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|Title:||Türk geleneksel giyiminde takı ve aksesuarlar|
Demirbağ, İlknur Bektaş
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Türk geleneksel takı ve aksesuarları pek çok folklorik değer gibi vakit geçirilmeden sistemli olarak ele alınıp, derlenmesi gereken bir konudur. Bu nedenle ve bundan önceki yüksek lisans tez konumun giysiler olması nedeniyle, onun tamamlayıcı bir unsuru olarak Türk geleneksel takıları da bu tezin kapsamım oluşturmuştur. Çalışmada pek çok koleksiyondan parçalara yer verilmiştir. Ele alman takılar anlatılırken, yapımında kullanılan malzemelerden ve yapım tekniklerinden de bahsedilmiştir. Tab ve aksesuarlar konusu, takılarda kadın ve erkek takılan olmak üzere iki grupta incelenmiş, her grubun altında önce takılar sonra aksesuarlar ele alınmıştır. Kadınlarda tepelik, alınlık, zülüftük, çenelik, küpe, başörtü iğnesi, hızma, enselik, gerdanlık, kolye, hamaylı, döşlük, yüzük, bilezik, halhal ve kemer tokaları olmak üzere 16 çeşit takt; erkeklerde yüzük, hamaylı, köstek ve pazıbent olmak üzere 4 çeşit takı; kadınlarda tarak, kemer, bel bağı, saç bağı, para kesesi, tarak kesesi, gümüş düğmeler, sürmedanlık olmak üzere 8 çeşit aksesuar; erkeklerde tütünlük, silahlık, divitiik, barutluk, yağdan, boyun dolağı, peşkir, kemer, teşbih, saat kesesi, mühür kesesi, tütün kesesi, ağızlık kesesi, çakmak kesesi, tarak kesesi, divit kesesi olmak üzere 16 çeşit aksesuar için toplam 194 fotoğraf kullanılmıştır. Sonuçta kadınlarda aksesuarların az, takıların çok kullanıldığı; erkeklerde ise takıların az, aksesuarların çok kullanıldığı görülmüştür. Motiflerden çiçek, ay ve yıldız adeta kadın takılarının; cami, bayrak ve silah erkek takılarının sembolü olmuştur. Kadınlarda takıların daha çok ve süslü, erkeklerde ise daha az ve sade olduğu görülmüştür. Takı ve aksesuarlarda Doğu ve Batı Anadolu'da kullanılanlar arasında farklar olduğu görülmüştür. Bazı takı ve aksesuarlar hem kadınlarda hem de erkeklerde kullanılmıştır. Bu takılar hamaylı, muskahk ve yüzüklerdir. Aksesuarlar ise kemer, teşbih ve keselerdir. Takılarda genelde kabartma, telkari ve savat tekniği çok kullanılmış. Gümüş ise en çok kullanılan maden olmuştur. Altına erkek takılarında hiç, kadın takılarında ise Örneklerine az rastlanmıştır.|
Traditional Turkish adornments as many disappearing cultural values are most important sources enlightening us about the believes, present and past civilizations of Turkish people, elements valuable for people's various life periods, changing tastes according to the different periods, even technological development of humanity. Being Anatolia a mainland for many civilizations for ages is the reason of the variation of the cultural inharitânce for us. The present importance of traditional adornments explaining history are mostly not recognized and they are getting away from their identity in a bad destiny, day by day. However, traditional Turkish adornment like many other folkloric values to be investigated scientifically and registered, is a subject for which many information have to be gathered at once. Because of this reason and because the subject of my master thesis was the traditional costumes, traditional Turkish adornments became the subject of this thesis as a completing element. As many pieces as could be found are covered in the thesis for the importance of registration although its cost is quite high. Adornments and accessories which are included in this thesis don't meet the dictionary meaning and their place in traditional Turkish costumes, therefor new definitions are necessary. So, adornments are special pieces used by mostly women for decorating important role in their production. Accessories, on the other hand, are pieces worn or used by people on their costumes, usually functional but not necessary for dressing, out of main costume parts, made carefully and having decorative elements as well as adornments. A lot ofpieces from many collections are presented in the thesis. I want to present my special thanks to dear Göksenin İleri, dear Adli Ayter, dear Sabiha Tansuğ, dear öner Işık, dear Kezban Demirbağ and dear Ahmed Demirbağ who are the owners of these collections. While the mentioned adornments are being explained, materials used for their production and production techniques are also explained. The metals such as gold, silver and German silver; stones suchos amber, pearl, rock crystal, cornelian, bead; tissues such as wool, linen, silk and cotton; furthermore other fibers and other materials used more less are studied one by one. There are some production techniques of these materials. One of them is forming the metals by anvil and hammer or by cylinder machine. A soft metal is formed by hitting or pressing by a hard metal. This technique has bene wide spread from Harran workshops in Anatolia to Kars Van, Caucasia since 1600-1700. Second of them is carving and chipping technique by steel pens. The people using this technique developed mis surface wooden knobs in their palms by fixing them on the steel pens. Other one is carving by thin fretsow and empting technique. The smoothness of the surfaces carved by steel pens is not sufficient enugh so fretsaw becomes the main instrument k jewellery after steel industry in 1800's. The other technique is "telkari", in other words, woven of silver thread. The silver is soldered in thin fibers by woving in designs. The fifth technique is "savat " technique. Carved metal subject's (generally silver) designs are frilled by sulfiirous, black metal alloy. It is mostly used in eastern cities of Anatolia. Important centers such as Van, Erzurum. The other one is casting and leveling technique Casting is a forming procedure by mesting the metals and pouring them in castnig molds. All kinds of metals can be used in casting. Tissue works technique is an other one. Embroidery is adorning and emballishing all kinds of thinand thick tissues or leather by pin or knitting needle with various motives. Embroidery on white or colored sulfaces by colorful yarns can be devided into two according to their techniqques; "hesap işleri" (counting the threads) and "yazma işlemeler" (hand painted). The eighth techniqueis purse production technique Purses are divided into two types, one of them is home mode, the other is bazaar made. Home purses are made by knitting, stitching the clothe pieces together or by weaving. Bazaar made purses are divided into theree;"dival", "fermane" and "köşker" The last technique is production of beads. Beads are lined up on a rope caled "tahril". The subject of adornments and accossories is studied in two groups covering female and male adornments, first adornments then accessories. 16 types of adornments are found for females. These are : Tepelik (for the top of the head), Alınlık (for forhead), Zülüflük (for the temples), Çenelik (for the chin), Earrings, Brooch used forhead-scaif, Hizma (for the nose), Enselik (for the back of the neck), Gerdanlık (neckband), Necklace, Hamaylı (a kind of necklace), Döşlük (for the breast), Ring, Bracelet, Halhal (bracelet for the foot) Belt-buckle. 4 types of adornments are found for males. These are : Ring, Hamaylı, Köstek ( a chain for the clocks attached to the costume), Pazıbent (for the arms). 8 types of accessories are found for females. These are : Comb, Belt, Waist binding piece, Hair binding piece, Money purse, Comb purse, Silver buttons, Sürmedanlık (purse for eye make-up) 16 types of accessories are found for males. These are : Tütünlük (box for tobacco), Silahlık (for weapons), Divitlik (box for pen-case), Barutluk (case for gunpowder), Yağdan, Boyun dolağı (a kind of scarf for neck), Peşkir (a kind of napkin), Belt, Beads, Clock case, Seal case, Tobacco case, Cigarette-holder case, lighter case, Comb case, Purse for pen-case. 194 photographs are shown as examples for 44 pieces of adornment types. As a result, it is observed that accessories are less and adornments are more for females, and accessories are more and adornments are less for males. In female adornments, flower, moon-star, sun, water-drop and leaf motives are generally seen and in male adornments, mosques, flag, weapon and flower motives are seen more frequently. Common metal processing arts for female adornments are embossed, "telkari" (woven metals like silver and gold), "savat" (engraving in black on silver) techniques whereas for male adornments, carving, repousse, embossed and mostly "savat" tecnhiques are used. Gold is seen in female adornments, however in male adornments not seen. Chains, small coins and coins are widely used for female adornments, whereas for male adornments, they are used very rarely, however some small coins are sometimes seen hanging on "köstek". Various buttons and stones are used very widely for female adornments and accessories however only stones are seen on the male rings. "Hamaylı", amulet case, ring are the adornments used in the some name and belts and cases are the accessories used for the some purposes for both females and males However, "hamaylı" and amulet cases of females are more decorated than males'. Coins are hanging on males' "hamaylı" and chains. Amulet cases are made by "telkari" technique which is more decoreted and are decorated by valuable stones whereas males' are simple. In accessories, females' belt kinds are more than males' and more decorated. In some female belts, very big belt buckles are used. Kinds of males' are lesser and they are more simple. However, kinds of males' cases are more various than females'. Ear-rings from female adornments are usually more smaller in West Anatolia and they become more larger towards East Anatolia and are seen with coins. Middle Anatolia has the transition region's characteristics and has both examples. Moreover, big belt buckles are more frequently seen from Middle Anatolia to the West, but to the East they are less seen, even not seen and folded belts are replaced. "Savat" technique is more frequently seen from Middle Anatolia to the East even in Black sea Region and Coucasia. Symbols of sword and weapon are more used in Black Sea Region's and Coucasian adornments. "Halhal" is mostly seen in Southeast Anatolia females. Finally, "kabartma", "telkari" and "savat" techniques are most frequently used techniques and silver is most frequently used metal.
|Description:||Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1996|
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1996
|Appears in Collections:||Temel Bilimler Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora|
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