Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/13947
Title: Türk İnşaat Sektöründe Ana Yüklenici Ve Alt Yüklenici İlişkilerinin İncelenmesi
Other Titles: A Study About Relationship Between Main Contractors And Subcontractors In Turkish Construction Industry
Authors: Tatar, Gül Polat
Göktepe, Enis Murat
10039082
İnşaat Mühendisliği
Civil Engineering
Keywords: Ana Yüklenici
Alt Yüklenici
Yapı İşletmesi
Main Contractor
Subcontractor
Construction Management
Issue Date: 9-Jun-2014
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: İnşaat sektörü yapı itibariyle alt yüklenici kullanmayı zorunlu kılar. Talebin süreksiz olması, risk yüksekliği, belirsizlik gibi özellikleri bir arada tutmakta olan bu sektörde ana yüklenici firmaların sürekli çalışan istihdam etmesi, her makine ve ekipmana sahip olması beklenemez. Ana yüklenici firma, alt yüklenicinin yaptığı üretimden para kazanır ve iş planına uymayan, kalitesiz üretim yapan bir alt yüklenici ana yüklenici firmayı zor durumda bırakır. Aynı zamanda ödemeleri sorunlu, gereksiz maliyet artışına sebebiyet veren ana yükleniciler de alt yükleniciyi zor durumda bırakır. Bu sorunları çözmede ki en uygun yol uzun süreli güvene dayalı ilişkilerdir. Bu çalışmada Türk inşaat sektöründe ana yüklenici ve alt yüklenici ilişkileri, alt yüklenici gözünden incelenmiştir. Yetmiş dört alt yüklenici firma ile yapılan görüşmeler sonucu toplanan anket verileri ile bu tez beş bölümden oluşturulmuştur. Birinci bölümde genel bilgilendirme yapılmış, Türkiye için inşaat sektörünün öneminden bahsedilmiş, çalışmanın amacı ve kısıtları belirtilmiştir. İkinci bölümde, inşaat sektörünün özellikleri ortaya konulmuştur. İnşaat sektöründe ana yüklenicilik, alt yüklenicilik kavramları tartışılmış, alt yüklenicinin seçilmesi ve sorumlulukları hakkında bilgiler sunulmuştur. Ana yüklenici ile alt yüklenicinin iş ilişkilerinin başlayıp bitme süreci incelenmiş, literatür araştırması ve işin uzmanlarıyla yapılan görüşmelerden, ana yüklenici tarafından, alt yüklenici tarafından, işveren tarafından, dizayn veya danışmanlık ofisi tarafından, dış etkenler tarafından kaynaklanan sorunlar listelenmiş ve öne çıkanlardan  bahsedilmiştir.  Üçüncü bölümde anket çalışmasının hazırlanışı, uygulanış yöntemi, güvenilirliği ve toplanan verilerin değerlendirme yöntemi hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde anket çalışmasının sonuçları değerlendirilmiştir. Kişi ve şirketler hakkında bilgiler özetlenmiş, aynı ana yükleniciyle devamlı çalışılmasının fayda ve zararları tartışılmıştır. Ana yüklenici ile alt yüklenici arasında genel olarak sorun çıkabilecek konuların sıklığı incelenmiş, alt yüklenicilere göre alt yüklenici olarak tercih edilme sebepleri belirlenmiştir. Belirli ana yüklenici davranışlarıyla alt yüklenicilerin karşılaşma sıklıkları ve ana yüklenici tarafından alt yüklenicilerin karşılarına çıkarılan zorlukların alt yüklenicilere göre önem dereceleri bu bölümde yer almıştır. Beşinci bölümde araştırmanın sonuçları özetlenmiş, gerekli yorumlar yapılmış ve tavsiyelerde bulunulmuştur. Anket çalışması göstermektedir ki ana yükleniciler genellikle aynı alt yükleniciler ile çalışmaya meyillidirler. Karşılıklı güven de zaman ile artmaktadır. Kendi alanında başarılı olmak isteyen alt yükleniciler, ana yükleniciler ile ilişkilerini iyi tutmalı, çalışma disiplinleri ve yaptıkları kaliteli üretim ile kendilerini ön plana çıkarmalıdırlar. Ancak bu şekilde varlıklarını koruyabilir ve başarılı olabilirler. Alt yüklenicilerin, ana yüklenicilere iş yaptıkları süreler arttıkça, aynı takımda olma duygusunun arttığı gözlenmektedir. Uzun süreli iş ilişkisi oluşan ana yüklenici ve alt yüklenicilerde üretim kalitesinde memnuniyet ve iletişim oldukça artmaktadır. Ana yükleniciler de işbirliği yapabilecekleri firmalar ile birlikte çalışmayı tercih ederler. Güçlü bağlar uzun süreli ilişkilerin değerini arttırır ve iletişimi kolaylaştırır.  Ana yükleniciler çalışma yapacakları alt yüklenicileri çok iyi seçmeli ve bu alt yüklenici firmaları değiştirmemeye özen gösterip uzun vadeli bir iş ilişkisi kurmaya çaba göstermelidirler. Ana yüklenici firmalar da bu birlikteliği bir çeşit ortaklık olarak görmeli, alt yüklenicilerin maliyetlerini gereksiz yere arttırmamalı ve sorumlu olduğu ödemeleri zamanında yapmalıdırlar.
Like every industry, construction industry's purpose is to make the best quality production with the least cost whitin the shortest time. Construction industry has similarities with the production industry in some ways, but also differs in many ways.  Construction industry plays an important role for the developing countries like Turkey. The volume of this sector increases rapidly in Turkey despite the world economic difficulties such as monetary policy of the United States that plans to stop printing money and investing it in the developing countries to decrease the volume of the dollar in the market and the recession in Europe economy. Due to the structure and characteristics of the construction sector, subcontractors are the backbone of the industry. Because of the causes like discontinious demand, high risk, obscurity etc., it is imposible for the main contractor to employ all the workers permanently and to own every kind of machine and equipment. Main contractors want to decrease the general costs, investment costs, equipment costs, education costs of the working employees etc. which leads decreasing the construction costs by using subcontractors. Subcontractors may be seen as a resource (employees etc.) pool for employers. They are like some kind of human resource departments of the construction industry. Subcontracting firms are mostly micro-sized and almost none of them are inherited from the previous generation in Turkey. Almost all of the subcontractor firms in Turkey are boss-based and getting shut down when the boss stops working individually. These characteristics shapens the structure of subcontracting generally and gives position to the subcontractor firms as small teams with their team leader which are the owner of the subcontractor company. Because this structure is much far from being corporate, the behaviors of the subcontracting firms to certain situations are more humanistic and sometimes emotional. Aim of this research is to make an assumption with the data gathered by subcontractors about the relationship between main contractors and subcontractos in Turkey and to make suggestions to improve this relationship for profit, quality increase and time optimisation. The purpose of this study is to make a conclusion about industry itself by the subcontractors view. In  this study the problems are listed first by the literature research and the interviews with the experts of the industry. These problems are listed as problems caused by subcontractors, problems caused by the owner, problems caused by the consulting office and problems caused by the external factors. All these potential problems are examined and some are chosen and adapted as the problems caused by main contractors in Turkish construction industry. The problems are generally based on the problems caused by main contractors such as delay in contract progress payments, lack of construction quality, delay in shop drawings,  non-adherence to the conditions of the contract, delay of the works behind the time schedule, delay in providing the information like drawings etc.. According to these problems, a questionnaire is prepared and 74 subcontractor employers and employees are interviewed.  According to the Slovin Formula, the reliability of this survey is 88.4%. To get accurate results, quota sampling method is used and 74 questionnaires are collected from 142 questionnaires that are distributed  with e-mail and site visitings. 18 questionnaires are collected by e-mail and 56 questionnaires are collected by the site visits which are filled face to face.  Main contractors do not want to work with a subcontractor that doesnt care about the work and time schedule or with a subcontractor that is producing with low quality workmanship which causes low quality productions. At the same time no subcontractor wants to work with a main contractor that doesnt make progress payments on time or with a main contractor which increases the subcontractors costs with bad decisions. The best way to dispel this kind of problems is to make a long-term main contractor and subcontractor relations that are based on trust. In the first part of this thesis study, general informations about the role of construction in Turkey are given. The restrictions, subject and purpose are also explained. The properties of the construction sector are told in the second part. The size of the companies according to European Union and Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology in Turkey are written. Definition of the main contractor and the subcontractor is made. General methods of choosing a subcontractor and responsibilities of the subcontractor is discussed. The start, ongoing, ending of the relationship between main contractor and subcontractor in a regular project as the phase of choosing the subcontractor, signing the contract phase, production and control phase, pre-payment, progress payments, definite progress payment phases are examined. With literature research and the interviews with the experts of the industry, main problems that may occur between main contractors and subcontractors are listed. These problems are seperated in their own section as the construction industry problems that are caused by the main contractors, construction industry problems that are caused by the subcontractors, construction industry problems that are caused by the owner, construction industry problems that are caused by the consulting office and construction industry problems that are caused by the external factors are figured out.  Furthermore, a questionnaire is prepared based on the problems gathered from the literature and interviews with the experts of the industry. The problems are modified according to social and economical conditions of Turkey for the purpose to gather information from subcontractor firms only. Subcontractors view is the main purpose and aspect of this thesis work.  In the third part, information is given about the preparation of the questionnaire, the way of the practice, the realibility of the study and the evaluation method of the data collected. The rankings, statistical analysis, results and major findings are found and discussed in the fourth part of this study. Personal and company informations of the participants of the study are summarized. The longtivity of working with the same main contractor of the participants is given  in this part. Benefits of working with the same main contractor in long term is discussed. The rate of the general possible problems that can occur between main contractor and subcontractor is found out and according to subcontractors, reasons of being chosen as subcontractors are listed. Rate of encountering with the specific main contractor behaviours and importance of the specific problems for the subcontractors caused by the main contractor is discussed. The collected datas are shown with tables, graphs, percentile diagrams and charts. Comparisons and evaluations are made according to these results about the respondents and their companies. In the fifth part, the results are summarized, more comments are made about the results comparing with the literature and made advices to improve the relationship between main contractors and subcontractors. The study shows that, main contractors are tend to work with the same subcontractors. The trust between the main contractor and subcontractor increases through time. The subcontractors which want to be successful in their own field should work with discipline and should have an attitude for trying to increase their work quality over time. That is an important issue for subcontractors if they want to keep their existence in the business. The feeling of becoming a team increases between subcontractors and main contractors when the time of two firms working together increases. The long relationship between the main contractor and subcontractor shows increasing of work quality satisfaction and communication. Main contractors prefer to work with the companies which they can cooperate easily. Strong bonds increase the value of the long term relations and makes the communication easier between. Main contractors should choose the subcontractors that they will work together very carefully and try not to replace them often. They also should see this work relation as some kind of partnership and should not increase the cost of the work of subcontractors unexpectedly and should make all kind of payments, especially progress payments,  they are supposed to do  on time.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2014
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Instıtute of Science and Technology, 2014
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/13947
Appears in Collections:İnşaat Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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