Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17022
Title: Mimarlıkta Zaman
Other Titles: Time İn Architecture
Authors: Özsoy, Ahsen
Sözen, Hayriye
55966
Mimarlık Tarihi
History of Architecture
Keywords: Zaman
Time
Issue Date: 1996
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Bu tez kapsamında mimarlık-zaman ilişkisinde iki farklı yorum ortaya konmaktadır. Bunlardan ilki, mimari üretimi belli bir tarihsel süreklilik içinde ele alıp, mimari mekanı zamandan bağımsız kılmaya yönelik bir bakış açısını yansıtmaktadır. Tipolojiye, arketiplere ve prototiplere dayalı bir mekan analizinin katkısıyla gelişen bu görüşün sonucu olarak, geçmişten geleceğe doğru aktarılan zaman dışı kavramlarla mekanın belirli değerlerinin sürdürülebileceği düşünülmektedir. Diğer yorum ise tarihsel sürekliliği bir kenara bırakıp, mekansal etkinin sağlanmasında mekan, hareket ve fonksiyonun organize edilmesine dayalı bir yaklaşımı dikkate alır. Bunu sağlamak içinse algının oluşumuna ve zamanın “an” olarak varlığına önem vermek gerekir. Algılamanın sorgulanması, mekanın yaşanmasına, kavranmasına ilişkin üç temel aşamanın belirlenmesi açısından önem taşımaktadır. Mekan algısı, görselliğin kurduğu ilişkiyle başlar ve bu ilişki ancak hareketle desteklendiğinde bütünü anlama olanağı tanımaktadır. Kullanıcı yeterince geçirgen sınırlarla karşı karşıyaysa dolanıma bağlı kalmaksızın kapsamlı olarak algılama, anlamlandırma şansına sahip olur. Bedensel olarak gerçekleşen bu tip algılama zihinsel olarak da tamamlanmak zorundadır. Yukarıda sözü edilen bu yaklaşımlar, araştırmanın belirli bir sisteme oturtulması açısından süreklilik bağlamında incelenmiştir. Tarihsel bir ardardalıkla kuramsal açıdan dökümü yapılan kavramların mimari mekanın tanımlanmasında, getirdiği kolaylıklar ve zorluklarla birlikte “mekan”m varoluşu tartışılmıştır. Günümüz şartlarında, teknolojinin ve yapım standartlarının hızla gelişimini de dikkate aldığımızda, mimarlığı zamandan bağımsız kılmaya çalışmak oldukça zor gibi görünmektedir. Mekansal değerlerin korunmasında, kaçınılmaz olarak anlamsal hesaplaşmalarıyla da olgunluğa ulaşmış, iç-dış mekan ayrımının sorgulandığı, titiz bir yaklaşımın gerekliliğine inanılmaktadır.
Tîme in Architecture in the perspective of today1 s architectural scene based on theory and practice, architects have to consider the situation they are in while setting the basis of their design and execution. This basis enables to give meaning to architectural production as a whole only when the contents of the moment we live in ör the pre- described relationships of the past, present and f ut u re are considered. Originating from this idea, önce we look at the situation we are in, it can easily be said that we are to face the danger of skipping the ideas vvhich are in fact the actual roots of present popular thought systems -aithough they now seem to be left behind and consumed- vvhile we try to classify architectural thought tending to flatter the popular tendencies of the day. If we get into more detail in this judgment, Modernisin, vvhich was blamed to set the basis of architecture on mere functionalism, disregarding complexity in meaning and the history, comes to stage. The biggest movement in architecture, art and society after the Renaissance is lived with the concept of modemist understanding which came to forth suddenly with the Enlightenment. This was the new concept of space and social living purified from eclecticism aiming the f ut u re not the past. Even today main debates interrogate the odds and evens and the dilemmas of modernist tradition. For the theoretical developments, the Enlightenment and the Modernism are the milestones. History seems to be divided into two: before Modernism and after Modernism. The after Modemism period is what we are stili undergoing with its Post Modern, Late Modern and Deconstruction. Today Post Modernism and Deconstruction that are as öpen minded, popular tendencies to new quests in meaning, exist in this sense. This tendency of evaluating the architects and their designs wrthin the context of the strict rules of a certain architectural conception, led to a formalist design conception in vvhich the idea was lacking. As a result we are to come across xi to a such kind of environment in which the buildings that repeat the vast form of a single design conception take place vvithout taking the ideological background into consideration. The similar discourses at the counter points of different ideas were what was distinctive in this study. The differentiation and discontinuities mainly arose from different conceptions of history: the notion of history (yesterday, today, tomorrow) and time (past, present, future). VVhile discussing how the idea and form are effected by the design conception of the above mentioned notions, the subject primariiy is discussed with the problematic of reflecting ör not reflecting time into space. Considering ör not considering time and the century in architectural design is also a level of architecture - history relationship. it was then understood with the theoretical presentations of both spatial organization and time that these two conceptions cannot be regarded independently and therefore the problematic has a broader content then the reflection of the problem in each other. The time with the concepts of movement and perception, considered in the sense of "Moment", can be thought as the main distinctive element in the spatial organization. Above mentioned is a scheme stressing on what the problems and questions are based and vvhere they lead. According to this context, in the first chapter it is being discussed, the process the time concept follows in the historical continuity from the philosophical point of view. After the determinations of time as linear, mechanical and subjective this process is then being concluded with the phenomenological understanding of time in the 20th Century philosophy. Finally it is discussed the inevitable conceptions in the construction of the both architecture - philosophy and time - space relationships regarding the same process. The space conception is the main notion of the second chapter. Primariiy is stressed on the descriptions that are considered as useful to determine how space notion holds the point. After underiining the effect of border, movement and light; existential space in the context of "being possessed" and "existence" is analyzed. This is followed by the analysis of "the space of the everyday reality as a perceptional space" based on Hoogstad' s space categorization. This analysis was made to show how spatial effect, formation and organization are interacting with time and movement. xii Then in the context of "continurty" with ali its differing considerations time' s existence in space is discussed. Thus, while stressing on the importance of time with its extra existence över the objects what so called timeless architecture is dependent ör independent of is being explained with its architectural examples. After considering the space with its dependency ör independency to history then came the main argument:. the inevitability of subjective conscious in the formation of the spatial effect and the place of movement and perception in spatial organization. Continuity is then önce more discussed from the point of spatial organization. Based on the changing quality of borders on the horizontal and vertical planes, the fourth dimension in space, existence of time and its perception is defined through three aspects: Circulation, Transparency, Event and Experience. While the space concept is being discussed, the consistency ör the inconsistency of the method and the product of the architects who are said to be theoretically conscious is also being taken into consideration. The last chapter aims to visualize ali these theories on a significant example. Therefore a two dimensional constructional element "the waH" is being chosen. After the reasons are explained, the wall's place is considered in the historical continuity like as it is being done in the preceding chapters and this process is presented as a grouping based on Gideon's three space conceptions. Hence, this gives the chance to compare how the theoretical knowledge so far explained, is transformed into practice. Exemplification further continues wtth a description of the 20th Century space. Finally the meaning of the wall in the present spatial organization conception that was discussed in the historical continuity is showed with its examples. The plan of the study is as follovvs: INTRODUCTION: Time in Architecture CHAPTER 1 : The Discussion of Time in Philosophical History 1.1. The Theoretical Description of Time in the Historical Continuity xiii 1.1.1. Linear Time Conception 1. 1.2. Mechanical Time Conception 1.1.3. Subjective Time Conception 1.1.4. Phenomenological Time Conception in the 20th Century Philosophy 1.2. The Philosophical Conceptions Originating the Time and Space Relationship 1.2.1. Logos, Mind and Knowledge 1.2.2. Being and Substance 1.2.3. Mind and Experiment 1.2.4. Object, Subject-Object Relationship 1.2.5. Movement and Perception CHAPTER 2 : Space and Time 2.1. Description of Space 2.1.1 Space Defined with the Notions of Limit, Movement and Light 2.1.2 Existential Space 2.1.3 The Space of Everyday Reality as a Perceptional Space 2.1.3.1. Linear Spaces 2.1.3.2. Concentric Spaces 2.1.3.3. The Unification of Concentric and Linear Spaces 2.2. Continuity of Time in Space 2.2.1. Historical Continuity of Space 2.2.1.1. The Historical Continuity Defined by Archetypes, Types and Prototypes -Timeless Architecture- 2.2.2. The Continuity Created by Spatial Organization 2.2.2.1. Volumetric Continuity of Spatial Perception: Circulation 2.2.2.2. The Two Dimensional Continuity of Spatial Perception: Transparency 2.2.2.3. Functional Continuity of Spatial Perception: Event and Experience XIV CHAPTER 3 : The Exemplification of Space and Time Relationship with One of the Basic Elements of Space: The Wall 3.1. The Evolution of the Wall in the Historical Continuity 3.1.1. Space and Scale in Hellenistic Architecture 3.1.2. Spatial Concepts in Roman, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque Architecture 3.1.3. The Wall in the Interior and Exterior Space Interaction in the 20th Century 3.2. The Perceptional Importance of Wall as a Two Dimensional Construction Element 3.3. The Changing Determination of the Wall of Today CONCLUSION
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17022
Appears in Collections:Mimarlık Tarihi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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