Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17973
Title: Türkiye'de Enerji Verimliliği Yükümlülükleri Sisteminin Yapılandırılması Analizi
Other Titles: Configuration Analysis Of Energy Efficiency Obligation Scheme İn Turkey
Authors: Sermin, Onaygil
Rabia, Cin,
301161025
Enerji Bilim ve Teknoloji
Energy Sciences and Technologies
Keywords: İklim değişiklikleri
Enerji politikası
Climatic changes
Energy policy
Issue Date: 6-Jun-2018
Publisher: Enerji Enstitüsü
Energy Institute
Abstract: İklim değişikliği günümüzün şüphesiz en popüler konularından biridir ve iklim değişikliği ile mücadele kapsamında uluslararası anlamda adımlar atılmaktadır. Birleşmiş Milletler ve İklim Değişikliği Çerçeve Sözleşmesi ve devamında gelen Kyoto Protokolü ve Paris Anlaşması bu konuda atılmış büyük ve önemli adımlardır. Bu protokoller ve anlaşmalar sera gazı emisyonlarının azaltımı hedefleri içermektedir. Sera gazı emisyonlarının azaltımı hedefleri genellikle enerji verimliliği eylemleri ile desteklenmektedir. Bu tez çalışması kapsamında iklim değişikliği, iklim politikaları, Türkiye'nin iklim politikalarındaki yeri, enerji verimliliği politikaları incelenmiştir. Avrupa Birliği'nin 2012/27/EU Enerji Verimliliği Direktifinin 7. maddesinde tanımlanan Enerji Verimliliği Yükümlülükleri Sistemi (EVYS) enerji verimliliği ve çevre politikalarının gerçekleştirilmesi için kurulacak bir mekanizmadır. EVYS'de nihai kullanıcıya enerji satışı yapmakta olan şirketlerin bu nihai kullanıcılar üzerinde enerji verimliliği çalışmaları yapma ve belirlenen tasarruf hedeflerine ulaşma zorunluluğu bulunmaktadır. EVYS bu çalışma kapsamında detaylı bir şekilde incelenmiştir. EVYS'nin yapısı, uygulanmakta olduğu ülkelerdeki sistemin işleyişi ve ülkeler arası benzerlikler ve farklılıklar ayrıntılarıyla işlenmiştir. Daha sonra, kurulması planlanan Türkiye EVYS'si için uzman görüşlerine dayanarak bir sistem yapısı önerisi geliştirilmiştir. Bunun için yerli ve yabancı dokuz enerji uzmanının katıldığı bir anket çalışması yapılmıştır. Anket sonucunda enerji uzmanlarının; sorumlu kurumun Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlığı (ETKB), sistem yöneticisinin yeni kurulacak enerji ajansı, yükümlü katılımcıların tüm enerji türlerinde hizmet veren ve belirli bir enerji cinsinden satış miktarı eşik değerini aşan tüm enerji dağıtıcıları ve tedarikçileri olduğu, tüm gönüllü katılımcıların ve borsada yapılacak sertifika ticaretinin sisteme dahil edildiği, enerji tasarrufu hedeflerinin belirli bir yüzdesine ulaşamayan yükümlü katılımcıların ceza aldığı bir ceza sisteminin olduğu ve yükümlü katılımcıların verilecek teşviklerle finansal olarak desteklendiği bir Türkiye EVYS'sinin yapılandırılması gerektiğini düşündüğü ortaya çıkmıştır. Anket sonuçlarının değerlendirilmesinde Netica Bayes Ağı Modelleme Programı kullanılmıştır. Netica'da uygulanan senaryolarla sistemin en önemli bileşenleri analiz edilmiştir. Ayrıca, Türkiye EVYS'si için EVYS'yi kurmuş ülkelerdeki uygulama örnekleri ve Türkiye'nin yapısı göz önünde bulundurularak uygulama önerileri geliştirilmiştir.
Nowadays, climate change is one of the most popular issues. There are many different opinions about climate change. Humanity is giving more attention to the importance of this issue and designing tasks to prevent it. Though there are some counter arguments, the latest report published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change shows that climate change is real, and 95% human-induced. Considering the climate change statistics and forecasts, it is clear that whole world face a major problem that will affect all living things. Important steps have been taken internationally to struggle against climate change. The adventure of struggling against the climate change began with the United Nations (UN) Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm where climate change was first discussion in 1972. This adventure continues with the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement which international responsibilities for climate change were defined. Main indicator in the fight against climate change is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The most effective methods for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are increasing greenhouse gas sinks and afforestation, reduction or more efficient using of conventional energy resources, dissemination of renewable energy use and energy efficiency actions. Since COP21 to keep the change under 2 degrees has internationally been accepted and legislative works are carried out on this issue. Energy efficiency and climate policies are interwoven in these works. The main objectives of the European Union's (EU) 2020, 2030 and 2050 targets are to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase renewable energy use and improve energy efficiency. The 2012/27/EU Energy Efficiency Directive that the European Union has entered into force 4 December 2012 in order to achieve the specified targets, is one of the major energy efficiency policies. Article 7 of the Directive requires Member States to establish Energy Efficiency Obligations Scheme (EEOS) or alternative policy measures to save a certain amount of energy on final consumers. EEOS is a mechanism in which the companies (distributors, suppliers, retailers, etc.) selling energy to end-users take an obligation to perform energy efficiency actions on these users. Currently, 13 EU member states are implementing the EEOS. EEOS is a flexible system and thus the application of each country is unique. EEOS gives its parties the freedom to choose how to achieve their goals, so ensures to optimize the cost/benefit of energy efficiency actions. From the energy supplier to the distributor, from material and equipment manufacturers to energy service providers, EEOS activates all the rings of the energy supply chain. Turkish Government participate international actions climate change mitigations since 1994 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Although Turkey does not have obligations of emission reduction, it presented its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the UNFCCC. Between 2020 and 2030, Turkey aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 21% over the business as usual scenario. Providing energy efficiency at all stages of the energy supply chain, prevention of losses and unconscious consumption, reduction of energy intensity are important components of the energy efficiency policies of Turkey. Turkish Government also conducts new regulations on energy efficiency since 2007 Energy Efficiency Law. EEOS would be a proper mechanism in order to reach both the goals that its own defined and the responsibilities to UNFCCC. In addition, the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan that entered into force in 2017 also mentioned clearly on the establishment of Turkish EEOS. This thesis is prepared to view closely Energy Efficiency Obligations Scheme that is planned to be constructed in Turkey and the structure of countries that implement this scheme, to reveal the structure of possible Turkish EEOS based on experts opinion and to develop policy recommendations of it. The structure of EEOS is analysed with the impact of ten variables as Responsible Authority, Managing Authority, Obligated Parties, Energy Type Of Obligated Parties, Target Sector, Threshold Value, Voluntary Parties, Financial Support, Penalty System and Certificate Trading. Proper alternatives for each variable are determined and introduced as an option in the questionnaire for local conditions in Turkey. Energy experts selected options which are appropriate for these variables, evaluated the effects of these variables on scheme success and interactions between variables. As a result of the expert questionnaire generally accepted scheme is suggested to hold the characteristics as Responsible Authority should be Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Managing Authority should be new energy agency, Obligated Parties should be all energy distributors and suppliers serving in all energy types, Target Sectors should be all end use sectors , Threshold Value should be the amount of sales in energy unit, Voluntary Parties should be all options, Financial Support should be incentive, there should be a Penalty System which obligated parties who are unable to reach a certain percentage of their energy saving targets are penalized and Certificate Trading should be on stock market. Netica Bayes Network Modelling Program is used for the analysis of expert opinions. The most important variables of the scheme are analysed with the scenarios applied in Netica. According to the experts, it is clear that the most important variables of the system are financial support, target sector, obligated parties and energy type. By taking examples of EEOS and structure of Turkey into consideration application recommendations are developed for Turkish EEOS. This thesis study started by giving general information in the introduction chapter. In the second chapter, climate change is discussed. In this chapter the causes and the consequences of climate change and internationally actions are carried out to struggle against climate change and the situation of Turkey in these actions are mentioned. In the next chapter energy efficiency policies in Europe and Turkey is described, and Energy Efficiency Obligations System, which is the main subject of this study, is viewed in detail. In the fourth chapter, prepared questionnaire to get experts opinion in order to construct the structure of possible Turkish EEOS is described. In the fifth and final chapter, information about the results of the study is given and recommendations for Turkish EEOS and further studies are presented.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Enerji Enstitüsü, 2018
Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Physics, [DATE]
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17973
Appears in Collections:Enerji Bilim ve Teknoloji Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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