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|Title:||Cumhuriyet döneminde Türkiye Radyo Televizyon Kurumu ve Türk halk müziği ilişkileri|
Ökten, Can Etili
Turkish Radio and Television Corporation
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Altı bölümden oluşan bu çalışma, Cumhuriyet Dönemi'nde Türkiye Radyo Televizyon Kurumu ve Türk Halk Müziği ilişkilerim incelenmek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın 1. Bölümünde sorunun belirlenmesi, çalışmanın amacı, önemi, kapsamı, varsayım ve yöntemlerle ilgili bilgiler verilmiştir. 2.Bölümde, Türkiye Radyo Televizyon Kurumu'nun yayın planında yer alan Türkiye'deki müzik akımlarına değinilerek, tanımlar, terminolojik açıklamalar ve müzikte kirlenmeye yol açan etkenler anlatılmıştır. 3. Bölümde, Türk Halk Müziği'nin araştırılmasına neden olan fikirler ile bunları gerçekleştiren kurumlar ve kuruluşlardan söz edilmiştir. Çünkü, derleme çalışmaları ilk kez bu kurum ve kuruluşlar tarafından yapılmıştır. 4. Bölümde Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devleti'nin ve Türkiye Radyo Televizyon Kurumu'nun müzik ile ilgili politikaları ve Türk Müziği'nin yasaklanması konusuna yer verilmiştir. 5. ve 6. Bölümlerde ise, Türkiye Radyo Televizyon Kurumu ve Türk Halk Müziği ilişkileri ayrıntılı bir biçimde incelenerek, yayın oranlarının, Türkiye Radyoları Ana Postalan'nda, Bölge ve il Radyoları'nda ve Televizyon kanallarında nasıl planlandığı ve sonuçlan grafiklerle verilmiştir Çalışmada, bölüm değerlendirmelerinde kütüphanelerden, kişisel gözlemlerden görüşme ve istatistiksel verilerden yararlanılmıştır. Araştırmada, Türkiye Radyo Televizyon Kurumu-Türk Halk Müziği ilişkilerinde, Türk Halk Müziği'ni derlemek, tanıtmak, basmak, yaymak, korumak ve sanatçıları eğitmek konusunda uzun yıllar olumlu yaklaşımlar içinde olduğu saptanmıştır. Ancak, Türk Halk Müziği'nin yayınlarda kullamlırken özellikle gençlere yönelik yayın yapan televizyon ve radyo kanallarında hiç düşünülmediği, genel kitleye yayın yapan Türkiye Radyoları Ana Postalan ve Televizyon kanallarında ise, daima Türk Sanat Müziği'nden sonra ikinci planda değerlendirldiği grafiklerle saptanmıştır. Bu nedenle, özde ulusal, biçimde ve teknikte yüksek düzeyli bir Türk Halk Müziği' ne sahip olunması isteniyorsa, Türkiye Radyo Televizyon Kurumu'nda genel müdürler, televizyon ve müzik dairesi başkanlıklan ile yönetim kurullan tarafindan tespit edilerek izlenen ve oranlanan müzik politikasında, milli değerler ve Türk Halk Müziği'ni koruyan bir sistemin oluşturulmasının gerektiği sonucuna vanlmıştır.|
While studying the relationship between the Turkish Radio and Television Association (TRT) and Turkish Folk Music, It has been come to reality to have the historical and cultural bridge between the past and present in the music history. Because every moment lived in the creation of history has through a point which is called "the present". Within this cultural concept "the present" can only have a more developing and changing role in the history. What has reaction of Turkish Radio and Television Association been towards this concept and change?. Has Turkish Radio and Television Association taken the ownership of folk music policy of the county?. If It has, how has this been realized throughout the historic duration?. What kind of music policy has been followed while Turkish Music tunes have been given by the Association?. Are " Light Turkish Music" and "Turkish Light Music" expressions the same?. Which one is the real Turkish Pop Music? When has THM (Turkish Folk Music) come forward during broadcasting of Turkish Radio and Television Association, which years or periods?. On the other hand, another very important point is what proportions Turkish Folk Music has been planned in comparison with other types of music?. What percent have these proportions reached in Basic Radio broadcasts, area broadcast and the city radio broadcasts or TV?. It has been tried to answer all these questions based on the information and the documents which are obtained. While putting together this study which has never been done in the history of music before, libraries, personal observations, interviews and statistical data are used. If we can manage to find the answers to those questions which were mentioned above, It will not only be explained the difference between Turkish Radio and Television Association and Turkish Folk Music, but be given a panoramic view of Turkish Folk Music during Republic period as well. -xn- The objective of this study which has six chapters is to examine the relationships between Turkish Radio and Television Association and Turkish Folk Music during Republic period in detail. In the first chapter, It is explained that why this subject is chosen?, what is the objective?, in what detail subject will be discussed? and which methods are used?. In the second chapter, by explaining music waves which are in Turkish Radio and Television Association's broadcast plan in Turkey, definitions, terminological terms and the causes of dirt in music are explained in detail. Not only Turkish Music, Turkish Folk Music, Light Turkish Music, Pop Music and Arabesk are explained but also the difference between Turkish Folk Music and Turkish Music is focused as well in these music waves. In the third chapter, the ideas which have been mentioned during Republic period and mentioned how these ideas effected our society and associations have done a collection of Turkish Folk Music during a historic period by trying to supply document in a chronological order are explained. Dar'ül-lehân, Ankara State Conservatory, Istanbul Radio, Ankara Radio activities have been given to Turkish Radio and Television Association music department and ministry of culture for their activities in folk music and historic document has tried to be obtained. In the forth chapter, the policies of The Republic of Turkey and Turkish Radio and Television Association towards Turkish Folk Music by considering applications in the last century are examined and also the subject of prohibition of Turkish Music is mentioned. The reason of mentioning of this prohibition in this study is the fact that the relation between Turkish Radio and Television Association and Turkish Folk Music was broken. Not only Turkish Folk music was forbidden for the period of one year-six months and four days in the Turkish radios and but also it was taken out of school programs in education. Prohibition of Turkish Music was in the year of 1934. In the fifth and sixth chapter of the study, the relation between Turkish Radio and Television Association and Turkish Folk Music is examined in detail, how the ratios of broadcasting in Turkish State Radios, Area and City Radios and TV Channels are planned and the results are shown with graphs. Although title covers the period of Turkish Radio and Television Association it has been tried hard not to miss any information about the state Radio period, and the period before Turkish Radio and Television Association. Actually Turkish Folk Music broadcasting and collection was there even before Turkish Radio and Television Association was founded. Folk music which was continued by the support of local folk musicians during the State Radios period, was also supported by musicians who worked in radio stations and since Mesut Cemil's 5 minute program called " We Learning A Folk Song" was enjoyed by public very much a choir called. " Yurttan Sesler" was established and its name was given by Vedat Nedim Tör and Sansözen was appointed as its conductor. -xni- Before Yurttan Sesler choir had been established, it was told that musicians like Sadi Yaver Ataman, Necati Başar had also broadcasted this music so it was tried to be made clear how independent this style of music was. One of the most important activities of Turkish Radio and Television Association period was establishing of the city and area Radios, and through GAP channel, in places where mere was social-economic or local culture differences folk music was used intensively. It's been thought that this was not only the policy of Turkish Radio and Television Association but partly the government's policy as well. It was quite clear that the content of the study doesn't cover only Folk music which has been broadcasted on Turkish Radio and Television Association but folk music on state TVs as well. We have given a short history of their foundation as well in the sixth chapter. Because all these new channels TV1, TV2, TV3, TV4, TV5 and TV- Avrasya have different broadcasting ratios of Turkish Folk Music(TFM). The reason for this is the effect of reviews in the meetings of Consultant Commission. Because of that, it is mentioned wherever it's necessary, about the decisions of Turkish Radio and Television Association Consultant Commission as suggestion. After giving these primary information for this study to be understood, in the sixth chapter also, while talking about the activities of Turkish Radio and Television Association towards TFM, it has been mentioned the language problems which should be used during the performance of these songs. Before explaining the graphs which show TFM broadcasting proportions of Turkish Radio and Television Association, it is mentioned that the terminology which explains the new music wave in Turkey in the second chapter. Based on the studies, The results which are obtained are as follows: According to author, Turkish music is a music which has come out as a mixture of both country and city culture under effect of city culture, traditions and habits. Under the this definition, Turkish Art Music which is expression of city music and TFM is seen. Arranged music (Light Turkish Music) is the music performed after having written Turkish lyrics under the melodies which are well-known all around the world. This new wave which began with Fecri Ebcioğlu reached its climax with Çiğdem Talu and what we believe it is better to call this kind of music as Turkish Light music in words. Light music terminology represents a different kind of music than light music terminology in practice. This music uses the melodic and rhythmic structure of Turkish Art Music and folk music and composed of free or stolen melodies. Though there are very good examples and bad ones from time to time. Sometimes we happen to see harmonic or unharmonic synthesis of Turkish and classical music instruments. So it shouldn't be thought that light music and Turkish light music are the same concepts. Today this kind of music is called light music in Turkish Radio and Television Association broadcasting plans. -xrv- There is another kind of music which possesses the same privacy and is called pop music. Pop music addresses large masses without having any worries to be creative and is composed of simple melodies to be easily kept in mind. On the other hand, these melodies or works don't reflect the character of Turkish Nation. This is the reason why the author believe that this music should be understood as TFM whenever Turkish Pop is mentioned. Since T.H.M. addresses large masses it has always been away from the creative. What's more, these anxiety of being melodies have always reflected the character and music taste of Turkish people. "Arabesk" which is oriental music, has always been a cultural concept created by a passage term. Changing from traditional society system to a logical society system, from agriculture to industry society, are among the effect of this kind. This music has been created by domestic refugees who have some social adaptation problems so it is neither Arabic nor pop by itself. It can most probably be considered as a mixture of all. Since Turkish Radio and Television Association has started broadcasting life it has served the education of young musicians quite a lot and has had most of the notations written which had been collected by Dar'ül-elhan. Which a newly restored mentality in the association, THM has managed to take place in Turkish Music Conservatory. Because most of the teaching staff in the conservatory have been trained and educated by Turkish Radio and Television Association. Turkish Radio and Television Association where hasn't examined and classified the folk melodies well enough through a scientific perspective has effected the music taste and music understanding of Turkish people badly. Turkish Radio and Television Association doesn't only let young voice (without any manner, interpretation and style) also aims only to entertain people by popular named. The behaviors of this association should be considered with the understanding of the damages it has given to music folklore recently. When considering composing folk tunes : The fault is of the directors who have no music culture and mentality. But still insist broadcasting personal works although they damage the common culture and feelings. As a result of these, the scientific research and study repertoire committee has also lost its conviction because of the contradictory performances. Because Turkish Radio and Television Association doesn't pay any copyright to people who transship these folk songs. They have stopped giving these songs to the association but sell them to other places in order to make profit or earn money. It is certain that these people don't only make profit for their (by making changes on their originality) own sake but also spoil the quality of our folk songs. -XV- If the copyright had been paid for these songs by real market prices, these works would not only be broadcasted on TV but would make Turkish Radio and Television Association unrivaled as well. In spite of years experience, Turkish Radio and Television Association has begun to lose its originality to be an alternative since 1990 by adopting the understanding of private radio and TV with a rating anxiety. On the opposite, it has started to act like the other publication institutions. It is been believed that this public association that aims to entertain public just for sake of advertisements is far behind its main goal. On the other hand, it can be mentioned that Turkish Radio and Television Association has made a big mistake by not keeping the producers and directors who were trained in the association but losing them for the rival associations. Problem of singers who are used for broadcasting still exist. Sopranos, kaltos, mezzo sopranos, tenors bass and baritones still sing in the same tune and the same voice color. This can never be understood with a scientific mentality. The music which has been broadcasting on Turkish Radio and Television Association is technologically far behind the music broadcasted by private record associations programs which are composed of solos and eight folk tunes are completed in fifteen minutes like ready-made clothes whereas outside the association it takes month to record just one folk tune. Although records of solos and choirs are done in the channel in the association. Private companies realize the same recording in studios with 24 channels. Because soloists are not careful about large-scale repertoires, folk music musicians happen to make their choice among a few folk songs. Since republic was announced, a contemporary library or an archive still has not been established the type rooms which are used today aren't well equipped in any way so they are left to all by themselves and effects of nature. In the name of freedom of composers Turkish Radio and Television Association has canceled the article which says "Folk music cannot be borrowed" and has given the chance to imitators to be braver than ever THM is usually broadcasted in the least active hours when people are not listening to the radio. The choirs or music groups called Yurttan Sesler Kadınlar Choir, Yurttan Sesler Choir, Beraber ve Solo Folk Songs, Bağlama Team have no difference from one to another, leaving folk music programs to the hands of producers who are poor of music knowledge is the other dimension of our problem. The singer of the choir "Yurttan Sesler" stand in line as if they are being executed by shooting and give static views which are very borings. -XVI- None of the authorities in Turkish Radio and Television Association has asked the question of why " Def " was shown on TV screen while " Kemane " was being played or another music instrument had come to the screen while " Mey " was being played. Keeping some of the musicians as a substitute until they get retired whereas using other too much till they get tried or exhausted in a short time, can be a good example of the wrong policy of Turkish Radio and Television Association. Turkish Radio and Television Association- INT broadcasting have been done under the name of Avrasya, especially for Turqui States that had their independence after U.S.S.R was fallen to piece. Here the aim is to give a chance to our cities who are homesick for years as well as to Turqui State who have had expectations from us for a long time and because of this reason it can't be avoided mentioning Avrasya Broadcast now. In chapter six we have talked about how much and in what proportions Folk Music had taken place in Turkish Radio and Television Association's General Broadcast planning in comparison with other kind of music in city and regional station. To determine a healthy broadcasting rate for Turkish Folk Music in Turkish Radios, these features are to be considered. The institution has thought different applications in televisions as well as determining Turkish Folk Music broadcasts in prime time, provincial and city radios differently. Since it is thought that there are right causes for the existence of different rates in the televisions, the prime time provincial and city radios when of the country are taken fundamentally. In this part of the study, it is believed that to examine the targeted rates of planned music types in general broadcasting schedule of Turkish Radio and Television Association will cause more detailed results. Table drawings are tried to be realized by giving the rates of provincial and city radios for each music types separately in the period of 1973-1 995(Except for 1976-1978- 1980). The matter causing to be more careful is the changes in the music types in the broadcasting planning between the determined years therefore, musical sings in table drawings are especially considered important examining certain types is not approved by differentiating them in the first part of the study, the types in the planning are taken fundamentally, not the personal demonstrating. The results are as follows when Turkish Folk Music abstracted from other music types in the planning is evaluated in the same period after determining rates of various music types by the tables according to the years between 1973-1995. While Turkish Folk Music was being broadcasted in a lowest level with a rate of %12.5, it gained suddenly a rate of %40.5in 1989. However, Turkish Folk Music which could not keep rate and began to fall down by a rate of %5 and continued with rate of %35 in Turkish Radio and Television Association broadcasts until 1995. -xvn- What kind of an application was realized in Turkish Radio and Television Association prime time and televisions in the period of 1981-1995 is understood after examining the graphic drawings. According to the results, planning in Radio- 1, Radio-2, Radio-3 and television channels are thought as to the broadcasting areas Geo-politic and provincial characteristics. For example, music types broadcasted in Radio- 1 show a more general content relative to the other radio stations. In the cannel's established for an exact purpose, the rates of music types change accordingly. For example, classical music has an important ratio among others in Radio-3. Turkish Folk Music started from the music types in the same time period kept the rate of % 10 until 1987 but it fell under %10 in 1987. Broadcasting rate incearsing to %10 in 1988 approached to %30 in 1989 and finally reached to it's stop level of % 30 in 1991. The president of the institution was Kerim Aydın Erdem in 1991. Gap radio and Television broadcasts were also on duty in the same year. Except this indicated years, T.R.T. preferred to plan by giving approximately equal values both to Turkish Folk Music and Turkish art music. It is determined that Turkish Folk Music never ahead of other types in the general broadcasting schedules in years when decade periods are considered in prime time and televisions. Turkish Folk Music is in the secondary place after Turkish Art Music in Radio- 1, and Radio-2, in the fourth place in Radio-3, in the secondary place after Turkish Art Music in TV1, in the fourth place in TV2 as ratios taken. Turkish Folk music in the secondary rank in Radio- 1, Radio-2 and Radio-4 and it hasn't any place in Radio-3 and Radio-5 in a seven year. TV2, in the rank in TV4 and in the second rank in TV5 as ratios taken. As a result, in this research, it is found that in the relation between Turkish Radio and Television Association and Turkish Folk Music, Turkish Radio and Television Association had taken the positive approach in composing, spreading, publishing, saving and educating of musicians of Turkish Folk Music. However, it's determined by the graphics that Turkish Folk Music is never planned to broadcast especially for the channels and the radios which reach out the youngsters, on the other hand, that it is always the second rank music right after Turkish Art Music in the State radios and the channels. Therefore, If it is wanted to have a Turkish Folk Music which is national in real and high level in form and technique, it is found out that it is necessary to form a system which saves Turkish Folk Music and national values in determining and planning of music policy by Turkish Radio and Television Association's general managers, Heads of Department of Television and Music, Management Councils.
|Description:||Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1996|
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1996
|Appears in Collections:||Temel Bilimler Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora|
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