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|Title:||İstanbul Bizans Kiliseleri’ne 20.yüzyılda Yapılan Müdahalelerin Görsel Kaynaklar Aracılığıyla Belirlenmesi Amaçlı Bir İnceleme|
|Other Titles:||The Change Of The Byzantine Churches In Istanbul In The 20th Century –analyses And Determination By Using Visual Sources|
|Authors:||Eyüpgiller, Kemal Kutgün|
Alagöz Çobanoğlu, Ahu
Camiye Dönüştürülen Kiliseler
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science And Technology
|Abstract:||Tarih boyunca bir çok medeniyete ev sahipliği yapmış olan İstanbul’un tarihi alanları 1985 yılında UNESCO tarafından Dünya Mirası Listesi’ne alınmıştır. Roma, Bizans ve Osmanlı imparatorluklarının başkenti olan İstanbul’da şüphesiz ki çeşitli dönemlere ait bir çok yapı ve yapı kalıntısı bulunmaktadır. 4.yy-15.yy arasında hüküm süren Bizans İmparatorluğu döneminde yapılmış olan yapılardan günümüze ulaşanların büyük bir kısmı kilise yapılarıdır. Bunda elbette ki bu yapıların ihtiyaç dahilinde işlevlerinin değiştirilerek günümüze dek kullanılıyor olması da büyük rol oynamaktadır, çünkü kullanılmayan yapılar kaderlerine terkedildiklerinde zaman içinde yok olmaktadırlar. Tez kapsamında Byzantion, Roma, Bizans, Osmanlı ve Cumhuriyet dönemlerinde kentin silüetini değiştiren önemli imar hareketleri de irdelenmiştir. Modern hayata geçişin yaşandığı Cumhuriyet döneminde büyük bir kentin ihtiyacı olan ana arterlerin ve büyük meydanların açılması gibi şehircilik düzenlemeleri bir çok tarihi yapının ortadan kalkmasına sebep olmuştur. 20.yy’da çeşitli sebeplerden gayrimüslimlerin kenti terketmeleri ve müslüman nüfusun kentin prestijli bölgelerine taşınması Tarihi Yarımada’daki sosyo-kültürel yapıyı değiştirmiştir. Köyden kente göçün önlenemez yükselişi ile birlikte kırsal alandan yüksek oranda göç alan bu bölge yeni gelenler tarafından tercih edilmiştir. Artık kentin tarihi alanlarında eğitim, kültür ve sosyo-ekonomi açısından zayıf bir halk yaşamaktadır. Bu durum İstanbul’un tarihi alanlarında bulunan anıtların ve çevrelerinin bilinçsizce tahrip edilmesine yol açmaktadır. Tarihi Yarımada içinde bulunan 18 Bizans kilise yapısından 17’si tez kapsamında incelenmiştir. Bu konuda 19.yy sonu ve 20.yy başında çeşitli araştırmacıların ve fotoğraf sanatçılarının çekmiş oldukları fotoğraflar belge kabul edilerek, yapıların 21.yy’a kadar olan süreçte geçirmiş oldukları değişiklikler ve günümüzdeki durumları incelenmiş, 21.yy başında yapılmış olan bu çalışmanın gelecek nesiller için bir belge niteliği taşıması amaçlanmıştır. Yapıların çeşitli dönemlerde geçirmiş oldukları yangınlar ve depremler, yapıların strüktürüne zarar vermiştir. Türk döneminde kentin o bölgesinde hıristiyan cemaatin azalması ya da müslüman cemaatin o bölgeye yerleştirilmesi sonucunda boş ve bakımsız durumda olan Bizans kiliseleri ‘şenlendirme’ politikası ile birlikte 15.yy’da camiye çevrilmişlerdir. Bazı yapılar işlev değişikliği sırasında, bazıları ise daha sonraki dönemlerde deprem ve yangınlar sebebiyle geçirdikleri restorasyonlarda değerli Türk dönemi eklerine de sahip olmuşlardır. Yapıların önceki yıllarda çekilmiş olan fotoğrafları ile günümüzdeki durumları karşılaştırılarak yapılan bu çalışmada özellikle cami ve mescit olarak kullanılan yapılarda ağırlıklı olarak niteliksiz kullanıcı ekleri ve hatalı onarımlar gözlemlenmiştir. Günümüzde müze olarak hizmet veren yapılarda ise kontrolün tek bir birim tarafından sağlanması sebebiyle kullanıcıdan kaynaklanan niteliksiz ekler bulunmamaktadır. Teze konu olan yapılardan Koca Mustafa Paşa Camii (Ayios Andreas en te Krisei Manastırı Kilisesi), Kariye Müzesi (Khora Manastırı Kilisesi), Fenari İsa Camii (Lips Manastırı Kilisesi) ve Zeyrek Kilise Camii’ndeki kapsamlı restorasyon çalışması halen devam etmektedir. Bizans anıtları konusunda uzmanlaşmış kişilerden oluşan bir komisyon kurularak günümüze ulaşmış olan Bizans yapılarının restore edilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu yapıların bir bütün olarak ele alınması, kullanıcı ihtiyaçları da gözetilerek doğru bir proje ile problemlerin çözülmesi, sürekli bakım ve onarımının yine bu komisyon kontrolünde yapılması, kullanıcıların yapının tarihi önemi ve koruma esasları konusunda bilinçlendirilmesi, söz konusu anıtların gelecek nesillere doğru bir şekilde aktarılabilmesi için önem taşımaktadır.|
Istanbul was the capital city of Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Empire throughout the centuries. Therefore, it is obvious that the city itself is carrying many monuments from different periods. Having a multi-layered structure of old monuments, Istanbul should be considered as an open museum. Unfortunately, many of these buildings are situated in the poor neighborhoods and they need urgent care and restoration. With the pressure of the modern buildings and the needs of modern life every passing day, it is getting harder and harder to preserve these monuments. Surely unoccupied buildings will vanish with time and giving them a function will save them from disappearing. Therefore, it is our job to find solutions to restore and improve old monuments in a way that they do not lose their genuine authenticity and have the capability to respond to the needs of modern life. On the scope of this work, the decisions of the urban planning acts during the periods of Byzantium, Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic Era are also mentioned. The change on the urban plan of Istanbul during the Republican Era is questionable. It is understandable that a modern city needs its wide arteries and squares, but these implementations wiped out many monuments from different periods. This thesis is based on Byzantine churches in the historical area of Istanbul, which are still in use. The main idea was to determine the change on the buildings, done in the 20th century, using visual sources such as photographs taken by researchers and photo-artists at the end of the 19th and the beginning of 20th century. The structures of many Byzantine churches were harmed due to earthquakes and fires during centuries. The monuments also have many Turkish additions because of the restorations and improvements during the Ottoman Era. Christian community has been moved to other neighborhoods during that time or Muslims were settled to some specific previously Christian neighborhoods. As a result, many of the Byzantine churches were left deserted and sometimes in ruins. After losing their original users, they were converted into mosques. Certainly even with changed functions having been used until present days helped these monuments to survive. 17 Byzantine churches situated in the historical area of Istanbul are analyzed in the scope of this work. 15 of them are converted into mosques during the Ottoman Era. The Church of Panagia Muhliotissa (Church of Saint Mary of the Mongols – Meryem Ana Church) has never been converted into a mosque and still serves as a church. Hagia Eirene Church (Hagia Eirene Museum) has been used as military store and military museum during the Ottoman Era and serves as museum and concert hall today. The Church of Monastry of Chora (Chora Museum) and the Parekklesion of the Chuch of the Monastary of Pammakaristos (Fethiye Mosque and Museum) are used as museums today. The observations of the survey on these monuments show that especially the buildings, which are used as mosques, have many inappropriate additions and repairs done by the users to meet their needs in today’s life. In that manner the buildings which are used as museums, are in better condition, since they are under the control of the Directorate of Hagia Sofia Museum. Hagia Eirene Church (Hagia Eirene Museum) is located in the gardens of Topkapı Palace. The building is built in the 4th century by Constantinius and rebuilt after a fire in the 6th century by Iustinianos. The first floor of the building is a basilica; the second floor is domed-crossed type. Hagia Eirene (Hagia Eirene Museum) is the only example of the Byzantion church with an antrium in Istanbul. In the 15th century during the Ottoman Era the building was an active church. Later on it was used as military store and later as military museum. Nowadays the building serves as concert hall and museum. Atik Mustafa Pasa Mosque is located in Ayvansaray. Neither the original name nor the founder of this building is known. The date of construction has not been determined yet, but Eyice suggested this building to be the 9th century built Saint Thekla Church. The plan of the church is a simple form of domed-crossed type. The church was converted into mosque in the 16th century and is still used as a mosque. The Church of the Monastry of Myrelaion (Bodrum Mosque) is located in Laleli and is erected in the 10th century by Romanos Lekapenos. The plan of the building is cross-in-square type and it has a substructure to be on the same level of the monastery. The church is converted into a mosque at the very beginning of the 16th century and is still in use as a mosque. There is a rotunda next to the building used as a cistern of the monastery during the Byzantine Era. Today it is a small shopping area. The Church of the Monastry of Pantepoptes (Eski Imaret Mosque) is located in Zeyrek and built in the 11th century. The plan of the church is cross-in-square type. It has been converted into a mosque in the 15th century and still functions as a mosque. The Church of the Monastry of Lips (Fenari Isa Mosque) is located on Vatan Boulevard and is under the pressure of the huge boulevard. It consists of three main buildings built on different times. The North Church is built at the beginning of the 10th century with a cross-in-square type plan, whereas the South Church is constructed in the 13th century with an ambulatory plan. In the 14th century, an exonarthex running along the west and south walls of the two churches is added to the complex. The church was converted into a mosque in the 15th century and is still in use as a mosque. The building is under restoration at the present day. The Church of the Monastery of Pammakaristos (Fethiye Mosque and Museum) is located in Carsamba and consists of two parts. The main church is built at the beginning of the 13th century with an ambulatory plan. A parekklesion with cross-in-square type plan was added to the building in the 13th century. In the 14th century a perambulatory was constructed and it is surrounding the church from three sides. The church remained as the seat of the Patriarchate until it was converted into a mosque in 1587. The main church is in use as a mosque and the parekklesion is serving as a museum at the present day. The Church of Saint Theodosia (Gul Mosque) is located in Ayakapi and dated to 10-11th century based on the recessed brick technique. The building has a cross-in-square type plan. At the end of the 15th century, the church was converted into a mosque and still functions as a mosque. Hirami Ahmet Pasa Mescidi is located in Carsamba. Neither the original name nor the founder of this building is known. The date of construction has not been determined yet but the date of construction is thought to be in the 12th century. This small church has a cross-in-square type plan. At the end of the 16th century, the church was converted into a mosque and is still in use as a mosque. The Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa (Kalenderhane Mosque) is located in Vezneciler next to the Aqueduct of Valens. The church is constructed at the beginning of the 13th century over the remains of four different buildings dated to different periods. The building has a cross-in-square type plan. It was converted into a mosque in the 15th century and is still in use as a mosque. The Church of Monastry of Chora (Chora Museum) is located in Edirnekapi. The first phase of the building has a ciborium plan type and is dated to the 11th century. In the 12th century, the east part of the building and the dome was changed and a parekklesion was added to the south side. In the 13th century, the dome was rebuilt and an inner narthex, an exonarthex and a two-store north wing was added to the building. The church was converted into a mosque at the beginning of the 16th century and has served as a museum in the Republican Era. The building is under restoration at the present day. Kefeli Mescidi is located in Karagumruk and is dated to the 9th century. Neither the original name nor the founder of this building is known. The original building had a triple-nave plan apse oriented to north-south direction; therefore, it is also possible that the building was not constructed as a church. Today the building consists of one large hall (nave) without a dome. It was converted into a mosque in the 17th century and is still in use as a mosque. The Church of the Monastry of Saint Andrew in Krisei (Koca Mustafa Pasa Camii) is located in Kocamustafa Pasa and is dated to the 13th century. The church was built with an ambulatory plan on the remains of the old church (6th century) which was destroyed during the Latin Occupation. It was converted into a mosque in the 15th century and is still in use as a mosque. The church has lost a lot from its character during the conversion. The building is under restoration at the present day. Church of the Saints Sergius and Bacchus (Kucuk Ayasofya Mosque) is located in Kadirga and is dated to the 6th century. It is considered the most important central dome planed building of the Early Byzantine Period. The church was converted into a mosque at the beginning of the 16th century and is still in use as a mosque. Manastir Mescidi is located in Pazartekke on the Millet Boulevard. Neither the original name nor the founder of this building is known and the date of construction has not been determined yet. The church has a simple plan with one nave and one narthex. It was converted into a mosque in the 15th century and is still in use as a mosque. The Church of Panagia Muhliotissa (Church of Saint Mary of the Mongols – Meryem Ana Church) is located in Fener. The original building was built in the 13th century and many additions such as narthex and outer cells were made in the 14th century. Although the church has never been converted into a mosque, the building has been modified heavily during the time. The church originally has a tetraconch plan with a central dome. The southern half dome and the southern bay of the building was demolished and was replaced by three aisles. The building is still in use as a church. Vefa Kilise Mosque is located in Vefa and is dated to 11-12th centuries. Neither the original name nor the founder of this building is known. The church has a cross-in-square plan with an exonarthex added in the 13th century after the Latin Occupation. It has been converted into a mosque in the 15th century and is still in use as a mosque. The Church of Monastry of Pantakrotor (Zeyrek Mosque) is located in Zeyrek and is dated to the 12th century. It consists of the South Church, North Church, the burial chapel and the exonarthex on the south side of the building. Both of the churches have cross-in-square plans with seven sided polygonal apses. The building was converted into a mosque in the 15th century and is still used as a mosque. The building is under restoration at the present day. It is significant to understand the needs of old monuments and their users. Preserving and conserving them is the only way their knowledge to be passed to the next generations. The aim of this work is to determine the change of the Byzantine churches done on the last century based on visual sources and in such a way to create a source for the future studies. In conclusion, a committee of experts from different disciplines specialized in Byzantine monuments should be established and it should consider the monuments of the Byzantine Era as a whole. These buildings should be restored taking user needs into consideration. The ongoing maintenance and the repairs of the subject buildings should also be under the control and the guarantee of that committee. Building up consciousness for the historic significance of these monuments and the basic principles of preserving cultural heritage among the users of the buildings will create awareness, which from its side will help correctly to transfer the knowledge to the future generations.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2016|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2016
|Appears in Collections:||Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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