Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16990
Title: Banyo Tasarımı İçin Kural Tabanlı Uzman Sistem
Other Titles: A Rule-based Expert System For Bathroom Design
Authors: Bayazıt, Nigan
İngin, Çelik
66475
Mimarlık
Architecture
Keywords: AUTOCAD; Banyo; Bilgisayar destekli tasarım; Uzman sistemler; Yapay zeka
AUTOCAD ; Bathroom ;Computer aided design ;Expert systems ;Artificial intelligence
Issue Date: 1997
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Bilgi teknolojileri birçok alanda olduğu gibi, mimarlık mesleğinde de kendine önemli bir yer bulmuştur. İlk aşamada, çizim sürecini optimize edip hız kazandırmak amacıyla kullanılmışlardır. Fakat kısa bir süre sonra bilgisayarların mimarlar için yapabileceklerinin bununla sınırlı olmadığı anlaşılmıştır. Bir adım ileride, çeşitli Yapay Zeka yaklaşımlarını kullanan ve bir miktar "öngörüye" sahip olan yazılımlardan söz edilebilir. Bu çalışmanın amacı bu tür bir yazılımın gerçekleştirmektir. Problem alanı olarak orta düzeyli konut banyosu tasarımı seçilmiştir. Banyolarda en sık kullanılan 5 eleman grubu probleme dahil edilmiştir: Lavabo, klozet, yıkanma, çamaşır yıkama, ve su ısıtma. Bu çalışmada banyo tasarımı dikdörtgen bir mekanla sınırlandırılmıştır. Yazılım geliştirmede kullanmak üzere Autodesk firmasına ait olan AutoCAD programının, Windows işletim sistemi altında çalışan bir sürümü olan, AutoCAD sürüm 13 seçilmiştir. AutoCAD programı üzerinde yazılım geliştirmeye olanak veren AutoLİSP isimli bir programlama diline sahiptir. Bu dil, birçok sürümü olan, ve Uzman Sistem uygulamalarında sıkça kullanılan LISP dilinin AutoCAD ortamına bir uyarlanmış bir türevidir. Yazılım üç aşamadan oluşmaktadır. İlk aşamada kullanıcıyla grafik arabirimi aracılığıyla iletişim kurulur. Kullanılacak markalar, modeller, tasarıma dahil edilen elemanlar, kullanılacak duvar sayısı, vb. gibi bilgiler bu aşamada programa verilir. Seçilen eleman kombinezonu doğrultusunda olasılıkların türetilmesi de bu bölümde yapılır. Kural tabanıyla kullanıcının ilişkisi yine bu bölümde sağlanmaktadır. Kullanıcı bu bölümde, kural tabanına yeni bir kural ekleyebilir, bir kuralı silebilir ya da etkisizleştirebilir. İkinci bölüm, kullanıcı tarafından algılanmayan fakat önemli görevlere sahip algoritmaların bulunduğu bir bölümdür. İlk bölümde kullanıcıdan alınan veriler ışığında oluşan kombinezondan türetilen tüm olasılıklar bu bölümde kural tabanı tartından sınanırlar. Bu bölümde "çizim motoru" bulunmaktadır. İkinci bölümdeki sınamayı geçen permütasyonlar burada çeşitli boyutsal analizlerden geçtikten sonra yine birinci bölümde kullanıcı tarafından bildirilen sayıda çizilirler. Çizimin dışında bu bölüm, veri tabanından aldığı bilgileri kullanarak üretilen her alternatifin maliyetini hesaplayıp kullanıcıya sunar.
The information technologies have a very important place in Architecture like other fields. They have been used in early times in order to optimise and speed the drawing process. This is not the all that the computers can do for the Architects. In a step ahead of this, there are softwares which utilise the Artificial Intelligence approaches. Rule-Based Expert Systems are one of the most important field of Artificial Intelligence approaches.. Building a Rule-Based Expert System for bathroom design is the main objective of this study. In order to realise this, designing the middle class home bathroom is chosen as the problem area. The most common five components of bathroom are included in the problem. These are; washbasins, lavatories, showers, baths, washing machines, and hot water appliances. The response to the problem of bathroom design is limited with to rectangular solutions. The AutoCAD release 13 for Windows from Autodesk is chosen as development environment for this study. This is a very powerful CAD software package which has millions of users all over the world. This software has AutoLISP programming language that is a variant of XLISP developed by David Betz. The LISP is a very well known programming language in Artificial Intelligence approaches because of its very open and powerful architecture. The Rule-Based Expert System for Bathroom Design is a software which coded in AutoLISP programming language. The software has three main steps: In the first part, the software communicates with user within a Graphical User Interface. The interface uses the Programmable Dialogue Boxes (DCL) of AutoLISP. The user chooses brands, models, elements and amount of the walls that will use in design, and the other optional item with this interface. Pushing the "Permutation" button the user can produce all the possible permutations for the selected combination. After that pushing the A File Edit Vıev» Dala.Options Tools tj-P J*I*J. Elements - - ' Iw> Lavalpiy r Wash Mash. 17 Hot Water.Washing r Wash Basin S> Closet fi? Washing - Chosed Elements Toprak Antik Toprak 20820 Hot Water r Gas i* Showier it Electric Wall : Toprak / Combination LA KL OT SF Permutations 20x20 LA KL DT SF- Humbei of Walls r IWall Tulerance - Pernmlation to Drawn, Draw Cancel «- 2 Watt» 4..«.I Te*t....Îİ Hute... T AB f Selected r First... -^ 15550,3107 MODEL TILE 13:12 LA KL DT-SF LA KL-DT SF LA-KL DT SF.LA KL DT SF LA KL SF DT* LA KL SF'DT LA KL-SF DT LA'KL SF DT.LA KL SF DT LA DT KL SF" LA DT KL'SF LA DT-KL SF I H Start ^AutoCAD [BathiadL. -i 120 ^J d ?I st ij, ia"4 Figure 1. The Graphical User Interface "Draw" button program will send these permutations to the further part of this application. User can manipulate rule-base within this first part. A new rule can be added, an existing rule can be removed or disabled. Figure 1. shows the first screen of this user interface. The rule-base is placed in second part. The permutations created in the first part are tested here by the rules related to the rule-base. The software takes the rules that related to the selected combination from the file named Banyo. krl. After taking the related rules, the software converts them into AutoLISP programming codes. Evaluation of these rules generates a process that gives a set of results of failure points. Zero point means no failure, and 8 and above means inapplicable. The results will send to the next part as a LISP list. The third part has the "drawing engine". The result matrix which contains the permutations and their failure points, is drawn here. The amount of the drawing outputs are depended on the options that user pointed out in the first part and the results of the test are indicated in the second part. The software also gives the approximate cost of the every possible permutation. XII The cost is calculated by using the values in the file named Banyo.dta which has been set by the user. The thesis is organised in to three main chapters. In first chapter, the basic concepts of the artificial intelligence and the expert systems, and the organisational principles of bathroom design are explained and discussed. In the second chapter, the programming language, the programming method of system, and the rule-base are explained. In the last chapter, a limited user guide of the software and some outputs of the system are given. In appendixes, complete combination table, whole documentation of the AutoLISP and DCL program code, contents of the auxiliary files, and the rule-base are documented. First Chapter: Firstly, some of definition of artificial intelligence has been given. The fields which employ successfully artificial intelligence, like robotics, expert systems, learning, have been listed. Second part of this chapter includes Expert Systems. Expert systems have the most successful application of artificial intelligence science. The development stages of expert systems are explained here. These are: 1. Identification, 2. Conceptualisation, 3. Formalisation, 4. Implementation, 5. Testing. After that, general types of expert systems are listed, like these; 1. Interpretation systems, 2. Prediction systems, 3. Diagnosis systems, 4. Design systems, 5. Planning systems, 6. Monitoring systems. Very well-known and important applications of expert systems, like ; DENDRAL, META-DENDRAL, SAINT, EXPERT, CASNET, MYCIN, EMYCIN, PUFF, CADUCEUS, RITA, and ROSI, have been explained. XIII The short information's about general purpose expert system programming languages, like PROLOG, and LISP, have been given in next part. The next part consists a detailed explanation of bathrooms and their most common components. This part started with a brief history of bathroom, and continue with its elements. In the next part, the dimensions of the elements are given. The last theme of this part is about the materials used in bathrooms commonly. Second Chapter: In next chapter the programming method and environment are explained. The reasons, why the AutoCAD software package and its programming language AutoLISP are chosen for the development is explained. Following that, the programming method is explained step by step (procedure by procedure). The explanations of procedures that include permutation generator, inference machine, and the rule-base-to-AutoLISP rule translator have been given in this part. The next part contains the detailed explanations about the rule-base and the evaluation process. System does not use a real data-base format or file to save the rule information. An ordinary text file contains the formatted rule primitives. The software reads the primitives and converts them to real if... then... clauses. The rule-base has three sections. In the first section, the rules for one-wall- using-combinations (the term one-wall is used to explain one wet wall for installation) are placed. The second section contains the rules for the combination which use two-walls. These rules are applied to the elements which are placed in the intersection of two wet walls. The two-walls combinations need to be applied by the one-wall rules. The last part of the rule-base is special. It is reserved for the advanced users. In this section the advanced users can write independent LISP rules in order to evaluate information. User can reach the internal variables of the program or define a variable in order to use further lines of this part. Third Chapter: This chapter includes a small user guide. The software is explained screen by screen. The guide directs the user by explaining the function of the buttons, and purpose of the screens. xiv A small performance benchmark is placed in third chapter. System gives its own hardware's performances in order to compare with other systems and hardware's. Finally, some drawing outputs of system are also given in this part. In appendix A, there is a full explanation of combination table (this is not a real table, this is â set of calculations) the system employs. The table gives total amount of the possibilities (totally; 5.508) the system can generate.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1997
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16990
Appears in Collections:Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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