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|Title:||Mimari Tasarımda Bedensel Farkındalık: Bir Arayüz Olarak Dans|
|Other Titles:||Bodily Awareness In Architectural Design: Dance As An Interface|
|Authors:||Çebi, Pelin Dursun|
Birsöz, Şadiye Betül Ay
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science And Technology
|Abstract:||Mimarlığın öznesi olarak beden, mekanın kavranmasında en önemli unsurdur. Bu nedenle de mekansal verilerin keşfedilmesindeki yolun bedensel farkındalığın geliştirilmesinden geçtiği düşünülmektedir. Çalışmanın amacı, mekanın potansiyellerini, olası farklı açılımlarını ve sınırlarını, beden yoluyla sorgulamak ve mimari tasarımda bedensel farkındalığı arttırmaktır. Beden ve mekan ilişkisinde dans disiplini bir ara yüz olarak ele alınıp, dansçı, koreograf ve mimarların bu alandaki edindiği deneyim ve birikimlerinden faydalanılarak, mimari tasarımda bedenin ele alınışına ışık tutacak bir çalışma oluşturulması hedeflenmektedir. Çalışma üç ana başlıkta toplanmıştır. Öncelikle beden ve mekan ilişkisi genel hatlarıyla ele alınacaktır. Mimarlık genellikle mekan ile, dans ise beden ile ilişkilendirilir. Çalışma kapsamında bu alışılagelmiş durumun dışına çıkılarak, beden mimarlık, mekan ise dans disiplini bağlamında değerlendirilecektir. Mimarlıkta bedenin dansta ise mekanın ele alınışı, tarihsel süreç içerisinde incelenecek ve günümüze gelene kadar olan değişimleri irdelenecektir. Sonraki aşamada, beden ve mekan ilişkisinden yola çıkarak, mimarlık ve koreografi ele alınacaktır. Mimarlık ve koreografi birbiri ile benzerlikler taşımaktadır. Aynı zamanda bir araya geldiklerinde yeni bir oluşum yaratmaktadırlar. Bu ilişkiler iki başlıkta yorumlanmıştır. Bedenin hareketiyle var olup mimari bir forma dönüşen mekansal denemeler, mimari beden başlığı altında yer alacaktır. Koreografinin günümüzde vücut bulduğu yeni form ise, koreografik mekan başlığı altında örneklerle açıklanacaktır. Koreografik mekan başlığı altında bedeni harekete geçiren mekanlara dair çalışmalar ele alınacaktır. Son olarak da beden ve mekan ilişkilerine değinen çalışmaları olan koreograf William Forsythe ve işleri üzerinden bir okuma yapılacaktır. Forsythe, özellikle amatör bedenler ile yaptığı çalışmalarda bedenlerin mekanı kavrayışını gözlemlemiştir. Koreografik verileri, beden ile etkileşim içinde bir mekan söylemi yaratmakta kullanmıştır. Bu nedenle onun çalışmalarının tez kapsamında faydalı olacağına inanılmaktadır. Beden, hem mimarlık hem dans disiplini için temel girdi niteliğinde vazgeçilmez bir unsurdur. Bu nedenle her iki disiplinde, beden odaklı çalışmaların birçok noktada kesişmesi ve ortaklaşması olağandır. Çalışmada bu ortaklaşmadan faydalanarak, mekanı biçimlendiren ve dönüştüren bir etken olarak bedenin irdelenmesi, böylece mimarlıkta bedensel ve mekansal farkındalığın arttırılması hedeflenmektedir.|
Body, as a subject of architecture, is the most important factor for understanding the space. Therefore, the way that explore the potential of space, is about developing the bodily awareness. The aim of the study to search for the potentials of the space and it’s possible different expansions and borders that are shaped by the body and enhance bodily awareness in architectural design. The main motivation of this study is the necessity of examining the knowledge about body interactions that show possibilities for movement, spatial flow and interaction from the choreographer’s design point of view. By concentrating on body - space relationship, the dance discipline is considered as a research interface. Dance and architecture both experience the body first. They are also experienced by the body. Ideally, the limitations and boundaries of the human body are important fields of interest for the professionals in dance discipline. Based on the experiences of dancers, choreographers and architects, it is aimed to develop new approaches to deal with the concept of body in architectural design. The study consists of three main topics. First, the relation of body and space will be considered in general terms. As a common approach, architecture is related to space whereas dance is identified with the body. Apart from this conventional approach, body and space will be examined in the frame of architecture and dance discipline, respectively. The relations will be studied in a historical process and the changes and variations that took place till today will be examined comprehensively. This section will be primaliry concerned with the body of architecture. The situation of the body in the realm of architecture will be dissected begining from the antique period to modern-day. The body acts as a guide in traditional cultures, similar in the way of a bird that forms its nest by using its body movements. Therefore, an unbreakable relationship is existant between body and architecture. Still, it is observed that this relationship has changed during the history. For example, the architectural structures of antique Greece and Rome were formed by the one-to-one reflection of the bodily physical ratios on to the architectural design. With the arrival of the renaissance, the body-space relationship began to be re-questioned. The work of Vitruvius in 25 b.c. inspired Leonardo Da Vinci and enabled him to create his Vitruvius. But since drawing circles and squares around a human figure as Da Vinci did, or projecting the form of the body on structures in a grid system as in the Renaissance era, does not reflect bodily movements, workings were developed in the 20th century which focus on perception and senses. It was advocated that the body represents more than just an object, a tool or an instrument. As a result, the history of the body within the architecture prevailed up until modern-days with several definions like object and subject, matter and soul. Be it nature’s wonder, the human body which Vitrivius blessed or the concept of the living body existing with its senses and xiii perception, the body is a character which with all of its components, inspires architecture and has its place withing the architectural discourse. The second of topic of the section is the space of dance. The changing spaces of the dance discipline during the historic process will be dissected under the topic of the space of dance. Dance is known the very first language which humans used to express themselves before the invention of the verbal language and writing. Dance was exhibited in the theater buildings of antique Greece and Rome and found its place in the temples of Egypt. In contrast, folk dances changed according to the geographical and habitual characteristics of societies but always existed in public places like streets and squares. On the other hand, the art of ballet which was born in Italy was firstly prevalent in the courts and big halls and afterwards showed itself in theater performances. The space of dance drifted back and forth for years between the public and private space. As for the space of modern dance, it experienced being existent within the body itself, beyond these private and public borders. As a result, the space of dance performances was created within bodily borders and in the light of the created information by these borders. Thus, it is believed that the interaction of architecture and dance contain the experiences and achievement’s to feed each other. In the next step, relation between architecture and choreography will be taken into consideration on the basis of the similarities of body and space. The design of a choreography starts on paper, and then moves to the body and creates the dance performance. The initial steps for dance are designed on paper exactly like architecture. Architecture no longer consists of just making buildings, and dance no longer consists of just making dance. Dance and Architecture have much in common. Both are concerned with practices of space. This relationship will be explained under different examples of architectural body and choreographic space. Firstly, the way environmntal factors like body and costume, decoration, space, music, sound etc. are related to each other in dance or the interactive experimental performances is being expressed under the topic of the architectural body. This interaction creates the observation of the architecture. In this context, the definition of this concept by means of several contemporary works is intented. In the second topic, the choreographic space, a concept of space which effects the movement of the body and puts it in motion and therefore contains, embraces and consists the body or owns it, will be handled under the topic of the architectural body. In these two sections consisting experimental works it is intended to show illustrately how the body and space can create each other. At the end, choreographer William Forsythe and his studies will be read. Forsythe examines thoroughly the relation between the body and the movement. He appears to be a challenger who acts against the known dance principles. His dance departs from a philosophical basis rather than from an artistic one. Defects and faults of the performance are welcome in his dance. Some of his studies, Forsythe, observes the relationship of body and space by organising ametuer bodies. He uses his choreographic knowledge to create a concept of space which is in interaction with the body. In this case, his studies are helpful for this thesis. Forsythe investigates not only classical ballet, but also the possibilities of spatial inscription from the perspective of Rudolf von Laban. Rudolph von Laban, a dance theorist from Switzerland, represented the movements of the human body in space with a solid object called icosahedron. This three dimensional geometrical solid object depicts the limits of the extended human body which has twenty-seven points in space and spins with motion. According to Forsythe, motion can be formed out of the center of any part of the body. This shows that, instead of discoursing about a single movement map belonging to a single body, xiv multiple maps can be existent. In the same way, instead of feeding from a single body form and size a more diversified and improved movement-space composition could be possible in the architecture. In other respects, our built environment is greatly interested in the body movement around it, like choreography. But the fact remains that architectural spaces deal more with permanence and stability, rather than with dynamics and movement, historically. A definition called performative architecture, which extends beyond this strict attitude of architecture, can possibly be mentioned. One of the most important elements is the event notion. The “event” notion which Tschumi brought into architecture, was born out of the contextual changes which arose, beginning from the 1960’s, from the increase of inter-disciplinary relationships and the advancement of technology. The “event” notion, which is originating from Gilles Deleuze’s discourse, is being explained by existential philosophy according to which the reality is in a state of flow or differentiation. In the other hand, “event” is directly related to the body and space relationship. For example, in his “Manhattan Transcripts” project, Tschumi is suggesting a relationship between space and body which is flexible and open to re-interpretation by the user. It is thought that the examples demonstrated in this work can be associated with notion of performative architecture. Body is a key concept both in architecture and dance discipline. The study aims to answer the following question: “How can bodily awareness be enhanced in architectural design?” Thus, crossing of the studies in different points in both disciplines, the aim is to examine the note of the body in the process of shaping and transforming the space. By this way it is intended to enhance both spatial and bodily awareness in architectural design. As a result, the boundaries of body and space will be searched for within the dance discipline from the perspective of an architect. The meaning of choreography in the context of body and space will be researched as an important acquisition in this process. The expression of the connection established between choreography and architecture within this context will be attempted. In the scope of the study, the aim is to shape as examining the body as a factor which forms and transforms place; thereby, increasing the bodily and spatial awareness.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2015
|Appears in Collections:||Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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