Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/4560
Title: Mekansal Planlama Ve Tasarım Sürecinde Engellilik
Other Titles: Disability In Spatial Planning And Design Process
Authors: Ertekin, Özhan
Çelik, Özge
10014799
Şehir Planlama
Urban Planning
Keywords: engelsiz mekan tasarımı
engellilik
tasarım
erişilebilirlik
barrier free design
disability
design process
accessibility
Issue Date: 6-Sep-2013
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Gerek mevcut ve son dönemlerde hayata geçirilmeye çalışılan çeşitli yasal düzenlemeler, gerekse demografik yapıda etkileri yavaş yavaş hissedilmeye başlanan değişimler nedeniyle Türkiye’de engelsiz mekan tasarımı giderek daha önem verilmesi, dikkat edilmesi gereken bir konu haline gelmektedir. Kamu kurum ve kuruluşları da özellikle yasal zorunluluklar nedeniyle bu yöndeki çalışmalarını hızlandırma/yetiştirme baskısı altına girmişlerdir. Engelliler, engelsiz mekan tasarımında ayrı bir önem taşımaktadır. Engellilerin şehirsel mekanları engelsizlerle eşit koşul ve haklarla kullanabilmeleri, bu mekanların herkes için “erişilebilir” kılınması hedefiyle başlayan çalışmalar genellikle, engelsizler tarafından “empati yöntemiyle” tasarlanmaktadır. Bunun sonucunda sıklıkla tasarruflar, dar bakış açıları, vurdumduymazlık gibi etkilerle yapılan mekansal düzenlemeler sıklıkla tartışılabilir bir hale gelmekte ve hedeflenen kullanıcı kitlesine hizmet etmekten uzaklaşmaktadır. Diğer yandan nadir de olsa engellilerin katılımıyla yapılan çalışmalar ise sadece engelliler tarafından değil, tüm yararlanıcılar tarafından başarılı bulunabilmektedir. Bu çalışma ile engelli algısının ve engelsiz mekan algısının belirlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Amaç doğrultusunda Bakırköy ilçesi çalışma alanı olarak seçilmiş ve toplam üç farklı anket formu olmak üzere hazırlanan anketler ilçeyi kullanan engelliler, engelli olmayanlar arasında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Kamu kurum ve kuruluşları nezdinde yapılan araştırma ile uygulama çalışmaları ve farkındalık düzeyleri belirlenmiş, engelliler nezdinde yapılan araştırma ile de yapılan çalışmalardan memnuniyet düzeyi ortaya konmuştur. Aynı zamanda engellilerin sokağı kullanımda karşılaştıkları zorluklar belirlenerek gözlemle bu sorunlar ortaya konmaya çalışılmıştır. Engelli olmayan kişilerle yapılan çalışmalarda ise engelli algısı ortaya konmuştur. Benzer sorular içeren farklı grupla yapılan anketlerde her iki grubunda fiziksel mekanda karşılaştıkları sorunlar ortaya konarak mekansal düzenleme çalışmalarından beklentileri belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca topluma katılımla tasarım ilişkisi ortaya konmuş ve araştırmaların karşılaştırılması ile engelsiz mekan/herkes için tasarım çalışmaları içerisinde engellilerin yeri belirlenmiştir. Sosyal bütünleşme açısından engelsiz mekan tasarımı yaklaşımlarının etkisi olup olmadığı belirlenerek fiziksel mekanların kişilerin sosyal ilişkilerinde büyük rol oynadığı ortaya çıkmıştır. SPSS yöntemi ile değerlendirilen anket soruları frekans tabloları ile yüzdesel değerler ortaya konmuş ve çapraz tablolar kullanılarak ikili faktörler arasındaki ilişkiler belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, “engelli duyarlı” yapılan çalışmaların günümüzde yavaş yavaş artmaya başladığı ve buna bağlı olarak engelli olmayan kişilerin engelli algısında değişmeler olduğu gözlenmiştir. Yine yapılan engelsiz mekan çalışmaları etkisi ile kullanıcıların farkındalıklarının arttığı belirlenmiş ve mekansal çalışmaların sosyalleşme ile bağlantılı olduğu ortaya konmuştur.
Non-handicapped space design in Turkey is fast becoming a subject to place emphasis on and be wary of both due to various existing and soon-to-be actualized legal regulations and changes whose effects are gradually felt in the demographic structure. Public institutions and organizations are under pressure to accelerate/finish their works in this direction, especially due to legal obligations. Disabled have an additional importance in non-handicapped space design. The works, which started with the target of handicapped using urban spaces in equal conditions and rights with the non-handicapped and these spaces made “accessible” for everyone, are usually designed by the non-handicapped with the “empathy method”. As a conclusion of this, spatial organizations which are frequently built with effects such as cost-savings, narrow-mindedness and insensitivity become debatable frequently and are far from serving the targeted user group. On the other hand, despite being rare, the works made with the participation of the handicapped are not only found successful by the handicapped, but by all users. In this study the aim was to “manifest the way society preceives the handicapped and to provide awareness to the spatial organizations made for the handicapped as well as to manifest how physical spaces commonly-used are perceived by the handicapped, which handicapped group met with what kind of physical problem, how related socializing problems are with the designs and utilizations of locations, to show the effect created by not being able to use the physical space in equal rights by trying to set forth where the handicapped see themselves in the society and to provide utilization of physical space by the handicapped and their participation in social life”. The main problem was specified as “many deficiencies in application alongside multitude of academical or other studies within the scope of non-handicapped space design or universal design” within the scope of the study. The study is based on the main hypothesis of “creating non-handicapped spaces by adopting various design approaches to provide utilization of physical space by everyone increase satisfaction of users, their frequency of usage and their socializing”. Design concepts such as universal design, non-handicapped space design, accessible design were examined in the first part prepared in the direction of aims and problems under the title of “A View to Disability from the Framework of Design”, physical space and handicapped relationship was manifested by asserting design standards and broad descriptions. On the other hand, literature review setting forth society’s perception on the handicapped and handicapped’s expectations from the society was fulfilled in the name of manifesting the relationship of society and the handicapped, and the studies were collected under this title. The current situation on the handicapped and the studies prepared were examined in the second and third parts of the study. Various concepts and descriptions regarding handicapped, information including statistics regarding handicapped in the world and Turkey were given place in the study. At the same time legal criteria, design and planning works, changing of these works within the historical process and sample design and planning approaches arranged pursuant to the handicapped in relation with the physical space were given place. The fourth and the last part consists of field survey. In this section Bakirkoy county was chosen as the study field within the direction of the purpose. All counties in Istanbul were examined in terms of handicapped population, rate of handicapped population to regular population and number and variety of handicapped societies in the selection of the study field and Bakirkoy county was specified as the most suitable county for the required qualities. Survey method was selected as the working method after the determination of study field and pilot survey study was applied in the beginning of the study. The surveys prepared as three different survey forms in total were realized among the handicapped and non-handicapped utilizing the county, in the field survey. In the part of modelling of survey questions which developed in connection to research questions, purposes and hypothesises and after the evaluation of survey data, conclusions such as “determination of physical space and handicapped relationship and manifesting non-handicapped space preception” which were expected to be achieved were determined and in this direction questions with the content of “using the space”, “problems encountered on the streets”, “awareness and expectations of the applications”, “participation to social events” were asked to handicapped people including above sixty-year olds. In the same way, questions with the content of “descriptions of handicapped”, “ accepting the handicapped”, “awareness”, “the problems encountered on the streets and expectations”, “the effect of the space on social relationships” were listed in the surveys in the direction of manifesting perception of the non-handicapped on the handicapped and on non-handicapped space which will be carried out on the non-handicapped. The conclusions of these two different survey studies are intended to determine the concept of “handicapped” within the design and society. A total of 33 surveys with the handicapped and a total of 35 surveys with the non-handicapped were realized. In total there were 68 surveys. Application works and levels of awareness were determined in the research made at public institutions and organizations and level of satisfaction for the works performed was revealed with the research made on the handicapped. At the same time hardships of handicapped in using the streets were determined and these problems were manifested by observation. Perception towards handicapped was manifested in the studies made with the non-handicapped. The problems encountered by both groups in physical spaces were set forth in the surveys directed at different groups but containing similar questions and their expectations from spatial arrangement works were determined. In addition, the relationship between participation to the society and design were revealed and the place of the handicapped were determined within the works of non-handicapped space/design for all with the comparision of studies. It was determined whether non-handicapped space design approaches had any effects with regards to social integration and it was found that physical spaces have a big role in people’s social relationships. Percental values and frequency tables were put forth with survey questions which were evaluated by SPSS method and relations between dual factors were determined by using cross tables. Two different points require to draw attention, in the direction of the problems and expectations encountered and the conclusions of survey studies mentioned above, when one considers the target to be achieved. The first one is how “perception of non-handicapped on handicapped” was measured and what conclusion was drawn. The second one is the problems encountered by the handicapped in physical spaces and to find the answer to the question “how social integration will be provided?” after the fulfilled studies were determined. It can be specified shortly that this perception is very low according to the clear conclusions. It was revealed that perception on handicapped, observed to increase and change with time, is strongly related to non-handicapped space. Frequent use of the streets by the handicapped and their appearance in the society effects non-handicapped’s process of familiarization and learning about the handicapped. This expresses the importance of urban planning and design approaches once again. In addition, when the awareness of the handicapped towards the work done and their “non-handicaped space perception” were tried to be revealed it was seen that although the awareness level of the handicapped were very high, some of the work were unsuitable and impractical for them. This situation means in reality obstacles were formed when non-handicapped spaces were designed. Inclusion of non-handicapped to these works to eliminate this problem may provide understanding and evaluating non-handicapped spaces from another dimension. The handicapped trying to take a place in the society always specified the importance of Access and non-handicapped designs in every stage of the study. It was revealed that the biggest factor in social integration is the streets and the smallest work fulfilled in the name of eliminating these problems will generate great results. As a conclusion, it was observed that “handicapped sensitive” works are increasing gradually today and non-handicapped’s perception on the handicapped is changing in connection with this. It was also determined that awareness of users increased with the non-handicapped space works and it was revealed that spatial works are related with socializing.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2013
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2013
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/4560
Appears in Collections:Şehir Planlama Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.