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|Title:||Türk Musikısi'nde Şarkı Formu : Doğuşu Ve Gelişimi|
Türk sanat müziği
Turkish art music
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Bu çalışma üç ana bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölüm giriştir. Bu bölümde, şarkı teriminin etimolojisi araştırılıp, di limizdeki anlam ya da anlamlan incenelerek, Türkçe bir kelime ol duğunu ispatlayan kesin deliller ortaya konulmuştur. Form olarak şarkının incelendiği ikinci bölümde, şarkı for munu ihtiva eden tüm boyutlar işlenmiştir. Şiir ve mûsikînin bü tünleştiği Türk Mûsikîsi formlarından biri olan şarkının doğuşu as lında sözün müzikle söylenmeye başlanması kadar eskidir. Ancak, form elemanlarını ayrı ayrı inceleyebildiğimiz şarkı örneklerini 17. yy. dan daha ilerilere götürmek kabil değildir. Şarkı bölmelerini umumiyetle şiir mısra'lan tayin eder. Zaten şarkılar, çoğunlukla edebiyattaki şarkı adı verilen şiir tarzındaki güftelerle bestelenirler. Bu yüzden bu şiirler üzerinde fazlaca durulmuştur. Şarkı formunun dönemleri ve evreleri incelenirken, belirleyici unsurlar, yy. 1ar gibi zaman dilimleri değil de, şarkı besteleyen önemli şahsiyetlerdir. Bu alandaki en önemli şahsiyet şüphesiz Hacı Arif Beydir Şarkı örneklerinin yer aldığı üçüncü bölümde, baş langıcından günümüze kronolojik bir sırayla yerleştirilmeye çalışılan şarkılar; Hacı Arif Bey öncesi, Hacı Arif Bey ve Hemzamanlan ve Hacı Arif Bey sonrası şeklinde gruplandınlmıştır. Şarkı örneklerindeki esas gaye, şarkı formuna ışık tutan eserlerin gösterilebilmesi niteliğindedir. Şarkı besteliyen her bes tekârın bir ya da birkaç şarkısını örnek olarak almak gereksiz gö rülmüştür.|
This study which was prepared under the title "The Song Form in Turkish Music, Its Birth and Improvement", has been submitted as master thesis in the Turkish Music scope of Fine Arts to the Social Sciences Institute of the Istanbul Technical University. The ethimology of "song" term is dated back to the years 4000-2000 BC, until the period of Sumer Period the word "song" derived from Çagırgı which, in Turkish, means to utter words with music. Song starts as a musical form in the 16th and 17th centuries. The oldest examples of the song form which have managed to reach today belong tho the 17th century. A lyrics magazine written by Hafız Post (1630-1690) who lived in the 17th century has reached our day. In that lyrics magazine, there are 28 song lyrics. The examination of song lyrics is only able to enlighten the structures of poems used in songs. Therefore, there isnt the least information about the musical structure. The songs which take place in the lyrics magazine of Hafız Post were very possibly the songs which were sung in the 16th century as well. The oldest song of which its note has managed to attain today again belongs to Hafız Post. This song which doesnt exist in his lyrics magazine gives us a sound information about how songs were esteemed in that period. Before the song form came into existence in Turkish Music, There was a poetry style which was named 'song' in Turkish Literature. The song form came into existence by having those poems composed. TV Nedim presented the most beautiful examples of the song style in Turkish Literature. In Nedim's songs, apart from the form and sound, most of the terms and idioms chosen and used were taken from the public Turkish of Istanbul of his century (18 th). The following poem of Nedim's explains the classical rhyme order of the song very well. Bir safa bahşedelim gel şu dîl-i nâ-şâde A Gidelim serv-i revanim yürü Sa'dabâde A İşte üç çifte kayık iskelede amade A Gidelim serv-i revanim yürü Sa'dabâde A Gülelim oynayalım kâm alalım dünyadan B Mâ-i tesnîm içelim Çeşme-i Nev-peydâdan B Görelim âb-ı hayak aktığın ejderhâdan B Gidelim serv-i revanim yürü Sa'dabâde A Geh varıp havz kenarında hırâmân olalım C Geh gelip Kasr-ı Cinân seyrine hayran olalım C Gah şarkı okuyup gah gazelhan olalım C Gidelim serv-i revanim yürü Sa'dabâde A Bir sen ü bir ben ü mutrîb-i pâkize-edâ D İznin olursa eğer bir de Nedîm-i şeydâ D Gayrı yarım bugünlük edüp ey şûh feda D Gidelim serv-i revanim yürü Sa'dabâde A In Turkish Music, the lines of the poem determines the parts which take place in the structure of the song form. Songs are often formed of four parts which may repeat in various types. As it could be noticed from Nedim's song that I examplified above, poems are written in stanzas. The one which is essential to composing is the first stanza. The other stanzas could be repeated with the same music. The first part in songs is composed with the first line of the poem. This part is called "ZEMİN" (basement). It has the entrance function. The second part is composed with the second and fourth lines of the poem. After the third part which is composed with the third line, the second part which is composed with the fourth line is repeated. This second part which is repeated is called "NAKARAT" (refrain). The third part is called "MEYAN". The fourth is a part when V only the instruments play which takes place either at the beginning or at the end of the song. It is called "Aranağme". The part is used in three ways. Right after the first part, the song starts. After the second part, the next stanza starts, After the third part, another song which is in the same tone starts. These parts may be shown as follows. SONG Part A 1st line - ZEMİN - Entrance Part B 2nd line - NAKARAT - The repeated Part C 3nd line - MEYAN - Modulation Part B 4th line - NAKARAT - The repeated Part D of the instruments - ARANAGME - Played between the parts. As for the internal structure of the parts, each of these may have ben arranged in various types. Some types which are mostly seen are as shown below. The part may form 1 period, 2 period, a line of a clause which becomes of a few clauses or of a single clause repeated. The periods are often shown as capital letters like, A, B, C, the clauses as letters like a, b,c, the smaller motif particles are shown as Greek letters like a, p, & or with any other marks. If part A is a single period, the clause structure may be in the form of any different marks as below. A= a+ a In this case, A, becomes of a clause which is repeated. A= a+ b And in this case, A, becomes of two clauses which complete each other. One of the clauses may have been repeated, too. Then, the structure is stated as. VI A=a+a= b or, A = a + b + b And a line of clauses is stated as. A = a+ b + c + If part A becomes of two periods, its structure may be in different forms. Some of its forms which are mostly seen are shown below. A= a+b+a+c a+ b + c + b a+ b + c + d a+ a + b + a a+ b + c + a and so on.... The first part in the song form, Part A, is enriched with the characteristic motifs of the tune. On tunic and dominant, there is a short period of pause. Part B has the theme of the song. The idea which is wanted to be told with both lyrics and music is processed in this part. This is the part which has the brightest motifs. Part C is the most enthusiastic part of the song.lt is processed with the sounds which are in the high-pitched parts of the tune. Modulations are done. Pard D is the one in which bright and characteristic motifs in the other parts assemble, which summarizes the song. As well as the parts which we examined above are a division by themselves, they form the song by coming together with each other. In a well made song, there is a perfect balance between the parts. If the parts are not arranged with an equal time to each other, that song means to be very bad. vn Songs have specil names related to the line number of the poem. A three-line - song is named "MÜSELLES" A four -line - song is named "MURABBA" A five-line - song is named "MUHAMMES" A six-line - song is named "MÜSEDDES" A seven-line - song is named "MÜSEBBA" An eight- line- song is named "MÜSEMMEN" Especially in our century, the freedom in Turkish Poetry has influenced the songs as well. The song form in which the parts are formed from the lines of a poem, has entered in many different types with these free arrangements. Those last term songs are called.FANTAZİ" (Fantasy). Five fourths of the songs in the Turkish Music Repertuary were composed with four-line -poems called "Murabba". With different variations of the internal structure of the parts in songs, various types are observed. Dr. Suphi Ezgi, in the third volume of the sole composition book of Turkish Music, found out 25 song forms. This number is, in fact, quite many. Even though some researchers mention a number like 35-40, there isnt a serious study yet. It is doubtless that the most important composer who composed songs within Turkish Music is Hacı Arif Bey. Moreover, Hacı Arif Bey is the only composer who insistively composed songs, who is unified with songs. His songs are the most important works of Turkish Music with a magnificient artistic flavour and with a subtle spirit processed. Surely, there was song form in Turkish Music before Hacı Arif Bey too. But it wasn't as popular as Hacı Arif Bey's period. There are two popular names among the composers who composed songs before Hacı Arif Bey. The first of them is Tanburi Mustafa Çavuş. He could be regarded as the creator of the song form. Although he composed works with some otlher forms, he became fomous with his songs. That his songs had great interest by the people supported the other composers of his period to compose songs. However, those composers weren't able to become as successful as he was. vm Later, the first half of the 19th century belongs to "Hammamizade İsmail Dede" who was a great compose. His magnificience stems from his great compositions in other forms as well as in the song form. İsmail Dede' s, whose composition genius was in great dimensions, songs enable this form a serious flavour. He had both the least common part and the most elite part of the society love and understand the song. The song form, which attained its peak with Hacı Arif Bey, had a new period in Turkish Music started. The researchers named this art current as Romantizm. Romantizm is a current which has ten thousands of examples with Hacı Arif Bey and his contemporaries and with their students that has reached even today. Especially Şevki Bey, Rahmi Bey, Cemil Bey and likewise are the most significant names of this current. With the improvement of cinema industry in Turkey in the nineteen thirties, it became necessary to use Turkish m Music as well as in dialogues. The songs which were composed with the suitable words to the theme of the film formed a new dimension. The most beautiful and artistic songs in this field were composed by Sadeddin Kaynak and Münir Nureddin Selçuk. Those two composers, even though the themes of their songs were limited, certainly never made ordinary and common examples.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1994|
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1994
|Appears in Collections:||Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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