Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/1977
Title: Altı Sigma Kritik Başarı Faktörlerinin Etkinliğinin Kalite Fonksiyon Göçerimi Yöntemiyle Değerlendirilmesi
Other Titles: An Assessment Of The Effectiveness Of The Six Sigma Critical Success Factors Using Quality Function Deployment Method
Authors: Gözlü, Sıtkı
Günaydın, Bilge
424138
İşletme Mühendisliği
Management Engineering
Keywords: Altı sigma kritik başarı faktörleri
Kalite fonksiyon göçerimi
Kalite evi
Critical success factors of six sigma
Quality function deployment
House of quality
Issue Date: 4-Jun-2012
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Günümüz küresel rekabetçi piyasalarında, sürdürülebilirliği sağlamak adına organizasyonlarda mevcut ürünleri/hizmetleri ve sistemleri iyileştiren yöntemlerin ön plana çıktığı görülmektedir. Altı sigma, süreçlerdeki hataları ve varyasyonları azaltan, karlılığı ve operasyonel verimliliği arttıran ve sürekli iyileştirmeyi sağlayan bir metodolojidir. Bu çalışmada, altı sigma uygulamalarının başarılı olmasında etkili kritik faktörlerin üzerinde durulmuştur ve bu kritik başarı faktörlerin etkinliği kalite fonksiyon göçeriminin en temel matrisi olan kalite evi yöntemiyle değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışmanın uygulama bölümünde, firmaların altı sigma proje yöneticileriyle görüşülmüştür. Belirlenen kritik başarı faktörleri ve projelerinin başarılı olması için şirketlerin sahip olması gereken özellikler altı sigma yöneticileri tarafından değerlendirilmiştir. Literatür taraması kapsamında, kalite fonksiyon göçerimi ve altı sigma ile ilgili literatür araştırması yapılmıştır. Tezin ikinci bölümünde, kalite fonksiyon göçeriminin tanımına, ortaya çıkışına, uygulama alanlarına, faydaları ve zorluklarına, kalite evi yönteminin adımlarına ve akıl sürecine yer verilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde, altı sigma tanıtılmış, ortaya çıkış sürecinden bahsedilmiş, uygulama adımları anlatılmış, başarı faktörleri ortaya konmuş ve faydaları ve uygulama zorlukları özetlenmiştir. Çalışmanın dördüncü bölümünde, kritik başarı faktörlerinin etkinliği değerlendirmek üzere 12 adet kritik başarı faktörü ve 26 adet teknik gereksinim belirlenerek kalite evi oluşturulmuştur. Beş firmanın altı sigma proje yöneticileri ile 45-60 dakika süren görüşmeler düzenlenmiş ve oluşturulan bu kalite evi beş firmanın altı sigma proje yöneticileri tarafından doldurulmuştur. Altı sigma yöneticileri, kritik başarı faktörlerini kendi içinde önem seviyelerine göre 1’den (çok düşük) 10’a (çok yüksek) kadar derecelendirmiştir. Kritik başarı faktörleri ve teknik gereksinimler arasındaki ilişkiyi 1 (zayıf) – 2 (orta) – 3 (kuvvetli) olacak şekilde belirlemiş ve teknik gereksinimlerin kendi aralarındaki ilişki matrisini 1 (zayıf) – 2 (orta) – 3 (kuvvetli) metriklerini kullanarak doldurmuştur. Ayrıca, görüşülen altı sigma yöneticilerinin kritik başarı faktörleri ve genel olarak altı sigma yöntemi ile ilgili yorumlarına ve önerilerine yer verilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, en yüksek önem düzeyine (10) sahip kritik başarı faktörünün üst yönetimin katılımı ve taahhüdü olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Altı sigmanın iş stratejisiyle ilişkilendirilmesi, ana kaynaklara yatırım yapılması ve proje önceliklendirilmesi ve seçimi ortalama olarak 9 önem seviyesine sahip olmuştur. Bu faktörlerin üst yönetim kararları tarafından direkt etkilenen faktörler olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Görüşmeler esnasında da, altı sigma yöneticileri hem insanların motivasyonunu sağlayabilmek ve onları sürekli olarak proje içinde tutabilmek hem de çıkması muhtemel finansal sıkıntıları projenin aksamasına izin vermeden çözebilmek adına üst yönetimin katımlının ve desteğinin çok kritik olduğuna değinmiştir. Bu kriterlerin ardından 8 önem derecesiyle altı sigmanın müşteri ile ilişkilendirilmesi, işbirliği ve iletişim, organizasyonel altyapı ve kültür, altı sigma araçları ve tekniklerinin anlaşılması ve gerçeklere dayalı yönetim gelmiştir. Son olarak, ödül sistemi, eğitim ve yetiştirme ve proje yönetim becerileri faktörlerinin 7.dereceden önem seviyesine sahip olduğu görülmüştür. Beşinci bölümde, kritik başarı faktörleri ve teknik gereksinimler arasındaki ilişki matrisinden ve teknik gereksinimlerin kendi aralarındaki ilişki matrisinden elde edilen veriler çeşitli açılardan değerlendirilmiş ve yorumlanmıştır.
In today’s global competitive market, methods which improve products/services and systems come to the forefront in organizations in order to provide sustainability. Six sigma reduces defects and variations, enhances profitability and operational efficiency and provides continuous improvement. Quality function deployment translates customer needs and expectations into technical requirements. In addition to that, the method includes benchmarking, reaching target values, planning and communication. Companies use this methodology in order to gain competitive advantage in the market. In this study, critical success factors of six sigma implementations are emphasized and efficiency of these critical success factors assessed using the house of quality method, which is the fundamental matrix of quality function deployment. In the scope of the application part of the study, interviews with the six sigma project directors are presented. Selected critical success factors and technical requirements of the companies are assessed by the six sigma directors. After the literature research in respect to quality function deployment and six sigma, definition, origin, application areas, benefits and implementation problems, implementation steps, and flow diagram of quality function deployment are presented. Third part comprises definition, origin, application areas, success factors, benefits and implementation problems of six sigma. In the fourth section of the study, 12 critical success factors and 26 technical requirements are determined in order to build the house of quality. Interviews lasted 45-60 minutes with five six sigma project managers are organized and the created house of quality is filled out. Critical success factors are scaled according to importance level ranging from 1 (low) to 10 (very high). The relation of critical success factors and technical requirements are scaled ranging between 1 (low) – 2 (medium) – 3 (strong) and the interrelations of technical requirements are scaled ranging between 1 (low) – 2 (medium) – 3 (strong) are determined. In addition, interpretations and suggestions of six sigma managers about success factors and six sigma are included. In the fifth section, tha data provided by the house of quality matrix are evaluated and interpreted from different points of view. According to the importance rating results, the most important success factor is the involvement and commitment with the importance level of 10. Interviewees mentioned the importance of commitment and involvement of top management in the success of the six sigma projects. Linking six sigma to business strategy, investment of essential resources and project prioritization and selection hold the importance level of 9. It is seen that, these factors are related again with the commitment of executives. Interviewees stated that, it is critical to take the support of the top management in order to obtain the sufficient resources for the project. They also noticed the power of the top managements in the prioritization and selection of the projects. Linking six sigma to customer, cooperation and communication, organizational infrastructure and culture, understanding tools and techniques within six sigma and management by facts hold the importance level of 8. Six sigma managers indicated that, these factors are substantial to provide the involvement of employees at all levels, development of six sigma culture in the organization, integration of people in common goals and increase in the quality of work with people using six sigma tools in their daily routine work. Reward system, education and training, project management skills hold the importance level of 7. According to interviewed six sigma project directors, these critical success factors exist by the projects’ very nature, should be taken into consideration in order to achieve useful projects and are crucial in the management of change that is arising from six sigma philosophy and methodology. In the study, relation between critical success factors and technical requirements are assessed. Six sigma project directors indicated that, top management should lead the six sigma meetings and provide the meetings arrange regularly. They associate the budget of the project, efficient performance management, the goals of the projects and cost analysis with the commitment of top management. According to correlation matrix of critical success factors and technical requirements, linking six sigma with customers are executed through measurement of customer satisfaction, collection of voice of customer and customer complaints. Besides, this information classified and analyzed in the determination of project goals and scope. It is found that, in order to link six sigma with business strategy, projects goals and scope are determined in accordance with the company strategy, this relation is reviewed in the management review meetings and project goals and organization goals are provided to be in coincide. In addition to that, it is observed that voices of customer and satisfaction level are taken into consideration in determination of business strategy to indicate the importance of the customer. Cooperation and communication linked with leadership and project management skills of the manager. In order to ensure the effective cooperation and communication between people, employees should have tendency towards teamwork, competencies and should allocate the sufficient time for the projects. Moreover, conducting meetings regularly with the involvement of all project members and top management, the flow of information throughout departments and determination of common goals strengthen cooperation and communication in the team. In order to build up six sigma philosophy infrastructure and culture, projects are conducted with teams, involvement of all team members in the meetings are provided, six sigma tools such as analysis of data, drawing of diagrams and graphs are generalized. Common goals of the organization specified and training plan constituted in accordance with the goals. Also, the commitment and support of top management to the six sigma projects provide the allocation of necessary resources for trainings, creation of belt system and integration of the methodology at all levels. Adequate resources should be allocated for trainings and information technologies, preparation of yearly training plan, and follow-up of performances of team members in order to guarantee understanding of six sigma tools and techniques. Thus, employees use these techniques in their daily work, analyze data, and learn the methods of measurement of customer satisfaction, voice of customer and analysis of customer complaints. Interviewed six sigma managers stated that reward system is determined at the conglomerate level by the top management. Therefore, congruency of the project goals and organization objectives is very important. Reward system is followed by performance management and determination of promotion criteria. Project management skills are critical in completion of the project in time, the organization of the project and meetings, the involvement of team members at all levels of the project, congruency of the project goals and organization objectives, and the assignment of project budget. The infrastructure of the belt system provides the problems solved quickly. Six sigma enables the management by facts. Measurable processes and data analysis pave the way for management by facts. Employees learn to collect data, classify, analyze and decide with the help of six sigma tools. Finally, interrelation between technical requirements is assessed according to answers of the interviewed six sigma managers. Leadership skill is linked with allocated time of six sigma project, review of the project in management review meetings, congruency of the project goals and organization objectives, determination of project goals and organization of the project, and arranging the meetings in time. It is observed that, leadership skill of the project managers is important in project management, planning and organization. In order to allocate the adequate time for the projects people should work in teams, should be flexible, participate in all meetings, and performance management should be conducted effectively. Cost analysis of the six sigma project, performance analysis, promotion criteria, resources, project goals and objectives, and project plan/organization are determined in the management review meetings. Necessary data for the project should be available, classifiable, measurable and analyzable in order to conduct measurement and assessment of customer satisfaction and expectations. In addition, the results of the analysis of data should be taken into consideration in determination of subject, scope, goals and metrics of the project. Sure, team members should have the competence of assessment and analysis of the data in decision-making.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2012
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2012
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/1977
Appears in Collections:İşletme Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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