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Title: Kürdilihicazkar Makamı
Other Titles: Makam Kürdilihicazkar
Authors: Kutluğ, Fikret
İşal, Kutsal
Türk Müziği
Turkish Music
Keywords: Güzel Sanatlar
Türk sanat müziği
Fine Arts
Turkish art music
Issue Date: 1995
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Dört bölümden oluşan bu araştırma, Hacı Arif Bey' in terkîb ettiği, O'nun devrinden bugüne kadar şarkı formunda en çok kullanılan makamların başında gelen Kürdîlihicazkâr makamının nazari hüviyyetini ve analizini Türk Mûsikîsi" nde temel oluşturan nazari sistemler içinde ele almayı amaçlamaktadır. Giriş bölümünde, Hacı Arif Bey' in hayatı, eserleri ve sanatkâr kişiliği ile Kürdîlihicazkâr makamını terkîb edişi ele alınmıştır. İkinci bölümde, makamın tarihi gelişimi ve bu gelişim içerisinde Türk Mûsikîsi' nde temel oluşturan nazari sistemlerde Kürdîlihicazkâr makamının nazari hüviyyeti incelenmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde, Kürdîlihicazkâr makamının Türk Mûsikîsi makam tasnifindeki yeri, Türk Mûsikîsi tarihinin seyri içinde şeddin gelişme ve değişmeleri ve nazari sistemlerin şed hakkındaki görüşlerinin incelenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Dördüncü bölümde ise, Kürdîlihicazkâr makamının nazari hüviyyetini açıklayıcı sorular, öğretim elemanla rina yöneltilerek, öğretim elemanlarının bu konudaki görüş ve düşünceleri alınmıştır. Sonuçlar da son bölümde sunulmuştur.
Kürdîlihicazkâr had been exposed by Hacı Arif Bey in the years followed by 1855, who has been one of the most greatest and famous composer of Turkish Music. Since then it has been the most used makam in the form of song type that belongs to Turkish Music, and there have been lots of composers who had been influenced by the romantic attitude of Turkish Music that has begun with Hacı Arif, until today. Hacı Arif Bey was born at 1831 in Eyüp Sultan - Istanbul. After having been distinguished of his music capacity, between the years of primary school, he had been registered to Muzîkay-ı Hümâyûn by his teacher, to learn Turkish Music. Then, here he had gained the appreciations of Sultan Mecid and he had been appointed to Harem-i Hümâyûn, as a music teacher of having been given the "Kurena". Also he had worked in various duties at the palace, as an employee. He had died at 1885 and burried in grave place of Dergâh Yahya Efendi in Beşiktaş. The high music capacity and the intelligency of art had caused him to be a very breedive composer. Nevertheless, among in his compositions, there is a deep difference between the those that have been composed in Makam Kürdîlihicazkâr and the others; they are wonder full -vi- and original. In truth, the noble, the lively and sometimes the sensitive character of Makam Kürdîlihicazkâr has reached to its known pretty after gliding through of his art personality. Even if it hasn't been one hundred fifty years, there are lots of songs which have been composed by the other great famous composers, to its lowers. All of them are so much liked and accepted. The signing of makams in Turkish Music, as in a general typing, rests to very old times. Because of being a makam that has exposed in 19* century, Makam Kürdîlihicazkâr has been seen in a type that had continued at School of System between the 13 and 19* centuries. Also both in the two systems that were built in the beginning of 20* century by Rauf Yekta Bey and H. Saadetttin Arel - Dr. Suphi Ezgi, Makam Kürdîlihicazkâr has been dealed about its own theoretical character, too. Except these two systems, here is felt no need to describe the other ideas that can't form a system which is competent for a dealing. So it is more conformable to analyse Makam Kürdîlihicazkâr ' s theoretical character with these three, School of System, Rauf Yekta Bey and Saadettin Arel - Dr. Suphi Ezgi theoretical systems. The Makam Kürdîlihicazkâr had been included by Hacı Arif Bey from Makam Hicazkâr and at first it had been a composed makam called as Hicazkâr-ı Kürdi. This makam had been used in the different forms by Hacı Arif Bey. This difference had been formed in the beginning of -vii- the high-pitched part of the makam not in the decission part. Hacı Arif Bey had used three kinds of enterance to the songs, except his rich samples inside of the makam. 1. In -Neva-, with -Hicaz- 2. In -Neva-, with -Uşşak- 1. In -Neva-, with -Bayati- (with Arazbar) So it's more conformable to analyse his three songs under the headlines of makam, method (usûl) and weighing (vezin). In Rauf Yekta Bey's book named Turkish Music, translated from French, the explaining of makams aren't in the form of theoretical mean. He has explained the makam with the samples of line (dizi) and melody (seyir) under the name of Makam Hicazkâr-ı Kürdi. However his naming the makam same with Hacı Arif Bey gets us that he had manipulated the makam in the same manner it's estimated that he had manipulated the makam in the manner of being transposed (şed), in the melody (seyir) sample of his book, on the Rast note (perde) of Makam Kürdi. According to H. Saadettin Arel - Dr. Suphi Ezgi theoretical system, Makam Kürdîlihicazkâr is the transposition (şed) on the Rast note (perde) of makam Kürdi, too. Before telling the importance of Makam -viii- Kürdîlihicazkâr in the makam clasification of Turkish Music, it's better to look at the changes and the developments of transposition (şed) through the movements of the history in Turkish Music and to analyse the theoretical systemses' ideas about transpositions (şed), according to their own foundations and times. In the first times of School of System, the composers had used the transposition (şed) in different ways. The word of transpositioned (şed) makam has been faced in the beginning of the 20 century. The means, that have been used at the first relations of School of System, of transposition (şed) and -tabakat- have changed their places with relative to time and şed has been used instead of tabakat. In the School of System which had been dominate over Turkish Music and again in the explanation of musicologies who had had studies according to School of System's theory, there is no knowledge that Makam Kürdîlihicazkâr is a transposition (şed) on the Rast note (perde) of Makam Kürdi. In the system that has been built by Safiyuddin Umrevi, and named as School of System, the word of transposed (şed) makam has no reply. Also Hacı Arif Bey who had exposed Makam Kürdîlihicazkâr, himself was agree with School of System, too. According to this, it's -ix- gotten that he couldn't expose a makam resting on an undefined concept. Here has been taken some thoughts and opinions of expert on Turkish Music about Makam Kürdi in the aim of searching the reflection of the theoretical character of Makam Kürdilihicazkâr, today. These are the questions asked to experts on Turkish Music; l.Will you please, explain Makam Kürdilihicazkâr? 2. What are the pecularities of Makam Kürdilihi cazkâr? 3. What do you think about the concept of transpo sition (şed) ? 4. According to you, are they different concepts, makam transposition (şed) and transposition (şed) of makam? If it's so, will you please explain the differences between them? The names of experts on Turkish Music to whom had been asked questions about the theoretical character of Makam Kürdilihicazkâr are given in the above. -x- Prof. Dr. Alâeddin YAVAŞÇA Doç. Fikret KUTLU? Yrd. Doç. Süleyman ERGUNER Cüneyd ORHON Nevzat SÜMER Yavuz ÖZÜSTÜN Necdet VAROL The results that have been gotten from this thesis and the reports have been presented in the last part.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1995
Appears in Collections:Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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