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Title: Türk halk müziği yaylı sazlarından kemane'nin yapısı -pozisyon problemleri ve eğitimi
Authors: Tarlabaşı, Burhan
Performance & Voice
Keywords: Güzel Sanatlar
Halk müziği
Müzik aletleri
Türk halk müziği
Yaylı çalgılar
Fine Arts
Folk music
Violin bow
Musical instruments
Turkish folk music
String instruments
Issue Date: 1994
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Bu tez, 8. yy' dan itibaren Orta Asya'da yaşayan eski Türk kavimlerinin yaylı çalgılarının kronolojik olarak incelenmesini ve Anadolu'ya göçünü inceledikten sonra Anadolu'da aldığı estetik yapıyı, kullanım şeklini, akort değişikliklerini, verilen isimleri ve yöresel farklılıkları günümüz halk çalgısı olan Kabak Kemane ile ilgi sini ilk bölümde sunmaktadır. Bir sonraki bölümde ise, günümüzde kullanılan Kabak Kemane ile ilgili ses sahası bakımından önem taşıyan icra şeklini incelemektedir. Yapılan çalışmalarda, Kabak Kemanenin ses sahasının genişletilmesi, eserde bulunan seslerin frekansına uygun duyurulması ve bunun yöntemleri anlatılmaktadır. Uygulamalar sonucunda belirlenen yöntemler ile çalgımızda ana pozisyonun devamı olarak II. pozisyon kavramı üzerinde durulmuş, etütler hazırlanmıştır. Halk ezgilerimizden seçilen örnekler, bu çalışmanın gereği olarak özel seçilmiştir. Bu nedenle seçilen örnekler yöntemi geliştirmeye yöneliktir.
In our workings in the Section "The Structure of the Kemane", the most important changing traces of this instrument are determined. Because we could find some resources, the start point of this changing generation could be put to the 8th century. But we could not determine yet, the construction materials whether this instrument, the name, the physi cal structure and the construction materials of which had been changed from time to time and from region to region, had been played with a bow or with finger. Con cerning this issue, we could find various resources, how ever, we only could make some estimates based on indirect documents. The idea, that Kopuz is the oldest music instru ment of Turks living in Central Asia, and that Kopuz was played with a bow, is only an estimate basing on indirect documents of Prof.Bahattin ögel. On the other hand, M.Ragip Gazimihal, alleges that Kopuz was played with a bow only in the Middle Ages, and therefore the first Kopuz must be played with finger. In the wall digs carried out in later periods it could not be determined that tehe is an instrument among the others, that has a grip. vm - But this question must be answered by historians, archeologists and Ethno-musicologs. As a result of the migration of Turks from Cent ral Asia, the music instrument named IKLI? come to Anato lia with them. Under harmony with related folklorical structure rules used in different times, its shape has been changed from time to time. In different periods it took different names, and it's number of strings, it's tuning and construction material have also been amanded. The same instrument, but with two, three our four strings has been used at the same time, but in different regions. Today the standard type of this instrument is with four strings, but in some villages in Anatolia there are also some instruments with three strings, is the tuning, that means the four intervalls, from high pitched sound to low pitched sound, in the form RE-LA-MÎ. But in the today's Kemane is the same tuning, from high pitched to low pitched sounds, that means the four-five-five inter valls, in the form RE-LA- RE-SOL. In our today's education and playing system the above mentioned tuning system is used. The positions which deals with the technical struc ture and the sound range of our instrument, is an issue that must be discussed very detailed. With the existent tuning system and main position, the sound range consist of 2 octave- 3 minor. Furthermore, that during the play ing application, the sounds in the work are reduced to octaves is an other technical issue. This thesis here, is a work orientated to the solution of this problem. That a sound which is given in it's own Octave, creates frequency contradictions, and that furthermore there is also the possibility to extend the sound area, - ix - is explained in the section "Position Problems". In an example in the same section is the 1st Posi tion explained, and furthermore the applicable top level and the reduction of a sound in this level to an octave that is not appropriate to the frequency of that sound. The fact that the 1st position or the main positi on was not sufficient, lead to the creation of the Ilnd Position. In the Ilnd position, the idea, if the sound move to the high pitched range, than also the sounds of the Kemane must move to the same direcetion, has been given with application examples. Otherwise, in the 1st position, these sounds had to be given in their own octo- ve, although there were differences between the frequen cies of the sounds. In order to solve this problem, it is compulsory to adopt the Ilnd position, and to provide the use of the 1st and Ilnd position integrated in one and the same work, and also the education must be const ructed on this idea. An education system created on this idea will lead to the development of the playing in the 1st and Ilnd position, and it will provide the solu tion of a problem of the structure of our instrument. The existance of position problems is not some thing new in this thesis. It is an issue, that is well known in the education and during playing, but it is ac cepted as a problem, the solution of which is very diffi cult. Expressed in short, we can say that we are accus tomed to the existance of this issue for a long time that forms a conscious playing and education error, and for that reason that error is adopted to our playing and education system. - x - That weans we ft£« accustomed to live with our huchback, The aim in this thesis is, in Kemane education and playing, to provide to the peopbe a systematical education and playing system. For that reason it is very important that the main position has a right and easy understandable structure. Every thing has been thought as a complet system, from suitable string holding to suitable pressing tech nique, but in details the whole system is divided in sub- sections, so that the subjects can be understood better. The most important issue in the 1st and Ilnd posi tion is, that the 1st position should be applicated very well. Because, the 1st position is at the same times the expression of the main position is always very important. The application of the Ilnd position depands on the very detailed assimilation of the main position. For that reason, I felt the need to form an "Edu cation" section for the Main Position in which the bow holding technique, pressing technique, right holding and the long and short bows are explained until their most precise points. In order to provide an applicable structure for these subjects, for the said positions exercises and studies have been prepared. In the same subject, in or der to provide an integrated usage of the 1st and Ilnd position, some special selected folk song are also given. Bow movings and directions, finger numbers and positions are given, and formed as applicable courses. xi - As a result of this thesis we cansay that the position problems of our instrument can be solved, if we can take the Hain Position and the Ilnd position into the foreground in the education, and if we can transfer the results to the application and playing system. The main target of the scientific researches re garding our folk instruments is certainly to obtain the best, the more rational, and the most universal knowled ge. Starting from this point, we can say that the results of the scientific researches carried out up. today, are very hopeful. Because, if we consider that in the past the musical products had been created as a result of a music education which based on a relationship between the master and his apprentice, today's music education and music works are a light of hope for the future. The folklore as common product of the historical past, tradition, and Social Structure of a nation and of the geographical and climatical conditions of the region where these people live, has changed in each period, and developed day by day so that it gained always different esthetical aspects. -
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1994
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1994
Appears in Collections:Çalgı-Ses(Tezli/Tezsiz) Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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