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|Title:||Dilhayat Kalfa` Nın Hayatı, Eserleri Ve Türk Müsikisindeki Yeri|
Türk sanat müziği
Turkish art music
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Dilhayat Kalfa Türk Musikisinde klasik dönemin en büyük kadın bestecilerindendir.. Sanata ve sanatçıya büyük önem veren kendisi de bestekar olan lll.Selim'in de en parlak dönemine dahil olmuş bestekârlarımızdandır. - Dilhayat Kalfa 17107-1780? yılları arasında yaşadığı tahmin edilmektedir. Hayatı hakkında güfte mecmualarından başka hiç bir kaynakta bilgiye rastlanmamıştır. Sarayda haremin en yüksek mertebelerinden biri olan "Kalfa" mertebesine kadar yükselmiştir. Dilhayat Kalfa'nın yüzden fazla peşrev, saz semaisi, kar, beste, semai ve şarkı bestelediği eski güfte mecmualarındaki kaynaklarda bahsedilmektedir. Fakat zamanımıza ancak dört bestesi, beş peşrevi ve dört tane de saz semaisi gelebilmiştir. Dilhayat Kalfa devrinin en iyi tanburi ve hanendelerindendir, bu da bestelediği eserlerden anlaşılmaktadır. Dilhayat Kalfa için Reftar Kalfa'dan sonra kadın bestecilerimizin öncüsüdür diyebiliriz.|
The role and importance played by women in our society have been highlighted quite often. Women in particular displayed their wisdom, vision and ingenuinity at all walks of life and proved successful. In the field of classical music in Turkish history also it was no exception and women contributed immensly. A threadbare analysis on women musician will give an idea about the role played by them. They excelled as instrumentalist (sazendelik) to vocalist (hanendelik) from poetress to writer and composers to musiceans. The place and role of women in Turkish music were never stalled by the time. The emergence of Reftar Kalfa, Gülfer Kalfa, Dilhayat Kalfa during Talip Age (Lale devri) and king selim Ill's period, Leyla (Saz) Hanım in the 19th century, Gevheri Osmanoğlu in the 20th century and Faize Ergin in the first half of 20th century are few prominent names to reckon with. Dilhayat Kalfa touched the depth of Turkish music and was considered to be one of the best composers of the time. Her quality is more pronouced, if we happen to see the contemporary society that she lived to nurture the classical forum. She reflected the cultural resurgence and the role played by women in that period. Thought, acceptably true the privilages enjoyed by women folk both in Europe and the wolrd were at its lowest ebb at that time. However, contrary to the non oblivious attitude of Europe against women, the Ottoman Empire inspite of its conservative nature continued to pay greater significance to the role played by women in their society. As understood by the name, our composer worked during Ottoman role and acclaimed the title "Kalfa". In those days the prestigious title that could be confered to a women in the palace was 'Kalfa'. As such she was known not as Lady Dilhayat but Dilhayat Kalfa. It could not be confirmed whether Dilhayat was a Türk or a foreigner from the available informations. It is more likely that she was brought to the Palace and reared. The likely proof that can be substantiated that Ladies brought to the Palace were not given common names like Ayşe, Fatma, etc. Because these names were ascribed for the dignified ladies of the Palace and the ladies brought to the Palace for rearing up had names. Like Çeşme-i Afet, Aynülhayat to their person. However, they were given names befitting to their field of excellence. Dilhayat Kalfa was brought to the Palace in recognition to her latent talent of music. - vi - It could not be established the exact number of books Dilhayat has written. But from the evailable archieves at hand, she had four compositions, five peşrevs and for semai to her credit. I would now explain the particular forms of musical compositions that Dilhayat framed. The dictionary meaning of word "Beste" in Persion means connection. This amplifies the inter-rhythemic connection between the verses and melody. The "beste" is one of the original form of classical music. The "kar" form (composition at classical level) precedes the "fasıl" form also known as intervals. In few "faszil", the "Kar" form may not be present instead the first "beste" followed by the second "beste" at a rapid form is found. This is followed by the first couplet or other verses of couplet. But in all the circumstances the four line verses are used. Thin is known as quatrain. We also observe the same expression in Dilhayat Kalfa compilations. The quatrain forms are as under: A< A< B< A< As can be seen in 1st, 2nd ant the 4th lines of the poetry it has the same rhythemic tone. On the 3rd line of the composition at intermediate rhythemic level the tone of melody changes. The humming sound at intermediate rhythemic level may also be used like the 1st rhythem and with the same verses/words other melodies incorporated. The "beste" can also be expressed in the form of "Aruz vezni". Dilhayat Kalfa also wrote the quatrain beste in the form of "Aruz Vezni". The vezin form is also evident in "Sabâ" and "Mahur beste". Its annotations are as under: Failâtün/Failâtün/Failâtün/Failün In "Rast Beste" it is expressed as; Fâilâtün/Feilâtün/Feilâtün/Feilün (Fâlün) Lastly in "Evç Beste" the expressions are Mefülü/Fâilatü/Mefâilü/Fâilün. - vii - In Dilhayat Kalfa's "Evç Beste", the evç level has a mono level rhythemic tone. The composition is "Remel" in pattern and has a medium fast rhythemic pattern of 28 beats. It does not change its rhythemic pattern. In the beginning the pattern of the music starts with an essence of compactness. In the "Evç Beste" the use of "Acem Perdesi" or the form of higher humming tones were evident. However, the "beste" at lower level of rhythem avoids using "Acem Perdesi" in its musical form. Forming a progressive pattern over musical melody of "Neva, Rast and Dügah" it interconnects them to form the couplets of rhythemic verses. Then proceeding to the lower level of miscal rhythem of "Irak" to finish at "Segah". The "Evç Beste" at intermediate rhythemic level also connects itself to "Bestenigar". This is composed by the addition of "Segah" to the bottom of the 3Sâbâ" level. The "Bestenigar", mingles, itself to the variety presented by "Nişabur" and continues as such. Of the "beste" compositions the level of "Sabâ" composition also has a mono-level rhythemic tone. In "Sabâ" it has both a level and height of perfection which is classical in nature. The "beste" is light and has a rhythmeic pattern of 32 beats. However, it does not change the rhythemic pattern. It has 2/4 beats with "Ah" like repeatations. On repeation the "Sabâ" variety turns to "Nieabur" for a change. The "Nişabur" is simply fallowed by "Beyati" to move to "Segah" rhythem ultimately. The "Sabâ" composition in its intermediate rhythem intercourses with "Hüseyni" and during repetation returns to "Sabâ" rhythem. The "Mahur" also has a mono-level rhythemic tone. Its rhythemic method is 'Devr-i Kebir'in nature having the major rhythemic pattern of 28 beats with 28/4 signatures. This introduction has taken Dilhayat Kalfa to a level of competence in classical music. In the "beste" form of composition both at lower and intermediate rhythemic level during repeatations it fallows the rhythemic pattern of 1 0 beats with 10/4 signatures. The finer point is the repeated melody is prolonged with "Devr-i Kebir" pattern. It is dealy complimented by 28 beats dropping to "Aksak Semai" with 1 0 beats and ultimately returning to "Devr-i Kebir"in its original form. Thin is a bold innovation which took the essence of classical music at a higher plane in 'beste' composition. The use of "Mahmur Beste' was so unique that it showed the mastery of melodic harmony. Originally it drops to lower rhythemic level to rise to Nişabur to reach to "Miyend" and ultimately settling at "Nigar" level. The "Mahur beste" has the typical style of beginning with the music and the verses simultaneously. Earsthwhile the composers on completion of the melody will finish the music with "Vay, Hey canım, Canım Ey" sorts of expressions. This classical form is very much available - viii - in Dilhayat Kalfa's "Mahur Beste" compilations. A point to note was the "Mahur Beste" generalley concluded with "Vay" expression. Like other compositions, the compositions of the "Rast Beste", begins witha melodic tone, like other classical forms of composition, "Rast Beste" also has a classical appeal, like the "Sabâ" style it is complimented with slight nature rhythemic beats of 32 having 2/4 beats of repeations of "Ah" melody. Except minor changes in classical form Dilhayat Kalfa's composition basically followed the classical pattern. The compositions of Dilhayat Kalfa's text of music are as under: Evç/Beste/Remel Çok mu figânım ol gül-i ziba hıram için Elbet de say eder kişi âlemde kâm için Maksûd cevr ise bana besdir tegâfülün Ey şûh verme kendine zahmet cefâm için Mâhur/Beste/Devr-i Kebir Ta-be-key sînemde ca etmek cefa vü kîneye Kadir isen aşık-i bî-kîneyi çek sîneye Kendin etmezsen tehammül hicrine âşık değil Gör nice bî-tâb Olursun bakmazsan ayîneye Saba/Beste/Hafi Yek-be-yek gerçi meram-ı dili takrîr etdim Neyleyim ah o meh-peykeri dilgîr etdim Eyleyip habda takbîl o nûr-ı basarı Uyanıp hahiş ile aynın tabir etdim. Rast/Beste/Hafif Nev-hıramım sana meyleyledi can bir, dil iki Hasılı yâresi oldu bir iken müşkil iki Gözlerin cana kıyar merdüm-î hunilerdir Gerçi maktul bir amma can alan katil iki The peşrevs of Dilhayat Kalfa: Müselles Peşrev Büzürg Peşrev Sipihr Peşrev Evcara Peşrev Hüseyni Peşrev - ıx - The instrumental semais of Dilhayat Kalfa: Müselles Saz Semaisi Evcara Saz Semaisi Hüseyni Saz Semaisi Dilhayat Kalfa's ingenuinity, brilliance in the filed of poetry and composition could not have come to lime light but for Sultan Selim III. Who was equally bestowed with the knowledge of music and considered as an accomplished musician. He achieved feats in the field of composition, litera ture and Arabic caligraphy to be a rekonable personality of his time having derived the influence from Seikh Sadi. He was not only a master on this subject but duly shared and helped people flourish in the field of arts and culture. He congregrated people from the field of arts and culture in the palace to develop and magnify its quality. As a result his works are still reconized today and its effects are felt. The effects are genuinely noticed in Dilhayat Kalfa's works which influenced her a long way to reach the pinnade of her career. The late instruments used to have considerable weight and importance in those days. It is assumed Dilhayat Kalfa received the musical lessons on tanburi or lute from the same musician İzan who thought Sultan Selim III. Rep tar Kalfa, who lived before Dilhayat Kalfa in the 1700 B.C. composed couplets meant for instrumental busic only. Where as Dilhayat Kalfa brought about a revolutionary change in the musical field by composing poems both for instrument and vocal busic. The "beste" composition during their transitory period did not undergo any revolutionary changes in particular. However "Mahur Beste" did change in form and style greatly. It is assumed Dilhayat Kalfa lived between 1710 to 1780 B.C. The life span of the musician was confirmed through the text that was available in the compilation of her works. In summation, it is said that no concrete proof could be found regarding Dilhayat Kalfa's biography. It can be fully agreed that Dilhayat Kalfa could portrait herself in to a class than the contemporaires of her time. She not only brought about uncanny changes in the text of quatraint but legt vivid impression with the changes in the rhythem, tone, melody and couplets and certainly she remained as an ambassador of her time. But without taking away due credit from this thesis compilation. It will be worthwhile to further persue and research on the life and work of this great musician. This certainly will open up the great vista of art and cultural era of 1700 century.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1994|
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1994
|Appears in Collections:||Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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