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|Title:||Stoudıos Manastır Kompleksi–ıoannes Prodromos Kilisesi (imrahor İlyas Bey Camii - İmrahor Anıtı) Koruma Projesi Ve Önerileri|
|Other Titles:||Conservation Proposals For The Ioannes Prodromos Church Of The Stoudios Monastery (imrahor Ilyas Bey Mosque – Imrahor Monument)|
|Authors:||Ahunbay, Ayşe Zeynep|
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science And Technology
|Abstract:||Fatih’te, Yedikule’nin Altın Kapı’ya yakın bir noktasında yer alan Stoudios Manastırı’na bağlı Ioannes Prodromos Kilisesi (diğer adlarıyla İmrahor İlyas Bey Camii – İmrahor Anıtı), İstanbul’un günümüze ulaşan en eski kilisesidir. Beşinci yüzyılda inşa edilen kilise, Bizans dönemi boyunca işlevini sürdürmüştür. Osmanlı döneminde, 1486 yılında, II. Bayezid’in mîr-ahûru İlyas Bey tarafından camiye dönüştürülen yapı, 20. yüzyılın ilk yıllarına kadar cami olarak kullanılmıştır. Geçirdiği yangınlar sonucunda 1920’de çatının tamamen yok olmasının ardından yapı kullanılamaz hale gelmiş; bir süre narteks mescit olarak kullanılmaya devam etmiştir. İmrahor İlyas Bey Camii, Cumhuriyet döneminde, 1946 yılında müzeye çevrilmiş ve “İmrahor Anıtı” adıyla Ayasofya Müzesi Müdürlüğü’ne bağlanmıştır. Anıt, 2012 yılında yapılan bir değişiklikle Başbakanlık Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü’ne devredilmiştir. Anıtın serpantin breşinden yapılmış sütunları, Marmara mermerinden yapılmış sütun kaideleri, başlıkları, arşitrav ve kornişleri ile diğer taş mimari öğeleri, 5. yüzyılın taş işleme sanatını yansıtan ender örnekler arasında yer almaktadır. Yapıya 11. yüzyılın ortasında eklenen, naosun opus sectile döşemesi, Komnenos döneminden günümüze ulaşan az sayıdaki döşemeden biridir; orta Bizans döneminin nitelikli işçiliğini ve bu dönemde kiliseye verilen önemi göstermektedir. Anıt, özellikle 1894 depremi ve 1908-1920 arasındaki yangınlardan önemli ölçüde hasar görmüş ve çatısı yok olmuştur. Uzun yıllar üstü tamamen açık ve her türlü bozulma etkisine maruz kalan anıtın güncel koruma sorunlarının başında, bakımsızlık gelmektedir. Anıtın eşi ender bulunan opus sectile döşemesi, ciddi derecede hasar görmüştür. Anıtın günümüzdeki harap durumu, 2011 yılında İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi Restorasyon Programı kapsamında, ayrıntılı bir araştırma ve mimari belgelemenin ardından, kısa ve uzun vadeli koruma yaklaşımlarının belirlenmesine yönelik bir doktora çalışmasının başlatılmasına yol açmıştır. Anıt, 5. yüzyıldan günümüze ulaşan, mimarlık ve sanat tarihine ışık tutan özellikleri ve taşıdığı belge değeri nedeniyle, kapsamlı ve bütüncül bir koruma yaklaşımını gerektirmektedir. Tez kapsamında; eserin bugüne ulaşan durumu kayıt altına alınmış, mimari belgeleme – araştırma – analiz işlemleri gerçekleştirilmiş, restitüsyon sorunları tartışılmış, kısa ve uzun vadeli koruma stratejileri geliştirilerek koruma önerileri sunulmuştur. Böylece, esere ilişkin koruma amaçlı uygulamalara yol gösterecek bilgi ve verileri içeren bilimsel bir belge üretilmiştir.|
The Ioannes Prodromos Church of the Stoudios Monastery (Imrahor Ilyas Bey Mosque – Imrahor Monument) which is located at Yedikule, near the Golden Gate of the Theodosian Wall, is the oldest church extant in Istanbul. It was constructed in mid-5th century and was in use as a monastery church through the Byzantine era. Basilical form was preferred for building churches in early Byzantine period due to its architectural features. Ioannes Prodromos Church of the Stoudios Monastery is one of the earliest basilicas surviving from the early Christian period. The basilica constitutes of a three aisled naos ending with a semi-circular apsid on the east and has a rectangular narthex on the west. Its gallery and roof have disappeared, but the main walls reflecting the construction techniques of its long history are still standing. The church had beautiful serpentine columns; the bases, capitals and entablature were carved out of Proconnesian marble. The high quality work of the opus sectile floor of the naos, which was added to the church in mid-11th century, shows the importance of the church for the Byzantine society. It is one of the few floors representative of the Comnenian period. Under the Ottoman rule, the church was used as a mosque and convent. In 1486, the chief of the imperial stable of Sultan Bayezid II converted the church into a mosque which served the muslim population in the neighborhood until early 20th century. The monument was affected by the earthquake in 1894 and several fires occurred between 1908-1920 leading to the collapse of the roof. In the Republican Period, the ruined monument became a museum and it was attached to the Directorate of Hagia Sophia Museum under the Ministry of Culture and Tourism in 1946. Recently, the monument was returned to the General Directorate of Waqf. Being one of the significant monuments from early Byzantine period, the Stoudios Basilica deserves utmost care for its preservation. Today, especially the magnificent opus sectile floor of the nave and the historical remains of the monument are under threat. The current conservation state of the monument led to a professional and scientific study including the architectural documentation and conservation proposals. In an attempt to improve the state of conservation of the monument, a project was initiated at Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Architectural Restoration Department as part of a doctoral dissertation in 2011. The thesis aimed to develop the architectural documents and scientific data which are essential for conservation works. The documentation including the survey, reconstitution and conservation projects, analytical work and proposals covering the urgent implementations and long-term strategies were taken up within the context of this dissertation. The architectural documentation of the recent state of the monument was started while the research was going on. Both conventional and instrumental measuring techniques were used for the survey and detailed architectural drawings were produced. Material characterization which is necessary for the classification of building materials requires a multidisciplinary work. A project was submitted to the Scientific Research Projects Unit of Istanbul Technical University, to accomplish this work with the help of a professional conservation laboratory. After the project was approved by ITU for financial support, the material characterization and conservation proposals were demanded from the Restoration and Conservation Laboratories of KUDEB (Directorate for the Inspection of Conservation Implementations) of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality which has a conservation department. Samples including various kinds of mortar, plaster, stone, wood, paint and dust were taken from the monument, analyzed and classified according to their types and/or contents. The analytical study consisted of a wide range of tests including physical, chemical, microscobic, petrographic, mechanical and high instrumental analyses such as HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) and SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscopy – Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). After the evaluation of the results, appropriate materials and implementation techniques for conservation were proposed. The scientific report was prepared by the multidisciplinary team of KUDEB and approved by the academic consultants of the laboratory from Istanbul University and Istanbul Technical University. The report includes the proposals for conservation of materials. As part of the architectural documentation, the types of the building materials were mapped on survey drawings. After the material analysis, a chronological examination and analysis were made, based on the observations and the historical data obtained from the material characterization work. Six periods were identified: early, middle and late Byzantine, classical and late Ottoman and Republican periods. The analytical survey was followed by the pathological analysis; deterioration patterns were identified and mapped. During its long life, the monument was affected by several natural and man-made disasters such as earthquakes, fires, environmental factors and absence of a protective roof. The collapse of the roof started in 1908 and ended up in 1920, leading to the desertion of the monument. Being exposed to the elements, the rate of the erosion accelerated. Material and structural damages such as cracks, deflection, surface losses, formation of cavities, staining, powdering and encrustation on stone surfaces, corrosion of metal elements, biological decay, vegetation growth and improper interventions were identified and mapped on survey drawings. The multi-layered and heterogeneous fabric of the monument was studied for chronological analyis. The original form and usage had been changed. The atrium, floors of the naos and side naves, door and window openings, bema, apse, spatial relationship between naos and side naves, arrangement of columns, the gallery, interior cladding and roof covering had been modified and transformed in the course of centuries. The changes were evaluated with the help of historical and visual documents found in the archives, old photographs, engravings and drawings. Analogical research was conducted to find parallels for the missing architectural elements and details. Some churches from early Christian period such as Acheiropoietos in Thessaloniki, Koimesis in Nicaea, Extra Muros in Philippi and Basilica near the Topkapı Palace were studied for spatial arrangement and architectural details. Results of documentation and observations indicate the urgency to develop a comprehensive conservation project for the stability and presentation of the sensitive structure. The restoration and conservation approach which was determined depending on the principles and guidelines includes authenticity, sustainability of the ‘multi-layered’ character of the monument, reversible interventions, regular maintenance and monitoring. The conservation proposals were specified as cleaning, conservation of the opus sectile floor, consolidation, structural strengthening and monitoring. Materials and intervention techniques to be used during the conservation process were defined according to the report prepared by the Restoration and Conservation Laboratories of KUDEB. The role and importance of a scientific committee of advisors were underlined to prevent the monument from improper interventions. Starting from the research step up to the monitoring phase, the whole conservation process of the monument requires a scientific, multidisciplinary and integrated approach to be handled within the frame of an inclusive protection and management plan of the surrounding area.
|Description:||Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015|
Thesis (PhD) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2015
|Appears in Collections:||Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora|
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