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|Title:||Kırsal bölgelerde bilgi sistemlerinin uygulama olanakları|
|Authors:||Altan, M. Orhan|
Şeker, Dursun Zafer
|Keywords:||Coğrafi bilgi sistemleri|
Geographical information systems
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||Kırsal kesimde bilgi sistemlerinin uygulanabilme olanak larının ele alındığı bu çalışmanın ilk bölümünde, genel olarak bir bilgi sistemi oluşturmanın çağın gereksinmeleri doğrultusunda artık kaçınılmaz olduğu vurgulanmış, bilgi sistemi oluşturmanın gerekliliği irdelenmiştir. ikinci bölümde, coğrafi bilgi sistemlerine ilişkin coğraf ya, haberleşme, bilgi, sistem, bilgi sistemi gibi temel kavramlar irdelenmiş, coğrafi bilgi sistemlerinin ta rihçesi, alt sistemleri, bileşenleri ve veri tabanı gibi kavramlara açıklamalar getirilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde, uygulamalarda kullanılan yazılım PC ARC/ INFO irdelenmiştir. Bu yazılımın vektör dayalı bilgi sistemleri içindeki yeri ve fonksiyonları ile birlikte yetenekleri de irdelenmiştir. Donanım da bu bölümde ele alınmıştır. Ülkemizde sivil haritacılık çalışmalarının çok eski olmadığı vurgulanmış ve harita üreten kurumlar ele alınmıştır. Bilgi sistemlerinin kırsal alanlarda uygulanma olasılık larının irdelendiği uygulamalar da bu bölümde ele alın mıştır. Farklı yöntemlerle elde edilmiş verilerin bilgi sistemleri içinde kullanılışlarının irdelenmiştir. Son uygulama olarak Söke ağaçlı köyüne ait bir coğrafi veri tabanının tasarlanması, bu veritabanını kullanmak üzere bir PC ARC/INFO nun makro yazılım dili SML ile hazırlanan interface (arayüz) ve bu arayüzle sorgulama ve ürün elde etmenin yanında yazılan arayüzün WINDOWS işletim sistemi altında çalıştırılması ve yapılan istatistiklerin değer lendirilmesi de yine bu bölümde ele alınmış ve elde edilen ürünler değerlendirilmiştir. Son bölümde, ülke genelinde bir coğrafi bilgi sistemi o- luşturmanın gerekliliği bir kez daha ele alınmış böyle bir sistemin oluşturulması sırasında dikkat edilmesi gerekli noktalar ve böyle bir sistemin getireceği faydalar üzerinde durulmuştur.|
The need of information for mankind can date back to the beginning of civilization. As a result of cultivating the land, mankind this process, in order to safeguard their proprietary rights, they felt it necessary to mark the land which they claimed to be theirs. The gradually improved sense of ownership brought the surveying techniques together with the compilation of land records. While the population of the world increases, the amount of the land on which they live and use remains unchanged. Therefore, the available land has to be utilized more carefully. As the social needs and expectations increase due to the prevailing conditions of the time and become more complicated entailing immediate solutions, the advent and improvement of the information systems to be used by the individuals as well as establishments. The rapid growth of the urban areas, the efforts towards protecting arable land and available land resources, the enhanced concern about the environmental problems, have all caused a growing interest in land information; the need for geographic information has emerged significantly. Meeting the basic social requirements such as feeding, defence, energy, health, education, transportation and communication, protection of naturel resources call for thorough planning activity. For this purpose, land information is necessary. Land records, which are available are insufficient to meet the need for land information systems. The biggest problem encountered in using the land records is not the lack of information but is the abundance of various land data which is neither complete nor interrelated. As there is not a very healthy relationship among the institutions, the institutions requiring land information which itself does not posses results to gather new information instead of obtaining it from other institutions. This naturally increases the cost of data in terms of personnel, money and time. _vi- The rapid developments in technological field the momentum in course of accelerated being "Knowledge Society", that can be described as a society majority of the members of which are dealing with collect, storage, processing and distributing data. Geodesy and Photogrammetry Engineering is concerned with the activities of collection, evaluation and presentation of geometric and thematic information on natural and artificial land details of the surface as whole or section of it, and at the same time setting relationship between land and the media in which land information is stored. Thus, it provides with various engineering disciplines related to land such as forest mining, urban planning, the information needed on land, offering decisive and supporting services to the concerned individuals and institutions. Parallel to the rapid developments in computer technology; while making optimal use of the computer facilities in its activities, land surveying in exerting its efforts to have its place among the systems(GIS's) and accelerating the operations of forming a countrywide Geographical Information System ( GIS ). It is necessary to organize the whole procedure of collecting and manipulating and offering the geographical information in order to meet the needs of the users of this system by consolidating the institutions and establishments which are carrying out land surveying and map production with other institutions and bodies which are other sources of information through making use of the facilities brought by the computer technology. Studies to form a geographic information system can be handled in two different ways. First of them is the efforts to form a countrywide GIS, the authority and responsibility of which, has been given to only one institution, the second one is the studies of the different institutions on establishments within their own bodies, which can later be incorporated. This study is made up of four chapters. In the first section of this work, the basic reasons of the need for a geographic (land) information systems are analyzed. In the second section, concepts relating to GIS and terms, subdivisions and databases are handled. In third section, the hardware and software (PC ARC/INFO) used in applications, mapping facilities in Turkey, the applications of the relevant institutions and bodies towards formation of a GIS the rural areas. In the last section, the studies towards formation of information system based on research and works carried out have been -TT1 1 analyzed and suggestions and the benefits that can be obtained there from. A GIS is not simply a computer system for making maps, although it can create maps at different scales, in different projections and with different colors. A GIS is an analysis tool. The major advantage of a GIS is that it allows to the users to identify the spatial relationships between map features. A GIS stores the data from which cab be created the desired view, drawn to suit a particular purpose. Map are very important for the GIS, because very much information are stored in map form that is going to be converted into computer form. Maps are also important as effective tools to demonstrate the results. But not all the geographic information comes from maps. A GIS links spatial data with geographic information about a particular feature on a map. The information is stored as attributes or characteristics of the graphically represented feature. A GIS can also use the stored attributes to compute new information about map features; for example, to calculate the length of a particular road or determine the total area of a particular soil type. Although many other computer programs can use spatial data, GISs include the additional ability to perform spatial operations. A GIS, is an organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data and personnel to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information. A GIS use geographically referenced data as well as non spatial data and includes operations which support spatial analysis. In GIS, the common purpose is decision-making, for managing use of land, resources, transportation, relating, oceans or any spatially distributed entities. The connection between the elements of the system is geography, e.g. location, proximity, spatial distribution. GIS has been called an "enabling technology" because of the potential it offers for the wide variety of disciplines which must deal with spatial data. Each relating field provides some of the techniques which make up GIS. Many of these related fields emphasize data collection. GIS brings them together by emphasizing integration, modeling and analysis. Some of the related disciplines and technologies are; - Geography, - Cartography, - Remote Sensing, - Photogrammetry, - Surveying, - Geodesy, - Statistics, - Operations Research, - Computer Science, - Mathematics, - Civil Engineering. -viii- Geographic data is stored in GIS database. Geographic data includes spatial and descriptive data. Spatial data deals with location, shape and relationship among the features. Descriptive data deals with the characteristics of the features. Data is stored in a geographic data base. Geographic data base, is a collection of spatial data and related descriptive data that are shared and used for multiple purposes by multiple users. Many benefits can result from the data base approach; - Better sharing of data resources, - Less redundancy of data, - Consistency of data content and format, - Spatial and descriptive data are explicitly linked, - Lower cost for data capture, storage and use, - Enables transactions to maintain data base, - Different "user views" of the same data are efficient ly supported, - Flexibility of data retrieval, analysis and reporting, - Faster development of user applications. There are several sources of geographic data. Some of these are, - Conventional Maps, - Orthophoto and Photomaps, - Digital Maps, - Aerial Photographs, - Satellite Images, - Land Observations, - Cadastral Records, - Computer Aided Drawings, - Database Files, - Text Files. The hardware components of the GIS can be classified in three groups, which are; - Data Input Devices, - Data storage and Data Processing Devices, - Data Presentation Devices. GIS Software components are; - Data Input and Data Verification Software, - Data Storage and Data Management Software, - Data Transformation Software, - Data Presentation Software, - User Interface Software. The first component transforms data captured from the graphic data sources into a computer form. Second, deals -ix- with spatial and descriptive data and topological relationships among them are structured and organized. Third one performs the maintenance and manipulating of data. The fourth, has the task to allow the data, both in graphic and in tabular form. The last is composed of all the help programs, menus, query languages and macro programming languages to facilitate the communication between computers and peoples. A GIS is formed by different sub systems. These are; - Management Subsystem, - Data Processing Subsystem, - Data Analysis Subsystem, - Information Use Subsystem. Idea of portraying different layers of data on a series of base maps and relating things geographically, has been around much longer than computers. Maps of the battle Yorktown (American Revolution) drawn by a French Cartographer to show troop movements is one of the first attempts of it. In mid-19th century "Atlas to Accompany the second report of the Irish Railway Commissioners" showed population, traffic flow, geology and topography superimposed on the same base maps. Dr. John Snow used a map showing the locations of death by cholera in central London in 1854 to track the source of the outbreak to a contaminated well and early example of geographical analysis. Many factors such as computer technology, development of theories of spatial processes in economic and social geography, anrtropology, regional science and increasing social awareness, education levels and mobility, avereness of environmental problems, integrated transportation plans of 1950s and 1960s in Detroit, Chicago, the researches were done in University of Washington, Geography Department, about advanced statistical methods and computer cartography, are caused a change in cartographic analysis. GIS began in early to mid-1960s with the first operational systems being the Canadian Geographic Information System (CGIS) and those in the U.K. Experimental Cartography Unit. The first commercial turnkey system began to appear in the early 1980s - ARC/INFO was the pioneer. Other work of seminal importance was done in the Harvard Graphics Laboratory in the 1970s. The software used in this study is PC ARC/INFO. It has two components; - ARC; with its topologic data structure for managing spatial components of the data model (location of terrain elements and topologic relationship among them ). - INFO; with its relational tabular structure for managing the non-spatial components of the data model ( functional descriptors and non-spatial relationships among terrain -x- entities ). ARC/INFO, organizes data files in a hierarchic directory structure. It uses two basic storage units, "coverage" and "workspace". Coverage corresponds to a single information layer. In this study, a PERSEUS PC (120 Mb HD, 4 Mb RAM, 386 SX, VGA, 33 MHz), a MICRO PC (300 Mb HD, 8 Mb RAM, 486 SX, VGA, 40 MHz), ALTER C31 Digitizer, GRAPHTEC GP 2002 Pen Plotter and BROTHER Ml 818 Printer are used as hardware. Maps with reliable scope and quality, are the vital elements of the modern world in planning the national and local projects which form the infrastructure of all the investment and engineering services related to infrastructure real estate and soil. In Turkey, the map and cadastre services have been considered as services fully attached with each other. The subject of cadastre is to model the land and human relationship. These two systems, together, carry out the fulfillment of numerous basic services. There are over thirty institutions in Turkey which have the authority to produce maps among which are, - General Directorate of Title-Deeds and Cadastre, - General Commander Office for Mapping, - Municipalities, - General Directorate of Highways, - General Management of Provincial Bank, - General Directorate of Turkish Coal Mines, - Technical Searching Institute for Mining, - Turkish Petroleum Partnership Pic, - Etibank, - General Directory for Construction of Ports and Airports, - Electrical Works Board, - General Directorate for Land and Agricultural Reform, It can be seen that the basic reason of the confusion in the map field has been the absence of the both an "Information System with Definite and Determinate Purpose" and an institution responsible for the whole of map and cadastre services in the country. In the period of sixth 5-Year Development Plan, it is suggested that an institution responsible for the whole map and cadastre services in the country to be set up, bearing -xi- in mind the needs of the individuals and establishments benefiting from the map services, except for the production of maps for military purposes. In this study different applications are performed. First application is; collecting data from a conventional map by means of digitizing in the different media, transforming.DXF file and evaluating in PC ARC/INFO. For this purpose a map scaled 1/25000 named Aksaray-K31-b2 is digitized at HITACHI digitizer using EGHAS software as different ten coverages and transformed.DXF files by using same software. Some of the layers are; Land, Water, Way, Points etc. The files in.DXF forms were carried out ARC/INFO media. A new transformation was performed to transform.DXF files to ARC/INFO files. In the second part of the first application, the row data were collected using total stations and manipulated and transformed in.DXF files using EGHAS software. In the second application, the digital data belongs to Harran Plain (Sanliurfa) were obtained by ISLEM and UCER INSAAT companies by using photogrammetric techniques were used. In the last application, a plot GIS project performed. The design and implementation of GIS basically named SAKBIS, has been realized in three phases; - Creation of the Geographic Database, - Performing query and analysis, - Present the results. Data used to create database are manually digitized from the 9 maps scaled 1/2500 and one map scaled 1/1000 belongs to Soke - Agacli Village. The coverages are; Parcel, Build, Water, Way, Border, Hedge and Point. Later on different queries and analysis are performed and results were presented. Also, using PC ARC/INFO macro language SML a menu as user interface in Turkish have been set up. The choices in this interface can be summarized in English as follows; - DRAW - DRAW A COMPOSED MAP - DRAW A NEW MAP - DRAW COVERAGE ON THE SCREEN - QUIT - ZOOM -xii- - LIST - QUERY - QUERY WITH ATTRIBUTES - RETRIEVE DESCRIPTIVE DATA USING KNOWN LOCATIONAL DATA - RETRIEVE LOCATIONAL DATA USING KNOWN DESCRIPTIVE DATA - RETRIEVE DESCRIPTIVE DATA USING KNOWN DESCRIPTIVE DATA - QUIT - GEOGRAPHIC QUERY - DETERMINE COORDINATE - DETERMINE LENGTH - DETERMINE AREA - QUIT - CLEAR SCREEN - QUIT At the end of this study this interface is performed with WINDOWS operational system. The suggestions and some of the results of this study can be given as; - As far as possible, data entries should carried out in the GIS media. It has been that in the application of geographical data obtained from other media, the results have been rather dissatisfying. However, if the digital maps about the area to be studied are available, it should be preferred to use these maps instead of redigitizing to obtain data, in order to save time, money and personnel. - Analytical stereoplotters that could be used in aerial photographs should be added to the system. This way, high precision data are entered into the system. - Forming a countrywide GIS appear to be highly neces-sary and inevitable. Such a work should be achieved with the contribution of all. concerned individuals and insti tutions. - The difference between mapping systems and GIS should be clearly established. Institutions and bodies forming GIS, have to be very careful to select the software which is most functional and independent from the hardware employed. -xiii- - The red tape (bureaucracy) experienced in the data exchange between the institution should be avoided as much as possible and the joint use of data, personnel, software and hardware among the institutions should be encouraged. - Such activities at the universities should be supported and the universities should be responsible or adviser bodies for the GIS to be formed countrywide. - By means of this useful tool a number of benefits can be utilized. For example; reduces duplication of effort in order to reduce cost, increases efficiency in daily operations, increases management control, provides information for decision support and policy making and saves time, man power and time.
|Description:||Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1993|
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1993
|Appears in Collections:||Geomatik Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora|
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