Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16942
Title: Konut Planlamasında Türk Evi Geleneğinin Yeri Konusunda Bir Araştırma
Other Titles: A Research On The Place Of The Traditional Turkish House In House Design
Authors: Kulaksızoğlu, Erol
Burkut, Kuddusi
75455
Mimarlık
Architecture
Keywords: Geleneksel Türk evi
Konut planlaması
Traditional Turkish house
Housing planning
Issue Date: 1998
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Türkiye'de son yıllarda konut sorununa çözüm bulma çabalarının yoğunlaşmasına karşın bu konuda gerekli çalışmaların yapıldığı ve uygulandığı söylenemez. Kentlerimizde görülen gecekondulaşma ve sonrasında gerçekleştirilen niteliksiz yeniden yapılaşma, doğumla değişen nüfustan çok, göçler sonrasında değişen nüfus farklılaşmasından kaynaklanmaktadır. Bugün ülkemizde yaşayan nüfusun yarıdan fazlasının niteliksiz konutlarda yaşıyor olması sorunun hem kırsal hem de şehirsel anlamda ele alınmasını gerekli kılmaktadır. Ancak konut sorunu günümüzde sadece şehir hayatına yönelik olarak ele alınmış, kırsal kesimde yaşayan insanlar kaderlerine terk edilmişlerdir. Şehirlerde ele alınan konutlarda özel sektörün elinde kar marjı yüksek, rant peşinde koşan müteahhitlerin elinde kalmıştır. Konut sorunu, eldeki istatistiki bilgilere göre, sadece rakamsal büyüklük olarak ifade etmekle yetinilmiş, niteliği bir kenara itilmiştir. Aslında önemli olan insanların yaşamla ilgili gereksinmeleridir. Ancak konu, oda sayısı başına düşen insan\birey sayısı olarak dile getirilmektedir. "İnsanlar içinde bulundukları konutlarda yaşamla ilgili gereksinmelerini en iyi nasıl karşılayacaklar?" bu soruya cevap vermek gereklidir. Amaç, insanların mutluluğu olduğuna göre ve yaşamın önemli bölümü de konutta geçtiğine göre mekanların belirli konfor düzeyine erişmiş olması gereklidir. Sözü edilen konfora sadece teknolojinin verilerini kullanarak değil, konut yaşamı ile ilgili alışkanlıkların, geleneklerin, sevgi ve saygı bağlarının sürekliliği sağlanarak ulaşılabilir. Konutun niteliksel sorunlarının belirlenmesi ve kültür sürekliliği içinde çözümlere ulaşılarak tarihi süreç içinde derinlemesine irdelenmesi ile mümkün olabilmektedir. Bu amaçla yapılan geleneksel konutların günümüz kullanıcısının kullanabilmesi için yapılan çalışmalar geçmiş kullanıcı ile günümüz kullanıcısı arasındaki değişimi dile getirmesi açısından yardımcı olmuştur. Buradan çıkarılan bilgiler, günümüz kullanıcısının istek.gereksinim.ve beğenileri doğrultusunda ele alınmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu nedenle konu geçmişin verileri ile ve bugününün konut anlayışı ile birlikte ele alınmıştır. Geçmişin kullanıcıları ile günümüz konut kullanıcılarının farkları karşısında geliştirdikleri konutlar ayrı başlıklar içinde değerlendirilmiştir. Sonuçta günümüze uyarlanabilecek yaklaşımlar sıralanarak yorumlanmak istenmiştir.
Recently, housing problem is tried to solve in Turkey, in spite of in this subject can not be said to construction any application necessarily In most of the cities, squatter areas, house and than instead of constructing lacking quality of houses have been seen. The main reason of this is not increase in birth rate, but the base reason is immigration from villages to cities. As a result of this case, population has changed. Today, in our country, people who are, living in bad conditioned houses are over %50 of the population. The reason of this subject had not considered and observed both rural and urban area in past. Up to now, this problem considered in only the direction of urban life. People who are living in a rural area had been left their fate. Contractors had approached this subject to give high rise income. As a result of this in those days constructing houses are resembled each other. Whereas housing problem isn't numerical or statistical information. Because house conditions are the most important thing not just living in a house. Actually the important thing is vital requirements. But this subject have observed, this is mistake, the rate of room number which have houses over person. "How will people live in house?" or "How will people fulfil their requirements (about their life) the best?" this is the most important question to answer by the designer. Because the biggest part of life is being spent at house,the aim has to be happiness, which can be achieved with sufficient comfort. Comfort can not obtain only using technology, respect, habits, tradition, love relations among people should be kept on, like in the past. House quality can solve the problem of loosing cultural identity. The relations between culture-identity-house and the changing life style are tried to be studied. Developing technology, turns human being to robots, but prevent from this. Some users have improved precautions by using national identity and religion and their traditional manner. Lots of people have lost their self-identity with developing technologies., because their life is shaped on from work to house, As a result of this, their life go on monotonously. At the end people can not think logical and sensible. So, most people are living unhappily. But, for human, between work and house, home life must be very important. Because people are spending approximately 12 hours of their time at home. For this reason satisfaction which should be researched carefully. Consequently, designer have been developing many various alternatives, which take vital requirements of environments into consideration. Sometimes to develop alternatives have been obligation. Firstly, designer should collect user requirements to form the house programme. Therefore, user requirements which are effected by many other issues, for example, family structure, size, user age, sex, etc.. should be determined correctly. Changes in families in relation time and size should be observed. Because family size, rise up and than goes down in relation to time. At the beginning two people get married and then have children, after children grow up and get married or leave the house for school they became too,old. So their requirements are changing, however house plan can not change like family size. This situation had been a problem for planing or programming house plans for a along time. For this reason designer should think flexible house plans to solve that problem easily. In addition to this; users are classified according to the size/time. Thus designer could determine changing requirements. The size of the family which is sharing the same house is not only in designing a house. This problem should research in cultural, sociological, and economical aspects, widely. As a human right, everybody wants to live in happy, environment. So, the designer should take this into consideration User requirements can be deferent depend on cultural level, economical level, social level and religion, tradition, heritage etc.. Therefore designer should find out user requirements by making experiment, questionnaire, and collecting various data. In addition to this user requirements can change media into became differ. Tv, newspaper, other environmental effects can change user requirements by effecting people. But getting influenced may be positive or negative. At the end, house life styles have completely changed.. Some settlement criterias and house designing principles are determined by the designer and architect.. That criteria and principles can be obtained from past (old information), from new observations, and from the research and experiment results. Identity is the most important issue for people in the same environment. Most of the people in Anatolia, had immigrated from central Asia nearly one thousand years ago. For this reason people have been sharing same culture, history, environment and same geography. On the other hand in this area, living people's life is resemble each other. So all people are happy, cheerful, respectfull to each other tolerance.. Turks, in central Asia, had lived in tent which named "yurt" as nomad people. This is the ancient life style for Turks. Till they had immigrated from central Asia to Anatolia. At that time or before lots of all had changed their belief about god. They accepted the new religion which was named "Islam". After that they converted their life style according to the Islam. All of them have been obeying Islamic rules strictly. Because Islam is only life style for people. Rooms are nucleus, in traditional Turkish houses. Lots of action go on in this rooms. For this reason rooms are designed as multi-purpose areas. Sofa, cabinet, rugs, cushion, ceiling, windows, doors, are designed with definitive principles. In Turkish / Ottoman House hall and rooms have different types. Consequently plan types are occur like below:. Without Hall. Outer Hall. Inner Hall. Central Hall The order of streets, relation of households, adjustment of natural condition, is specific settlement principles. As a result of this; living in this place, makes people happy, kindly, cheerful, respectful, having tolerance on the other hand, settlement areas are colourful, nice and liveable areas not a jungle. Also constructing traditional houses were defined in the past and had some rules, which were known by the master. this knowledge is transferred to the new generations, junior masters as hereditary After the industrial revolution, human life and dairy life started to change. City life became more valuable than the rural life. Most people immigrated to the cities. At the same time governmental pressure started to reduce and than European culture started to spread all Ottoman borders. Firstly western life is accepted by non-Muslim population later than the effects were seen on the Muslim Public as well.. Thus traditional life style started to change. The reflection of this situation was seemed on the building and house type quickly. But old life style had not changed absolutely, also today, some people are living in tent (yurt), and in ancient Turkish houses. But life has changed completely. House types have changed like below:. observing change, in the traditional house which is in the ancient settlement area,. row houses,. apartments,. kiosks, Construction of this house types have lots of reasons; for example, immigration, changing governments, changing life styles, family size, structure of family, construction material, equipment, and developing transportation. After the declaration of republic,life style had changed completely. People have started to live like European people. Because, in those days, all of the traditional thing rejected by the official authority. Than, western house and western life accepted by developing new explanation, like: In spite of the west, to be westernization People, living in the new republic borders, have waiting for getting better economical situation. But on the other hand they have watched their social-cultural change, dramatically. This was named urbanisation. Immigration, from village to the citiy made changes in life styles. Than, lots of problems occurred because of the wrong urbanisation. A lot of contractors constructed houses lacking quality to gain high rise benefit / lots of money quickly. But some applications had been successful. Consequently, everywhere have been surrounded by apartments, which have lacking quality and all of them have been resembling. In this way, environmental disease existed. Recently, in our environment, supporting by the governmental authority, some applications are appearing. That applications are named as good example. But identity is trouble in this case. Contemporary house and contemporary life style had developed on the western effect. But by means of human mental and right scientific logic, correct, right results can be reached easily. In this aim designers should consider both traditional systems and contemporary systems. This is the scientific prohibition. In contemporary house planning, the important thing is observation of user requirements in detail. This is the essential issue. But this situation differs from traditional systems. Because in traditional systems, knowledge is transformed hereditary from masters to the workers. Lots of designer, for example, Frank Lloyd Right, Mies Van Der Rohe, Le Corbusier have designed many different application in world wide. They had experimented various plan types, and concepts to catch optimum level for everbody's life. For this reason Weissenhoff settlements, and Bauhause school's applications have been shown as the main examples/designers.. A. Klein had thought the principle of "minimum requirements- minimum area" and then had given various plan types as examples. Until now lots of architects experimented lots of plan, but many of them had appraised by the users. But that is true, user requirements are changing continuously. Frank Lloyd Right, Mies Van Der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Mario Botta, Charles Moore, Louis Khan, Alvar Aalto, Colin Rave, Peter Eisenmann, Richard Mier, Michael Grayvs etc.. all of those architects have thought about house plan- programme. Their opinions are very important for architectural history and the for the house design principles. Now if family structure should be observed,. low level income family. middle level income family. high level income family Generally low income families have not own any house. They live in rental house. Middle income families have apartments, they live in municipality area, and they use city opportunities. Some families in this group live in a out of city centre, they prefer to live near the city, away from noise, but having city opportunities, (like Bahçeşehir) high income people/families are prefer to live in a country, in duplex / triplex villas, residence like this.. They prefer to live in Kemer Country or 9 palmiye Residence. Preservation of identity and humanity against the technologies, is very hard.. People's life is going on between house and work. But only few designer are paying attention to create liveable area. Designer should consider environmental effects, because people are living as a public, people are public. So with traditional inputs, to the today's users will be able to offer optimum solving for live. May be, in new designing settlement areas, like in the past and resembling old traditional settlement places, can be designed and in this way, people who shared same history, culturel, and geography, can protect their identity like Japanese public. If the future, receive the light from past, and history, problems can be solved easily.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16942
Appears in Collections:Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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