Atıksu arıtma tesisleri için işgücü planlaması

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Tarih
1997
Yazarlar
Çalık, Zeliha
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Türkiye 'de atıksu arıtma tesislerinde çalışacak personel için görev ve meslek tanımı bulunmamaktadır. Aynı şekilde hangi tip arıtma tesisinde hangi meslek grubundan ne kadar kişinin çalışacağı konusunda bir kriterde mevcut değildir. Personelden kaynaklanan işletme ve bakım maliyetleri konusunda herhangi bir çalışma bulunmamaktadır. Bu çalışmada önce arıtma tesisinde görev alabilecek meslek kategorileri belirlenmiş ve her mesleğin detaylı bir tanımı yapılmıştır. Tanımda kişinin yapacağı işler açık ve net olarak belirtilmiş, eğitim seviyesi ve sahip olması gereken özellikler verilmiştir. Değişik arıtma sistemleri için tesis büyüklüğüne bağlı olarak istihdam edilecek personel sayı ve nitelikleri için ABD 'deki uygulamadan yararlanılarak tablolar geliştirilmiştir. Türkiye 'deki bazı atıksu arıtma tesislerindeki mevcut ve olması gereken personel durumu karşılaştırmalı olarak verilmiştir. Türkiye 'deki serbest piyasada geçerli fiyatlar kullanılarak önce her tesis.için görev alabilecek personele ait ağırlıklı ücret belirlenmiş, herbir tesis için işletme ve bakım maliyeti ile ilişkilendirilebilecek paremetre için boyutlandırma yapılmış ve PATTERSON ve diğ, (1971) tarafından geliştirilen grafiklere ilgili parametre ile gidilerek 18 arıtma birimi ve prosesi için yıllık ücretli kişi-saat gereksinimleri bulunmuştur. Bulunan bu değerler ağırlıklı ücretlerle çarpılarak her bir tesis birimi için personelden kaynaklanan işletme ve bakım maliyetleri tesis büyüklüğüne (debiye) bağlı olarak grafikler halinde ifade edilmiştir. Bu eğriler kullanılarak sistem seçimi aşamasında arıtma tesisi için personelden kaynaklanabilecek maliyetleri önceden tahmin etmek mümkün olacaktır. Türkiye 'deki bazı atıksu arıtma tesislerinin işletme ve bakım maliyetleri de incelenmiş ve birim m3 atıksu arıtma maliyetinin dünya ortalamasının oldukça üzerinde olduğu görülmüştür. İşletme ve bakım maliyetinin yükseldiğinin neden kaynaklandığı yorumlanmıştır.
The description of occupation for the stuff working in wastewater treatment plants does not exist in Turkey. There is no criterian about the number and the profession of the on-site personnel required for the maintenance of a particular wastewater treatment plant. And there is also lack of data about the operation and maintenance costs arising from the personnel. The aim of the study is to define the occupation categories in a particular wastewater water treatment plant and the detailed description of each occupation. The detailed description involves the formal education, other qualifications required and the tasks of each person. With the aid of a case-study from U.S. A, the number of the on-site personnel, depending on the capacity and type of the treatment plant are given in tables. The existing and required number of the personnel are compared for same treatment plants in Turkey. At first the current fees for the personnel are defined on the basis of free market prices. Then, treatment plant are designed for the parameters that can be related to the operation and maintenance costs. By using the graphics, given by PATTERSON et all. (1971), the need of annual fee per person per hour are established for 18 treatment units and processes. For each treatment plant operating and maintenance cost arised from personnel are given according to the capacity of the treatment plant with graphics. For the selection of the system these graphics can be used for the estimation of the costs arising from the personnel. A study was carried out on operation and maintenance costs of same wastewater treatment plants in Turkey and the unit cost of wastewater treatment in Turkey is found out to be much more higher in comments are made on the high cost of operation and maintenance. Average data for estimating operating cost and manpower staffing requirements of conventional wastewater treatment facilities presented in this thesis are applicable as bases for preliminary estimates for planning requirements, general comparative studies of costs of alternative wastewater treatment methods, and estimetas of total costs and manpower requirements to provide designated levels of treatment for wastewater xvi effluents in a entire area, state, region, or watershed. These average estimating data, unadjusted for particular local conditions, cannot be considered applicable for spesific for specific treatment plant estimates. Current practise in the design and operation of wastewater treatment plants is changing due to technological advancement, requirements for improved quality of plant effluents, and reliability. Estimates of average costs and manpower requirements, which are based upon recent practise, may need adjusment for recognition of changing requirements. The limitations of average estimating data presented must be recognized by the user. Estimates based upon such data should be considered only of sufficient accuracy for use in reaching broad general conclusions. When used with sound judgment by knowledgeable estimators, the data are considered valid for their limited intented purpose. It is recommended that recognition be given to the fact that data for estimating construction and operating costs, and manpower requirements, of conventional wastewater treatment facilities should be revised from time to time to reflect new design and operating practice required by changing tecnology. The Environmental Protection Agency, is charged with the responsibility of administering the Federal Goverment progman for reduction of pollutin of rivers, streams and lakes throughout the United States. This responsibility includes enforcement of water pollution control standards are used most effectively in reducing water pollution. To assist in evaluating both proposed water pollution control projects and the effectiveness of existing facilities, the Environmental Protect: Agency requested the preparation of this report on initial investment costs, operation and maintenance costs, amd manpower requirements for conventional wastewater treatment plants. The purpose of this thesis is the presentation of data for estimating, on a preliminary basis: 1- The costs of operatin and maintenance of individual components of such plants 2- The manpower requirements for staffing conventional treatment plants. Estimating data presented are appropriate for average conditions and, when used with judgment regarding specific local situations, should permit development of adequated preliminary estimates for conventional wastewater treatment facilities. This thesis presents manpower requirements for major components of conventional wastewater treatment plants. Major plant components included are typically raw wastewater pumping stations sedimentation basins, trickling filters, digesters, sludge dewatering, sludge incineration, - and other facilities. Manpower estimates for each component are related to a single parameter for sizes of individual facilities appropriate to treatment plants ranging in capacity from 3,785 - 378,500 cubic meter per day. Use of estimating data shown in this thesis is dependent upon the design engineer xvu establishing, on the basis of appropriate design criteria, the overall treatment process and sizes of components required for the particular treatment plant with he is concerned. It is essential that the user of estimating data presented in this thesis carefully review all introductory material, including the section on data development, so that he may more fully appreciate the breadth of the estimating methods presented, and the limitatins on accuracy and applicability for any particular situation. Operation and maintenance cost data for the various cost components have been developed by analyzing information obtained from existing operating facilities. Where field information was not available or insufficient, cost elements have been estimeted. Cost estimating data generally reflect an average of current operations but have been adjusted where warranted to indicate sound operating conditions and procedures. While actual costs may vary appreciably from estimated average costs, data presented in this these should be of value, when used with judgment, as basic indicators for preliminary cost estimates as warranted by local circumstances. Data for estimating operation and maintenance costs of each of the major components of wastewater treatment plants include annual payroll man-hours for operating labor, annual payroll man-hours for maintenance labor, and annual costs of materials and supplies. The principal plant components to which each of these items is related are as follows: 1- Wastewater Pumping 2- Prealiminary Treatment 3- Sedimentation 4- Trickling Filters - 5- Aeration - Diffused Air Asystem 6- Aeration - Mechanical Aerators 7- Chlorination 8- Primary Sludge Pumping 9- Sludge Digestion 10- Sludge Drying Beds 11- Sludge Lagoons 12- Vacuum Filtration 13- Centrifiigation 14- Incineration 15- Yard Work 16- Laboratory 17- Administration and General A basis is also provided for estimating indirect labor costs paid by the utility, such as social security; contributions to pension, retirement or welfare funds; and premiums paid for hospitalization, health, life and workmen 's compensation insurance. The annual payroll man-hours for operation and maintenance, respectively, are indicative of the total requirement for personnel to adequately operate and maintain the xvm facility. Man-hour requirements are based on a normal payroll year consisting of 52 weeks at 40 hours per week, or a total of 2,080 hours per year. Effective working time is estimeted to be 90 per cent of the payroll man-hours, with the remaining 10 per cent representing paid vacations, holidays, sick time and other paid time away from the job. While normally full-time employees are anticipated, the payroll man-hours may include a suitable combination of part-time employees. The limitations of cost estimates based upon average conditions are again emphasized. Operation and maintenance cost data presented herein are applicable as a basis of preliminary estimates for planning requirements and methods, and for general comparative cost studies of alternative wastewater treatment methods. The data may also be applicable for use by various levels of governmental agencies in estimating the total costs of wastewater treatment facilities required to provide desired levels of treatment of all wastewater effluents in an entire area, state, region or wareshed. The total annual labor costs of a wastewater utility consist of both direct and indirect labor costs. The direct labor costs include the salaries, wages, and other compensation actually earned by the employees. Example of direct labor costs include base salaries or wages, overtime and premium pay, and cost of living adjustments. The base salaries or wages applicable to payroll man-hours include pay fornonworkwd perşods such as vacation, sick leave, holidays, excused leave, and injury leave. Indirect labor costs include those labor-related cost paid by the utility other than salaries, wages and other direct compensation. Examples of indirect labor costs include social security; contributions to pension, retirement, or welfare funds; and premiums paid on hospitalization, helth, life, and workmen 's compensation insurance. The following results have been achieved in this work, in which the current status in Turkey of the personnel planning at the wastewater treatment plants has been examined: 1- The job descriptions for the staff to be employed at the wastewater treatment plants heve been made and some proposals in regard to the staff quantity for employment concerning the flow rate for the usual domestic wastewater treatment have been presented. 2- The quantity and qualities of the staff of some public wastewater treatment plants in Turkey have been assessed and ascertained that the personnel quantity is generally too much for the work and qualities do not meet the requirements of the scope. 3- The factor, that causes most attraction during the inquiry of the status in Turkey is the insufficiency of technical personnel for the assignment for plant administration. While the amount of engineers and labors in those plants are generally exceeding, manpower for additional within a planning process is deemed necessary for personnel training in this direction. Another point causing attraction is that the engineer employment, which in fact constitutes the main branch in this sector. 4- The administrative and financial curves have been prepared in connection with the flow rate, using the optimum annual payroll man - hours for the processes and units xix that are being widely used in traditional treatment plants together with their prices in Turkey. The utilization of these curves will ensure an estimation of the staff expenses for the system chosen during the wastewater treatment planning stage. 5- The administration and maintenance costs of some wastewater treatment plants in Turkey have been inquired and detected that the share of personnel costs are at 30 % of the costs for administration and maintenance except the plants consisting of physical treatment units, only.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
Atık su arıtma tesisleri, İş gücü planlaması, Waste water treatment plants, Manpower planning
Alıntı