms, meeting rooms and exhibition halls. These areas have increased their prominence in hotel design because of the high demand placed on them in the last few years. In five-star urban hotels, their user group is primarily the daily users. The most important design principle for functional areas is flexibility. In order to achieve that all the functional spaces should be divisible with partitions for various acitvities with different size requirements. Another important spatial qualities in these areas is a column free large span space again essential for flexibility and activities with audiences. These areas should have separate exterior entrances and their location should allow food service from the kitchen for banquet type activities. Also, these areas require special technical equipment such as audio visual equipment for show activities. Another type of public space is the recreational areas. These contain swimming pool(s), health club, sports facilities (tennis, squash, golf, etc.) and casino. Each of these areas have different design principles and criteria. In a hotel, these areas should be designed according to the economical and functional expectations of the hotel administration. Especially, the type and the size of the recreational facilities to be included in the hotel program should be carefully determined in order to gain the largest amount of revenues from these areas. Casino facility whose conditions are set by special laws in Turkey, provide a very large amount of revenue to a hotel Additional facilities in a hotel are spaces included in the hotel program where the facilities of the city, in which the hotel is located, are not adequate. Convention halls, movie theaters, shopping arcades are examples of such additional facilities which complement the city' s various facilities. This way, the hotel Utilizes the available spaces in the hotel as attraction points and sources of revenue. -xvi- In order to determine the design principles of public spaces in urban five-star hotels in Istanbul, 9 hotels have been investigated and the results have been analized with separate tables presented in Appendix A. The results obtained from this investigation are as follows : Hotel administrations need the external daily users in order to survive in the harsh market conditions and competition between hotels. Lobbies are considered as the most important space in the hotel and their spatial configuration is enriched with objects of art, water and green elements providing spatial complexity and attractiveness. Food and beverage outlets have increased in number and type. The setting of business meetings have moved to urban hotels resulting in increased convention and meeting facilities. Moreover, recreational facilities such as swimming pools and health club have become an indispensible component of hotel program. Closed car parking and casino have also become essential components of the hotel program.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Oteller, İstanbul, Hotels, Istanbul