Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17888
Title: İstanbul'da Yaşayan Kazak Türkleri'nde Dönem Dönem Müzik
Authors: Önaldı, Şenel
Çeliker, Mahmut
30638
Türk Müziği
Turkish Music
Keywords: Müzik
Kazak Türkleri
Müzik
İstanbul
Music
Kazakh Turks
Music
Istanbul
Issue Date: 1994
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Bu tez, 1949 yılında Orta Asya\nın Altay dağlarından Hindistan'a ve oradan da 1 951 'de Türkiye'ye göç eden kazak türklerinin İstanbul'a yerleşen kesimi üzerinde yapılmış bir etnomüzikoloji çalışmasıdır. İstanbul'daki bu kazak grubuyla yapılan çalışmada, batıda "rite the passages" olarak bilinen ve türkçeye "hayatın bir safhasından diğerine geçişte yapılan törenler" olarak tercüme edebileceğimiz törenler ve bu törenlerde kullanılan müzikler üzerinde durulmuştur. Sadece istanbul'da, özellikle Zeytinburnu, Güneşliköy ve Küçükçekmece yerleşim bölgelerinde, bugünkü durum incelenmiş, bugünkü durumu daha iyi kavrayabilmek için geleneksel göçebe hayatlarındaki törenleri ile bir kıyaslama da yapılmıştır. Bu çalışma boyunca elde edilen bilgiler yerli ve yabancı yazılı kaynakların incelenmesi, görüşme, iç ve dış gözlem metodları ile elde edilmiştir. Yapılan bu çalışmaların sonucunda edinilen bilgiler şöyledir: Kazaklar Türkiye'ye yerleştikten sonra, önceleri geleneklerinin büyük bir çoğunluğunu devam ettirmiş, ilerleyen zamanlarda ise gerek maddi ve gerekse manevi problemler sonucunda mevcut geleneklerinin bir çoğu zaman içinde terkedilmiş, devam eden geleneklerinin bir kısmı büyük bir şehirde yaşamanın kaçınılmaz sonucu olarak büyük değişikliklere uğramıştır. Doğum, sünnet, askerlik, evlilik ve ölüm olarak incelediğimiz hayatın temel safhaları üzerinde yapılan bu çalışmadan elde edilen sonuçlar şunlardır: Doğumun üçüncü günü yapılan şildekana törenine özgü bir ezgi olmamasına rağmen hemen hemen her türlü sözlü ve sözsüz ezgi çalınıp söylenebilmektedir. Anne bebeğine "eldiy" söyler. 3, 5 veya 7 yaşında erkek çocuklar sünnet edilir. Sünnet düğününe özgü bir ezgi olmadığı için yine her türlü ezgi çalınıp söylenebilir. Delikanlı askere yolcu edilirken genellikle günün coşturucu ve hüzünlü popüler ezgileri söylenir. Kazak evliliklerinde gelinin baba ocağından ayrılırken "veda körisi" söylenir. Gelinin yüzü açılırken yine bu duruma özgü bir ezgi olan "betaşar" söylenir, ölüm durumunda ise ölü sahibi başsağlığına gelen herkese "köris" söyler, ölüm durumuna göre "sınsıv", "davıs" gibi adlar verilen ezgiler söylenir. özellikle birinci ve ikinci kuşak tarafından devam ettirilmeye çalışılan geleneksel törenler, üçüncü kuşaktan itibaren hemen hemen çok az bilinmekte veya hiç bilinmemektedir.
The Kazaks are not from an ancient society; however, they come from a branch of a tribe called Kıpçak in the North-West group of Turkish tribes, which is established in the 15th century. They should not be confused with the Russian Kazaks which carry the same name. Today, there are approximately 20,000 Kazak Turks living in the various regions of Turkey. They immigrated to Turkey after the Bolşevik uprising. The regions where the Kazaks reside in Turkey are the following: İstanbul-Bağcılar (Güneşliköy, Sefaköy)- Zeytinburnu- Küçükçekmece- Üsküdar (örnektepe), Kayseri-Develi, Niğde-Ulukışla-Sultanhanı, Manisa- Salihli, Sakarya-Adapazarı, Konya-Konya-Ismil, Ankara, and İzmir. The term known as the "rite the passage" in the West is interpreted as "the ceremonies made in the transition from one phase to another in the. lifetime of a person or persons; these pahases could include birth which is the first phase of life, circumcision, customary military service, marriage, death, and / or change in the status. This work is done on the Kazaks living in Istanbul, Turkey considering the rite the passage concept. The ceremonies made during the phases described above, which are very important to this group of people studied here, were examined and the music involved in these ceremonies are tried to be established. BIRTH: In the nomadic life, at birth a woman is chosen to cut the navel cord of the newborn and to help the mother to recover fast. This woman who takes - over the place of the mother temporarily is called kindik apa. Today, even though the births are given in the hospitals, a kindik apa is still chosen as a matter of form. Now, the mother is only going to sing a kind of lullaby to her baby. ŞİLDEKANA CEREMONY: From the day of the baby's birth to three days thereafter, the people organize a sort of ceremony to not leave the mother and the baby alone and keep both away from the badness of Albastı, which is a red head female jinni who is believed to visit and bother the mother of the newborn. There is no specific song for this occasion, almost every kind of songs are sung here. GIVING A NAME TO THE NEWBORN: Before acceptance of Islam, the names were given according to the basis of Şaman. After the acceptance of Islam, it became a custom to name the baby by reading the azan (the call to the payer) first and then saying the name 3 times to his ears. v BESIKKE SALIV: Three days after the birth of the baby, there is a ceremony to put the baby into his crib. This occasion is called besikke saliv. TUSAV KESIV: In the nomadic life, when the child is about to walk a ceremony known as tusav kesiv is organized to make sure he walks fast. This ceremony is made among the women. CIRCUMCISION: When the child is 3, 5, or 7 years old, he is circumsized. In the ceremony carried out for this occasion, a "kade" is prepared by cutting pieces of cloth in known dimensions to hang money on it. Again, there is no specific song for this kind of ceremony. CUSTOMARY MILITARY SERVICE: In the nomadic life, the Kazaks did not have to give military service regularly. However, in Turkey military service is customary. After coming to Turkey they suddenly found themselves to be obligated to give such a service to the country. They adapted this new custom and added to their old customs to include this phase in their life. Before going to the place where the youngster is going to serve for the military, he is invited to the dinners, he is adviced by the elderly. Then, he is taken to the bus station to see him off in the company of his friend and relatives. The Turkish national anthem is song together with the popular songs with joy. When he completes his service, he comes back home and he is met by the people giving some coins, nuts, chewing gums, etc. This ceremony is called "çaşuv. çaşmak". MARIAGE: Acording to their customs, the Kazaks cannot marry with a person from the same clan. The two adults to marry cannot see or like each other. Sometimes, it is possible that two friends give each other promise that they are going to marry their children even before they have any children. When they have children with opposite sex, the children are engaged with each other when they reach the age of 5-8, and when they become adults (at the age of 16-18) they get married to each other. In the nomadic life, if the parents of the two adults can get along with each other they are allowed to marry. The opinion of the adults about the marriage is not taken. The meeting of the parents of the adults to marry about their future is called kudalık söylesiv. Today, the adults prefer meeting and liking each other before getting married. In the nomadic life, when the relatives of the groom to be come to ask the hand of the bride to be from her parents, the boy's mother tie an "üki" on a "çıt" which is brought together with the visitors to the head of the girl. In this way, the boy and girl are promised to each other to get married by their parents.This process is called "öltiri toy", be extended or shortened according wishes of the adults Today, however, in the engagement ceremony which is made among the relatives, the engagement rings are worn and a certain day is chosen as the wedding day by the parents. In the old days, the wedding day was chosen in such a way that the youngsters stay engaged for about one year only. Today, this engagement period can. In the first half of the engagement period, the groom's side organizes an entertainment called cırtıs toyu. The food is served and the songs are sung. Some time later, the groom is invited to be entertained by one of the bride' s close relatives.. In the nomadic life, the bride to be used to visit the relatives together with her girl friends and used to sing a kind of lament called "köris" with a crying voice. This occasion is called "kız tanısıv". Today, such an occasion is not observed. When the period is finished, the mother of the boy goes to take the girl. That day the meal is cooked and the people are invited to join them for food and entertainment. In the nomadic life, the bride used to sit together with her sisters, her sister-in-laws, and her aunts in the "üy". Outside the uy, two men, sitting on horses, used to sing songs with a specific tone and used to talk to each other poetically. This is called "sarin" or "car-car". The women of the bride's side, on behalf of the bride, used to express her sorrow for leaving her father's home by these songs and the men would try to comfort the bride with their songs. Today this tradition is not followed. After the entertainment and the food are finished, a religous man comes and performs a marriage ceremony according to Islamic law. Then, the bride is taken from her house to go to the groom's house, and various gifts are given to all of the relatives of the groom by the bride's side. These gifts are called "kiyt". The mother of the bride or one of her relatives comes to the bride and hugs her singing a good-bye song called "köris" by crying. In the final part of the marriage ceremony, namely in the "kelin kelgen toy", the sister-in-laws or the aunts of the groom meet the bride and put a kind of scarf called "salı" on her head and hold a sort of curtain called "çimildik" in front of her. The sister-in-laws or aunts of the groom (the groom is called "küyev" here) take the bride to the house of the youngest uncle of the groom. After the ceremony is over, the bride is taken to a room in her father-in-law's house by her sister-in-laws. Then, she stands her face covered by the help of her sister-in-laws. While she is standing, a man holding a whip or a stick which is donated by handkerchief comes and stands in front of the bride to give her some advice by waving ithe stick back and fort. This is called betaşar. VII DEATH: When somebody dies, his death is announced by phone or by going to one door to another and when he is going to be buried is told everyone. The women get together in the house of the oerson who died and they sit and sing songs called "köris" to share the sorrow of the household. The family of the dead one meets the people who came to visit them for condolence with "köris". The close relatives of the dead person bring some "akçay" and meal to the house. Noone cooks any meal in this house. Whoever comes to visit the house is invited for meal. The corpse is generally washed by some relatives or by three or seven people who are chosen to be appropriate for the occasion. After the body is washed and shrouded, some gifts such as money, clothing.etc. are given to the people who washed the coarpse by the family according to tehir financial ability. After the burial, the men take turns and each reads 30 sections of the Kur'an everyday to finish the whole Kur'an in seven days, they read even at nights to complete on time. Until the forty days are passed from the day of death, every Friday they read and finish the Kur'an in the house. TUL: Before the acceptance of Islam, based on the Şamanism religion all clothings of the dead person placed on a saddle to make a puppet at a corner of the "üy" to remember the person. This puppet is called "tul". During the immigration from one place to another, the tul is placed on a horse and allowed to walk in front of the people. After the acceptance of Islam this tradition is canceled. COKTAV: The tradition called "C oktav" starts from the moment of the death and continues till the anniversary of his death. The "coktav" is applied in two ways: In the first way, it is applied by the family of the dead loudly which is called "köris". In the second, however, it used be sung by some people for special persons. CILDIK: The ceremony which is carried out at the anniversary of one's death or the last ceremony made is called "cıldık" or the ceremony of "as". The religous people who came together for this occasion complete reading Kur'an several times that day. Every woman who comes to visit enters the room by singing a funeral song. At the same time, during this ceremony, people take turns and two by two continue singing funeral songs called "davis" viii THE TRADITION OF AYTIS: "Aytis" is known from the early days of Kazaks and widely encountered in their literature. However, a few of the "aytis" written before the 19th century, which are "bedik, car-car, akbala, bozdak, etc., reached to this day and their poets are forgotten. The "aytis" unchanged and kept well are the ones written in the 19th century. "Aytis" starts with a greeting first and continues asking how the poets are doing. Then the poets starts getting to know each other better using certain tactics. When the Kazak literature is examined closely, it is seen that the "aytis" is divided into several parts: which are: "Car-car aytis": During the wedding ceremony and when the wedding ceremony is about to finish the boy comes to the house of the girl to be married and drops the scarf on her face by singing a good-bye song. The girl answers him by singing similarly. The man tries to comfort her by saying that his mother is going to be her mother, and his father is going to be her father, and she should not be worried about leaving her house. However, the girl expresses her feeling by saying that nobody from his side replaces her mother, her father, or her siblings. "Kayimdasuv aytis" : A boy and a girl joke with each other by a song. "Cumbak aytis": This aytis is of two kinds: In the first kind, the two poets talk to each other without "cumbak". Sometimes one of them asks a cumbak and the other answers him. In the second kind, however, the aytis starts with a cumbak and ends with a cumbak.- "Bedik": In the Şamanism religion, the witches used to believe that there is a god for the diseases attacking the animals and human-beings. The disease used to be cured in two ways: In the first way, the disease was cured by only the witch. In the second way, however, it used to be cured by the attendance of a group of people; this kind of cure used to be called "bedik". Today, this tradition became only a sort of entertainment for the young people. COKTAVCIRI: "Coktav" is a kind of song sung by the people after the death of a person. It is sung for a period one year. There are three kinds of coktav known: 1) The ones sung by the children, especially the daughters, of the dead person. 2) The ones sung by the mother or the wife of the person died. 3) The ones sung by a famous poet (akın-cırav). The coktavs written by the poets are told when 7 days, 40 days, or 1 year passed by the death of the person. When the people mourning miss the person who died sing coktav loudly. When some important people come to visit, if they get the news later, their names are included in the words of the coktav. THE POETRY IN KAZAKS: Among the Kazak Turks, the poet is called "akin", the poem is "ölen" or "cır", the line is "avız" or "ağız", the rhyme is "kıysın", and the quatrain is "şuvmak". The poems are geenerally written and told in two metrics among the Kazaks. The folk song known as "ölen" is formed by four lines and eleven syllables. The poem named "cır" is of four lined, and of seven syllables. KAZAK FOLK INSTRUMENTS: Dombira: The most widely used instrument with a pick among Kazaks.lt can be played by fingers instead of a pick. It is formed by two strings. Sıbızgı : It is a wind-instrument. It has three holes. It is made of wooden or reed. Cetigen: It is a picked instrument consisting of seven strings. Kıl kobiz : It is an old string instrument, formed by two strings. Uran : It is a wind-nstrument made of two horns. Müyiz sırnay : It is a wind-instrument. It has three sound holes and it is not used today. Saz sırnay : It is a wind-instrument. It is made of ceramic. It has six holes. Şan kopuz : It is an old wind- instrument. The sound is obtained by the acoustics created in the mouth. The fingers are used as a pick. Kamış sırnay : It is awind-instrument made of reed. It is played generally by the young people
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1994
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1994
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17888
Appears in Collections:Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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