Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16845
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dc.contributor.advisorTanyeli, Gülsümtr_TR
dc.contributor.authorÇağlayan, Murattr_TR
dc.date2017tr_TR
dc.date.accessioned2018-12-05T12:41:33Z-
dc.date.available2018-12-05T12:41:33Z-
dc.date.issued2017tr_TR
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11527/16845-
dc.descriptionTez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2017tr_TR
dc.descriptionThesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2017en_US
dc.description.abstractDünya Kültür Mirası Aday Listesi'nde olan Mardin'in anıtsal ve sivil mimarisinin oluşturduğu kentsel dokusu, son zamanlarda yoğun bir restorasyon ve dönüşüm içindedir. Sivil mimarlık yapılarına yönelik çalışmalar özel şahıslar; kamulaştırılmış olanlar da Valilik tarafından yürütülmekte; anıtsal yapılar ise çoğunlukla farklı kamu kurumlarının (Vakıflar Bölge Müdürlüğü, Valilik, Rölöve ve Anıtlar Bölge Müdürlüğü, vb.) sorumluluğunda ele alınmaktadır. Kamunun özellikle anıtsal eserlerin kullanımı ve işlev değişiklikleri de dâhil olmak üzere yenileme kararları; ülkemizde olduğu gibi Mardin'de de irdelenmeyi gerektirmektedir. Geleneksel yapım tekniğinin hala devam ettiği Mardin'de, anıtların ve anıtlara zamanla eklemlenen bölümlerin tarihlendirilmesini yapmak çok zordur. Günümüzde hala eklektik uygulamalar devam etmekte, birçok dönem ekinin ya da uygulama sonucunun yapının özgün elemanı veya özgün ifadesi olduğu sanılmaktadır. Tez, çok sayıda kültür varlığı bulunan Mardin'de, anıtsal eserlerde gözlemlenen ve özgün oldukları kabul edilen dönem eklerini ve değişiklikleri inceler. Çalışma; Mardin'in anıtsal yapılarının süreç içindeki değişimlerini ele alarak farklı zaman dilimlerinde yapılara eklemlenen mimari eleman ve katmanların özgünlük, değişmişlik durumlarını araştırmaktadır. Yapılan araştırma ile Mardin'deki koruma ve onarım çalışmalarında, özellikle yapılardaki dönem ekleri ve müdahaleleri konusunda bundan sonra alınacak kararlarda daha kapsamlı verilere ulaşılması sağlanmıştır. Bu çerçevede, anıtlara yönelik gelecekteki koruma çalışmalarına katkı sağlayarak eserlerin bilimsel müdahalelerle gelecek nesillere aktarılması amaçlanmaktadır. Bu kapsamda kentsel sit alanı ve yakın çevresindeki anıtsal ya da 1. grup korunması gerekli kültür varlıkları incelenmiştir. Bunların arasında Artuklu Beyliği Dönemi eserlerinden Mardin Ulu Cami, Şehidiye Medresesi, Zinciriye Medresesi ve Akkoyunlu eseri Kasımiye Medresesi önceliklidir. Seçilen anıtlara ait erken dönem araştırmalarına ulaşılmıştır. 19. yüzyılın sonlarına doğru ilgili anıtlara ait farklı arşivlerden görseller bulunmuştur. Alman bürokrat Oppenheim'in XIX. yüzyıl sonu ile XX. yüzyıl başında çektiği ve 1911'de Mardin'e gelen İngiliz misyoner Getrude Bell'in çekmiş olduğu fotoğraflarından faydalanılmıştır. Bilimsel sayılabilecek en erken veriler 20. yüzyılın başında Albert Gabriel'e aittir. Gabriel, 1932'de Mardin'deki anıtsal yapıları tanıtmış, yapıların iç ve dış mekân fotoğraflarını çekip, çizimlerini yapmış, kitabelerini okumaya çalışmıştır. Cumhuriyet döneminde ise özellikle Ara Altun'un yapmış olduğu çalışmalar çok önemlidir. Altun; 1967'de Mardin kentsel sit alanındaki anıtları inceleyip plan krokilerini çıkarmıştır. Yaptığı incelemelerde Gabriel eskizlerini altlık olarak kullanmış 35-40 yıl arasındaki zaman diliminde bile mevcut farklılıkları dile getirmiştir. Anıtlar üzerindeki değişimler, Altun belgelemelerinden günümüze kadar yaklaşık 50 yıllık zaman diliminde hala devam etmektedir. Anıtların farklı dönemlerdeki vakıf kayıtları, Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri'ndeki kayıtları, Mardin Şer'iye sicillerindeki ve o dönem Mardin'in bağlı bulunduğu vilayet olan Diyarbakır Salnamelerindeki kayıtlar incelenmiştir. Özellikle Cumhuriyet dönemi Vakıflar onarımları sonucu anıtlara yapılmış müdahaleler, çalışmada ilk defa ele alınmış ve çok önemli verilere ulaşılmıştır. Daha önce okunamayan ya da keşfedilmemiş kitabeler okunmuştur. Anıtların yapım tekniği ve malzemeleri incelenmiş; kendi içlerinde karşılaştırılmıştır. Yapım tekniklerinin okunması; zamanla yenilenen mimari elamanların tespitinde yardımcı olmuştur. Anıtlara özgü ölçü birimlerinin yanında farklı dönemlere ait arşın değerleri bulunmuştur. Geçmişte yapılan tüm araştırmalar, güncel veriler ile karşılaştırılmış; eserlerin mimari elamanları özgünlükleri ve değişmişlikleri üzerine güncel bilgilere ulaşılmıştır.tr_TR
dc.description.abstractMonumental and civil architecture that shapes the urban texture of Mardin, which is recently included in the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage, became the scene of intensive restoration and transformation works nowadays. Preservation projects focusing on civil architecture are conducted by private initiatives and the buildings under public ownership are being carried out by the Governorship, while public institutions are mostly responsible of the monumental historical buildings. Renovation decisions given by the public institutions, especially those are about reusing and restoration of the monuments, need to be discussed analytically in relation to Mardin's special conditions as well as within the general context of Turkey. In Mardin, where the traditional construction techniques still survive, it is very difficult to date monuments because numerous annexes and features were attached to the monuments within a period extending sometimes a millennium almost using the same techniques. Eclecticist renewal practices are still taking place today, and many annexes, which have been added in different periods and as consequences of restoration interventions, are easily mistaken to be original components of centuries old monuments. This thesis analyses the cultural heritage of Mardin in relation to the periods of construction, in order to define architectural annexes and changes which can be wrongly assumed to be authentic elements of structures. The thesis investigates the authenticity and alterations on the architectural elements and layers that are articulated each other in different periods. This research provides an opportunity to reach more comprehensive data especially about the historicity of architectural additions and interventions that can be employed during future conservation and renovation works in Mardin monuments. In this context, monumental structures in and nearby the urban conservation area that are listed under the 1st protection category are studied. Among these mostly Artuqid period monuments such as Mardin Ulu Mosque, Şehidiye Madrasah, Zinciriye Madrasah and an Aqquyunlu monument Kasimiye Madrasah are discussed in detail. It has also been consulted to early researches about these monuments.For the selected structures, images dating back to the end of the nineteenth century have been found in different archives. The German bureaucrat Oppenheim's photos, which were taken at the beginning of the twentienth century, to the photos of British missionary Gertrude Bell who visited the city in 1911 and the documents belonging to Albert Gabriel, from the beginning of the 1930s provide reliable information. They documented the monumental buildings in Mardin, photographed their interiors and exteriors, prepared measured drawings and tried to read the inscriptions. In 1960s and 1970s, especially the studies by Ara Altun are very important. Altun examined and sketched out plans of the monuments in Mardin urban area. He pointed out the alterations in the buildings even within a short period of 35-40 years by making comparisons to Gabriel's sketch plans. Changes on these monuments have been observing for almost 50 years since Altun's documentation until today. The pious foundation (waqf) records of monuments, records in the State Archives of the Prime Ministry, Mardin Sharia court decisions and the information in Diyarbakir Salnames (provincial annuals) concerning Mardin are investigated. The interventions on the monuments and their results during the Republican period have been discussed in this thesis, and very important data have been revealed. Previously undiscovered or unreadable inscriptions have been read. Construction techniques and materials of the monuments have been examined and they were compared with other structures in the city. Investigation on the construction techniques has helped to identify once renewed architectural elements. On the other hand, different "arshin" (cubit) values for different periods have been found. Previous studies have been compared with the information at hand and it has been reached to new data about the authenticity of architectural elements and their alterations. In the provincial archives of the General Directorate of Foundations' Mardin department important data about the monuments have been found. During the early Republican period, many monuments in Turkey were declared to be properties of the General Directorate of Foundations. Over time, some of these have been transferred or sold to some other official bodies or to private investors. For this reason, researchers who will examine the protection of monumental structures should to make detailed research in the archives of the General Directorate of Foundations of the Prime Ministry in Ankara. There is no reference to the Prime Ministry General Directorate Archives in the conservation reports of all monuments under consideration. No correspondence regarding repairs during the republican period 1950-2000 was reached by the Diyarbakır Foundations Regional Directorate, which Mardin was affiliated with. In addition to the General Directorate in Ankara, archival documents in the regional directorates of different cities of the country should be considered by the researchers, which are easily accessible. These monuments are preserved as cultural heritage, despite the changes they have undergone since they were first built to the present day. To serve new functions which will not damage the monuments in the framework of their own work or protection regulations; it needs scientific interventions in order to be able to conserve their authenticity and project them to the future generations. For example, in possible future restorations, the structures should be intervened by paying attention to the units of measurement, which are specific to the structures. Architectural elements with special measures, proportions and techniques such as arches and domes, must preserve their uniqueness in future essential interventions. The data obtained about the architectural elements of the monuments studied in relation to their construction techniques will help for the future protection and renovation interventions. During the interventions to the monuments in the future, the measures and proportions of the different periods that are exposed in the monuments should be preserved. Focussing on the Zinciriye Madrasah, for example, the construction technique of the southern porticoes renovated in 1797, reflect the characteristics of the repair period. These portico arches are different from the porticoes in the upper courtyard of the madrasah, in terms of the construction techniques, their size and proportions. The later interventions on these porches which were integrated with the structure as an annex, should take into account their own proportions and measures. Holistic stylistic approaches should be avoided. It can be suggested that the previous works have not considered all the details of the monuments, which are examined in this study, as necessary. It has been recently discovered after the restoration by the Foundations, the Ulu Mosque had engraving inscriptions on the praying nave walls, which dated back from the Ottoman layer. These monuments, which are significant with their pointed dome, have never been studied in relation to their domes and the construction technique has not been questioned until to this study. In this study, various measurements were made about the walls of the domes and analogues were made with works of Islamic period. Interesting data have been reached in the Zinciriye Madrasah's and the Great Mosque's sliced pointed domes that they are double-shelled structures. The distance between the two shells varies between 1 to 2 meters. The inside dome of all of the monuments, which are thought to be the exact hemisphere from the inside, are two-centred, pointed domes. In this study, with the help of the information provided by the evidence and newly obtained information, the data which are not included in the survey and restitution projects and reports, approved by the official protection board until today. It is recommended that, these data should be revised in conservation and restoration plans that will be prepared in the future. It is understood that it is very difficult to identify the original parts in the monuments and even in civil architectural examples examined in Mardin where the traditional construction technique still continues. It can be suggested that this is the effect of the continuity of materials used in the monuments for centuries. The masonry tradition has survived as a result of the transfer of masonry artisanship from past to present via masters and their apprentices. As a result, documentation of the work and archiving it has been signified. Even partial reinforcements and restorations that were made within a 50 year period cannot be understood without detailed documentation. It is understood that some architectural elements of monuments, which were believed to be original, were in fact rebuilt during the renovation of 1963-1966, as those are in the case of the porticoes of Kasimiye Madrasah's courtyard and in the upper floor porches of the Zinciriye Madrasah. The importance of the preparation of conservation projects with pre-repair analytical research; photography and documentation in pre-intervention, during and after the process of intervention, to convey the monuments to the future generations with their unique form as much as possible is emphasized. What is more, as it has been in the past, today stonemasons, who are raised in Mardin, still work intensively in the actual building sites in Southeastern Anatolia. In this context, it can be suggested that the stone workmanship in and around Mardin has to be regarded as an intangible cultural heritage asset.en_US
dc.language.isoturtr_TR
dc.publisherFen Bilimleri Enstitüsütr_TR
dc.publisherInstitute of Science and Technologyen_US
dc.rightsKurumsal arşive yüklenen tüm eserler telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır.tr_TR
dc.rightsAll works uploaded to the institutional repository are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission.en_US
dc.subjectAnıtlartr_TR
dc.subjectKorumatr_TR
dc.subjectMardintr_TR
dc.subjectRestitüsyontr_TR
dc.subjectRestorasyontr_TR
dc.subjectÖzgünlüktr_TR
dc.subjectMonumentsen_US
dc.subjectConservationen_US
dc.subjectMardinen_US
dc.subjectRestitutionen_US
dc.subjectRestorationen_US
dc.subjectOriginalityen_US
dc.titleMardin Anıtsal Yapılarında Değişmişlik ve Özgünlük Sorunlarıtr_TR
dc.title.alternativeProblems of authenticity and transformation in the monumental buildings of Mardinen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.typeTeztr_TR
dc.contributor.authorID450906tr_TR
dc.contributor.departmentRestorasyontr_TR
dc.contributor.departmentRestorationen_US
dc.description.degreeDoktoratr_TR
dc.description.degreePh.D.en_US
Appears in Collections:Restorasyon Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora

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