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|Title:||İlköğretim Müzik Derslerinde Blok Flüt Eğitiminin Yeri|
Takmaz, Salime Akbaba
|Keywords:||Eğitim ve Öğretim|
Education and Training
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Eğitim bir bilim alanıdır. Ayrıca eğitimi bir çok bilimler konu edinmiştir. Eğitim insanların cemiyet hayatıyla başlar. Eğitimle birlikte sanatsal faaliyetler de gelişmiş, eğirimin tamamlayıcı bir birimi olmuştur. Sanat içinde yer alan müzik, hem seslerle hem de enstrümanlarla insanların yaşamında yer edinmiştir. Özellikle nefesli enstrümanlar, ayinler ve savaşlarda etkili olmuştur. Bütün toplumlar tarafından kullanılan bu enstrümanlar, çeşitli kullanım amaçlan ile günümüze kadar gelmiştir. Yurdumuzda de etkin bir şekilde kullanılmaktadırlar. Müzik, eğitim süreci içine girmiş ve müziğin ruhen ve bedenen çocuğu iyi yönde etkilediği görülmüştür. Ders içinde şarkı söylemek ve dinlemek dışında öğrenciler bir enstrüman çalmaya istek duymuşlardır. Bu enstrümanlar arasında özellikle blok flüt en sevilerek kullanılanıdır. Kullanım kolaylığı, ucuz oluşu, belli akordunun oluşu ve uygulama kolaylığı ile müzik derslerinin en verimli ve sevilen ensturmanıdır.|
Education, which is a science, is a concept fhat has been used in our language since 1940s. On scientific fields education is called 'pedagogy'. In that context, education itself expresses a discipline of science. There fore many branches of science deal with education. They all are called as Educational Sciences. A considerable part of every single social phenomenon can be sorted out by educational sciences The history of education comes into being with the social life which means society. In the early ages people were educated to have a resistant body to the nature, to be warlike, to be a hit -the-target bowman, to be a good hunter or to be a skillful rider. There were no schools for this hind of education but family, clan or tribe and the religious and politic leaders were the significant educational institutions and teachers. There weren't any programme, place and proper time for educational practices. Religous ceremonies, many times, were the most effective ways to educate people in early societies because during those ceremonies people act rapturously. In addition to this, the music, the dance and the poems during the ceremony were very important points of the education. Invention of writing and starting of settled life, which are abo accepted as to be the beginning of civilization and history, set up a starting point for the education. After these two facts in history, education became institutional and organizated. At the time of ancient Turkish tribes, the young people were educated as good soldiers. The ancient Greek education had also the same targets. In the ancient cities of Athens and Sparta young people were taught physical education of war. Later on the education in Egypt and in Athens became face to face. For instance, Platon lectured to the young at the 'academia'. In ancient Egypt education started in family and at the age of five children were sent to school. Egyptian invented and used mathematics and geometry. Greek philosophy pushed forward the education. In athens a liberal educational style dominated the social life. The style was influenced by Aristotle's thought. On the contrary, for the education in Sparta 111 etatisme was the main policy. Today's western civilizations have their root from the cultures of ancient Rome and ancient Greek. Ancient Rome affected on politics, law, military and administration while ancient Greek did on fine arts, philosophy and literature. Later on in medieval Age education was influenced and controlled by religion. The pre- humanistic educational style of the early ages was changed to be a theo-scholastic educational style. Renaissance and reform movements brought together with new waves of educational styles. The humanistic educational style of Renaissance implied a multi-dimen sional and creative thought. This was an aristocrat and privileged kind of education. From the beginnig of 17th C. intelligence has been paid attetion. That century was the century of education. 18th C. was an era of enlightening. This period was influenced most by rationalism and naturalism. Fröbel, the representative of pre-school education, put forward that countryside educational camps would be effective. In the 29th and 20th Centuries the consept of learner- centered education, education of arts, countryside educational camps and proffessional education are pronounced widely in western civilazations. In the history of Turkish education many points are the same as western types. Uygur Turks were one of the most civilized Turkish tribes. A very important and famous Turkish doctor îbn-i Sina classified education as intellectual, scientific, inspirational disciplined, imitative and stimulational education. The edacation in 'Medrese', which was a kind of religious school, was developed as scientific and continued on its own but this system was degenerated afterwards. During the 1st and Iind. Constitutional periods there was some development made for education. Especially, in the period of Iind Constitution education and teachers were appreciated. Some problems were dealt with during this period. In the early days of new Turkish repiblic organization of education was very important. The whole educational system was tried to be changed to a new and an up- to-date one. IV It's an undebatable reality that music influence nearly all of the educational sciences. If the child is grown up with music, he can stand on his legs in the battle field of life. Therefose we need to know about the musical wind instruments which are one of the essential elements of music. Wind instruments are always the wearest ones to the child. During the ages these intruments have been activated in the most important times and places. Many civilizations like Chinese, Indian, Sumerian, Assyrian, Egyptian and Hebrew used many kinds of wind instruments especially in religious ceremonies. During classical period, wind instruments influenced grealtly the actual life of Greek and Rome societies. Before Islam, Turkish states in the history used wind insturements. During this period notably pipes are demanded and they were tongue of the crowds for many social events. The pipes in military bands, strikingly, in the time of war, were very forcible and persuasive. Altays, anothes Turkish state in history, many northern Turkish tribes, state of Timur, state of Hitays, state of Seljuks and state of Ottomans were used wind instruments, remarkably pipes, in their military bands in the battle field at war in order to alarm, to encourage the soldiers and to make angry the enemies. In today's Turkish Folk Music and Turkish Classical Music a wide range of wind instruments are used. 'Zurna' family is probably tha largest one and the members are commonly used. Roughly the family can be classified as 'Cura Zurna', 'Orta Zurna' and 'Kaba Zurna'. The best musical results can be got from the ones which are made of the plum-tree wood. A 'Zurna5 basically consist of five parts: Gövde, kamış, metef, avurtlak and zarnal. There are seven sound holes on the body. Mey, an uncommon member of the family, has eight sound holes on the body. It has three parts: Body, reed and clamp. This instrument can be classifield as 'cura', 'orta' and 'ana' mey. Another woodwind instrument 'sipsi' is a very small instrument. There are 5 or 6 sound holes on the body. This instrument is made of the branch of the willow-tree. 'Çifte', mean 'double', consist of two pipes which are made of the wing bone of an eagle. Each pipe has seven sound holes. 'Kaval' is wed common in Anatolia. Shepherds use this instrument at work. It's known as its chromatic sound. 'Tulum Zurna' is a type of bagpipes. It's bag is made of Kidskin and there are two reeds on the bag. The instruments consists of four parts: Lülük, Gövde, Nay and Tekne. 'Ney' is one of the most important elements of religious Islamic music. It's made of reed and there are seven sound holes on the bady. 'Nisfiye' is also a type of 'Ney'. It is one octave more high-pitched than 'Ney'. There are a lot of wind instruments used in Western Classical Music. Flute is one of those. A flute has a great importance in orchestra. There are types of flute made of both metal and wood. Bassely, a flute has three parts: Head, bady and tail. Block-flute which is a type of flute, is commonly used in school by students. The instrument has a nice and emotional sound. Mainly, there are two types of flute, Piccolo and Alto. Oboe, another western musical instrument, is made of rosewood or ebonite. An Oboe has simply three parts: Upper bady, lower bady and tip. This instrument is significantly succesful of sounding the short meaningfull and characteristic songs. There are three members of oboe family: Cor anglais oboe d'amore and henkelphone. Cor anglais is also known as 'English Horn'. This instrument was evaluated to today's shape in 19th C. It has 3.5 octaves vocal range. It is used to impress feeling of hunting and war in orchestra. Clarnet, which is used with a reed, consists of four parts: Back, drum, bady and tip. It can easily be used of sounding the impressive musical themes. There are two types of this instrumet: One of them is called bass-clarinet and the other is small-clarinet. VI Bassoon, an another woodwind instrument, can be used either single or in groups with other instruments in an orchestra. The metal wind instruments are as follows: French horn, Trumpet, Trombone, Euphonium Saxsophone... etc. So for, we have some knowladge about the musical wind instruments above. After this point we're going to have a brief look to the education of the child. Starting from the very early ages, even from the birth, the baby has an interest and talent towards the musical sound because baby is brought up with the lullabies and songs of mother. Therefore, the art of music, which expresses our emotions thoughts and impressions by using sound and rhythm, is a leading and effective activity in all kindergarten programmes. In a daily programme of a kindergarten music has the major place. Musical activity influences the child's phonology and his language acquiring. It also helps children to develop a special response towards rhythm. Music makes children feel belonged to a group and feel the cooperation. It also helps children to express themselves. It has a great importance of child's being sociable and gives them the feeling of trust and success. Briefly, music socializes the child. Music is a lesson in the primary school programme. The lesson has a spesific programme which includes an eight year musical education. The programme is formed of three main parts considering the physical conditions of the institutions and the musical evolution of students. The first period means the first three years. (Classes 1.2.3.) the second period (classes 4.5) and the thirt period is the last three years (classes 6.7.8.). This music programme based on a common musical repertory which has significant examples of main music types in Turkey. It also keeps the national thought fresh via selected songs. It is stated in the programme that the music is going to be analysed with all of it's points we face in life. Therefore the child will be grown up with all of his emotional dynamic and comprehensional behaviours as a whole. Vll Principally, music lessons should be in the well-decorated music classrooms. If this is not possible providing the materials needed, the lesson can be hold in any suitable place. The music lesson has many target points. Some of them as follows: -to have the basic musical knowledge, -to know the sounds with their own basic specialities, -to percieve the basic relationship between the sounds, -to learn the princibal elements of music, -to have an idea about musical instruments, -to get in touch with the other people via music, -to use the Turkish properly when singing, -to write musical printing correctly, -to read musical printing correctly, -to goin a multi- dimensional and tokerated musical understandig, -to develop a special musical personality and so on. Here we can say some of the pecularities that music gives the child. For instance, they can have both single and multi-sounded national song repertory. They can improve their creativity and talent of expression. They can make richer their social life in or out school. They can have the willing and habit of using the music as a pastime activity. They can have the knowledge of world - wide and national musical values. As it can be understand from the explanation above, tha child has a great interest and love towards music. There fore, it mustn't be used just as singing and listening to music. This tendency should be accompanied and backed up with a musical instrument. For an avarage primary school student the best musical instrument would be a block-flute. This instrument always is an interesting one for it's easy learning to play and for it's sound. It also pleases the student from the points of economy and morality. This instrument has been used as a classroom instrument before 1996-97 year of education. The about block flute was given in the lesson book. The songs were suited to the vni instrument. This programme was impulsive and motivational for students musical education. Starting from 1996-97 year of education, the programme is changed. There's no block-flute education in the new programme there are only general knowledge about music, sound knowledge and some songs. This new situation effects badly the process of learning and teaching of music.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997|
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1997
|Appears in Collections:||Müzikoloji Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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