LEE- Deniz Ulaştırma Mühendisliği-Doktora
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ÖgeLack of Arctic and Antarctic issues in international code for ships operating in polar waters (polar code) and suggesting positive improvements(Graduate School, 2021-05-20) Karahalil, Meriç ; Özsoy, Burcu ; 512162006 ; Maritime Transportation Engineering ; Deniz Ulaştırma MühendisliğiThe effects of industrial activities have reached global dimensions over the last century. Global climate change triggered as a result of industrialization which has brought many global issues. Currently, the consequences of global climate change are observed dramatically in the polar regions. As a result, the Arctic has become more important in geopolitical and geoeconomic terms with the melting of ice and disappearance to a large extent. As the sea ice coverage has been decreasing, the number of maritime activities such as tourism, fishing, and maritime transportation increased in the Arctic Ocean. On the other hand, the Antarctic is currently subject to scientific research and activities like fishing and tourism, which increase over time as well. While the polar environment's harshness presents significant risks to the ships, maritime activities also threaten the sensitivity of polar ecosystems and marine wildlife and habitats' vulnerability. The lack of accurate charts and marine infrastructure, the harshness of the environment, the limitations of radio and satellite communications to monitor and control ship movements in polar waters are the main challenges of operations in polar regions. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) aimed to legalize Polar Regions' shipping measures, and the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code) came into force, but there are question marks if Polar Code provides significant protection. This thesis consists of three articles on lack of Arctic and Antarctic issues in Polar Code. First one suggests the extention of the Polar Code application areas in the Arctic. While maritime activities are increasing in the Arctic, little attention is being paid to some of the northernmost regions that are greatly influenced by the Arctic climate and are excluded from the Polar Code. The marine boundaries of the Arctic region have been defined differently by the Arctic Council Working Groups based on physical, geographical, and ecological characteristics. However, the boundaries of the Polar Code are not compatible with any of them. In the first article, the extent of sea ice change and the maritime traffic in the high north and also maritime safety in the frame of the application of the Polar Code boundaries in the Arctic analyzed and extention of the Polar Code application areas in the Arctic suggested. In the second article, Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extent change, arisen maritime safety and security issues and legal instruments relevant to the scope are evaluated. It is considered that some significant differences regarding sea ice in the content of Polar Code is not evaluated. The main contribution of this paper is the assessment of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice condition differences via remote sensing data analyzes in the scope of the Polar Code. Third paper, which evaluates the Polar Code within the survey scope conducted with the people who have sailed in these regions and make suggestions to develop the Polar Code further. The original value of this study to the literature is that it draws attention to the differences between Arctic and Antarctic and points out the deficiencies in Polar Code and suggests its further development. Additionally, it provides data regarding sea ice changes and maritime activities trends in polar regions and supported by the opinions of the people who are working in those regions according to the survey evaluations.