Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/3449
Title: Mimarlıkta Ekosistem Düşüncesiyle Tasarlamak
Other Titles: Designing With The Reflection Of Ecosystem In Architecture
Authors: Dursun, Pelin
Bayraktaroğlu, Özde Ezgi
461314
Mimari Tasarım
Architectural Design
Keywords: doğa
ekosistem
ekoloji
ekolojik tasarım
mimarlık
nature
ecosystem
ecology
ecological design
architecture
Issue Date: 21-Feb-2014
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: MİMARLIKTA EKOSİSTEM DÜŞÜNCESİYLE TASARLAMAK ÖZET Doğa, insan ve diğer canlı türleri arasındaki etkileşim mimarlık bağlamında ele alındığında iki önemli sorunsalın varlığından söz edilebilir. Tezde amaçlanan, doğa deneyimi ve biyoçeşitliliğin azalması olarak tanımlanan bu iki soruna çözüm üretebilmek amacıyla bir tartışma ortamı yaratabilmektir. Bu anlamda, tez genel olarak insan ve doğa arasındaki ilişkiyi tekrar güçlendirmek adına ortaya çıkan doğa temelli tasarım yaklaşımlarını ve canlıların çevresiyle olan ilişkilerini inceleyen ekoloji bilimini konu alır. Çalışma kapsamında ele alınan kavramlar üzerinden ekosistem düşüncesi, tasarım sürecini yönlendiren önemli bir farkındalık, bilinç düzeyi olarak kabul eden ekosistem temelli öneri bir tasarım modeli ortaya koymaktadır. Tezin ilk bölümünde, ekolojinin alt dalları etki alanlarına göre ölçeklendirilmiş ve işleyiş fonksiyonlarına göre analiz edilmiştir. Ekoloji dallarının içerdiği kavramlar ekosistem süzgecinden geçirilerek yeniden değerlendirilmiş ve doğa temelli tasarım anlayışlarının daha iyi kavranmasını sağlayacak ekolojik bir rehber oluşturulmuştur. Tezin ikinci bölümünde ise, oluşturulan ekolojik rehber üzerinden mevcut doğa temelli tasarım yaklaşımlarının ekoloji dalları ile etkileşim seviyeleri araştırılmış, güçlü ve zayıf yönleri ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Ekosistem temelli yeni bir tasarım yaklaşımı için, ekosistem ve barındırdığı biyoçeşitliliğin tasarım kriteri olarak mekan biçimleme sürecinde ele alınması gerektiğini ve insanın doğanın ayrılmaz bir parçası olduğunu vurgulayan ekoloji dalları ile doğa temelli tasarım yaklaşımları temel alınarak içerik oluşturulmuştur. Son bölüm ekosistem temelli bir tasarım yaklaşımı için önerilen üç aşamalı bir modeli ortaya koymaktadır. Modelin ilk basamağı mekan hissi, kendi kendine yetebilme, mutualist yaşam ve devamlılık kavramlarından oluşan ekosistem gereksinimlerini ele almakta, ikinci basamağı gereksinimleri yerine getiren deneyim, denge, döngü ve organizasyon kriterlerini tanımlamaktadır. Üçüncü basamak ise modelin yaratıcı bir süreç olarak derinliğini arttırmak ve tasarımda, araştırmacı, yenilikçi, özgün düşünceler oluşmasını sağlamak üzere ekolojik değer, ekolojik süreç, ekolojik koşul ve ekolojik strateji kavramlarını içeren ekolojik değişkenleri tartışmaktadır. Örnek projeler üzerinden açıklanan kavramlar kendi başlarına yeni bir görüş içermeseler de model içerisinde ele alınış ve ilişkilendiriliş biçimleriyle mevcut yaklaşımlar arasında yeni bir perspektif ortaya koymaktadır. Tez bu anlamda ekosistem temelli tasarım anlayışının özüne dair öneri bir model sunmanın yanı sıra gelecekte mimarlığın ekosisteme nasıl dahil olabileceğine dair öngörüler barındırmaktadır. Böylelikle mimari çalışmaların içerisine ekosistemi temel alan ekolojik bir sorumluluk yerleştirmek hedeflenmiştir.
DESIGNING WITH THE REFLECTION OF ECOSYSTEM IN ARCHITECTURE SUMMARY When the interaction between nature, humanbeings and the other living species is considered in an architectural context, two major problems can be seen. In this thesis, it is aimed to generate a discussion medium regarding to these two problems which can be defined as the loss of nature experience and the biodiversity. In this respect, this thesis is subjected on the nature based design approaches which are emerged as a basis to re-establish the relationship between nature and the humanbeings and the science of ecology that researches the relationships among living species and inbetween the nature as a basis to offer logical solutions to the loss of biodiversity. An ecosystem based design proposal which considers the idea of an ecosystem that is developed through the concepts which are undertaken in the scope of this study as an awareness and the degree of conciousness that influences the design process is put forth for consideration. In the first section of the thesis, the branches of ecology is scaled regarding to their effective domain and is analysed according to their operational functions. The concepts included in these branches of ecology is re-considered in respect to the ecosystems and in this way, an ecological guide is developed that would help to understand the nature based design approaches better. These ecological branches can be scaled as the city and human ecology, landscape ecology, industrial ecology and ecosystem ecology. In this section of the thesis it can be seen that by using the city and human ecology, landscape ecology and industrial ecology as components and restoration ecology as a tool, an ecological guide can be developed as all the major keywords that define each of these ecological branches can be comprehended by the ecosystem ecology and its keywords. This implies the fact that whether it is obvious or not, every action that takes place in each of these ecological branches will end up affecting ecosystem ecology and the ecological guide helps us to better understand these interactions. In the second section, the integration degree between the nature based design approaches and the branches of ecology is studied through the developed ecological guide, the strength and the weakness of each approach is aimed to be displayed. Ecological guide is used as a criteria to reveal the weakness of a nature based design approach and this weakness is then used as a requirement to develop a new and expansive analyses period through the existing nature based design approaches. Green design can be seen as an approach to minimize the harmful effects of an industrial process to the environment and human health and is supported by the existing assessment methods, but despite the fact that it contibutes positive insights about energy efficiency and resource management it has no potential rather than the minimization of the existing impact. Ecological design on the other hand is an environmentally concious design approach that handles the nature and the built environment together as a whole but the way it treats the requirements only from the human perspective, it does not contribute a meaningful ecosystem based approach. These two approaches both show concern for the physical and material based necessities while biophilic design considers the psychological affects of the nature experience but lacks an attitude towards ecosystems. Biomimicry is regarded as a design approach which analyses and is inspired by the natural processes and rather than the other approaches it respects nature and regards it as a mentor. It shows a good opportunity with its ecosystem level biomimicry field but has not fully revealed yet. Regenerative design on the other hand is based on the system theory and has its roots in process based regeneration of ecosystems but lacks the potential solutions for the interaction between humans and the other living organisms. It is seen that every approach has some potential to fulfill and some waknesses to overcome. While biomimicry offers an inspiring field of discovery and can be considered encouraging, the most satisfactory approach among them can be regarded as the discipline of regenerative design with respect to an ecosystem based design approach. As an outcome of these analyses, the content for a new ecosystem based design approach is developed regarding the nature based design approaches and the branches of ecology that emphasizes the need to treat the ecosystem and the biodiversity it contains as a design criteria and that the humans are an integral part of the ecosystem. The last section of the thesis reveals an ecosystem based design model that encourages solutions for the lack of nature experience and biodiversity. The model is based on three sublevels. The first level is composed of valuable concepts that are extracted from the ecological branches and the nature based design approaches. The first level of the model defines and discusses the ecosystem necessities which are consisting of sense of place, self sufficiency, mutual relationships and continuity while the second level illustrates the criterias that fulfill the necessities such as experience, stability, cycle and organisation that fulfill the necessities. Third level argues the ecological variables that would generate inquiring and original thoughts in design and deepen the model as a creative process as they influence the criterias to fulfill the necessities and includes the concepst such as ecological value, ecological process, ecological conditions and ecological strategy. Ecological values examines whether the design is driven by biospheric values, ecological process searches how well the design provides opportunities for the native ecosystem cycles, ecological conditions care for the attitude towards the habitats of other living organisms and ecological strategy investigates the success degree of integrations between the built environment and the local ecosystem structure. The proposed model demonstrates the ways of implementations through the analyses of comtemporary design examples which can be regarded as visionary projects that respect the native ecosystems. Each sublevel of the model is discussed through the appropriate design examples to better explain the way to treat these keywords defined in the model and how they can become a tool to put forth a manifestation in the domains of ecosystem ecology and architecture. The concepts that are defined through project examples may not seem to have unique meanings on their own but the way they are associated in the model reveals a new perspective. This thesis therefore not only proposes a new ecosystem based design model, but also provides foresights on how architecture can be integrated to the local ecosystems in the future. Thus it is aimed to establish an ecological responsibility in the architectural studies.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2013
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2013
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/3449
Appears in Collections:Mimari Tasarım Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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