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Title: Musıkimizde Zakir Başılık Müessesi Ve Hatib Zakiri Hasan Efendi
Authors: Yavaşça, Alaeddin
Olgaç, İsmet
Türk Müziği
Turkish Music
Keywords: Güzel Sanatlar
Dini müzik
Hatip Zakiri Hasan Efendi
Fine Arts
Religious music
Hatip Zakiri Hasan Efendi
Issue Date: 1995
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Bu çalışmada; Zikr, Zâkir ve Zâkirbaşı hakkında araştırma yapılarak, bu konuları kapsamı içine alan tarîkatler, âyinleri ve usûlleri ile ilgili tetkikler yapılmış ve yine bunların raks yapılan ana hatlarıyla incelenmiştir. Bilhassa tarikat âyinleri ana bölümlere ayrılarak, asıl konuyla ilgili olan zâkirbaşılık görevleri tesbît edimiş, tarîkatler'in benimsedikleri âyin usûllerinden kaynaklanan değişikliklere işaret edilip, zâkirbaşılık müssesesinde şöhret kazanan kimseler hakkında kısa bilgiler verilmiştir. Bu meyanda tarikat mûsikîleri ile ilgili bilgiler gözden geçirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada ayrıca, zâkirbaşılık müssesesinde hizmet vermiş, uygulamaları ve bestekârlığı ile büyük ün kazanmış olan Hatib Zâkirî Hasan efendi hakkında araştırma yapılmış, eserleri toplanmış ve bu bestekârla, Bahûrîzâde Itrî efendi'nin arasında, mûsikî otoritelerince tartışmalı olan eserlere yer verilmiştir. Burada, tekkelerin kapatılması ile yok olmuş olan bir mûsikî müessesesi'nin, gelecek kuşaklara en azından bilgi olarak aktarılması düşünülmüştür.
In this thesis, emphasis is on the word "recitation" (reciting or mentioning of God's names), which is constituting the foundation of the Institution "zakirbaşılık" (the office of the leader of chant-singing group), the main heading of the thesis. Recitation means, in short, remembering and being remembered, and mentioning. Furthermore, there is a variety of recitations. Terminologically, it means reciting God's names and attributes, and thinking about the meaning thereof. In this context, the word "recitation" was investigated according to both koran and Prophet Mohammad's deeds and sayings. At the same time, the place and importance of recitation in the Sufism was also considered. The styles and dance structures of recitation were explained as well by giving examples of religious sects. Investigation was made on the concepts "zakirlik" and "zakirbaşılık" which are the main topics of the thesis; The word zakirlik literally means remembering and reciting. Zakirbaşılık means the office of the leader of the group which performs such duties. On the other hand, the word "zakir" is understood in the dervish lodges as "the musicians who sings chants/hymns in order to enrich the recitation and also to encourage the dervishes without participating in the "esma" (mentioning God's names) voiced during the rite. The main assets of a zakirbaşı (leader of the chant-singing group) are as follows: he must be able to sing chants which are relative to the current Arabic months, and to have an entensive repertory of this kind. When a sheikh from another dervish lodge visits his lodge, a zakirbaşı must be able to sing the chants of this sheikh's lodge, and to have knowledge about the religious dances and rite styles. At the same time, a zakirbaşı must also have a strong and beatiful voice, and more importantly, he must have the capacity of a leader and manager. However, this is a just brief summary of the duties of a zakirbaşı. Furthermore, the rites of religious sects were divided into main groups and the ritual aspects were investigated thoroughly. The duties of a zakirbaşı in these settings were considered in detail. Some different zakirbaşı duties resulting from the ritual methods applied by some religious sects were also reviewed by taking the main groups into consideration again. And the ritual structures of the religious sects making such changes were considered as well. Zakirbaşılık was a job which is obtained after long and tiresome efforts and, which involves a special talent as well. This thesis contains a separate chapter in which you will find brief information on some zakirbaşıs who reached this position and became famous. The effects of religion on the music, which is the essence of the topic, was also investigated, and the religious sects were examined in terms of music by allocating o separate chapter to the dervish lodges music. This chapter provides discussion on the differences of music resulting from the ritual styles applied by individual religious sects, as well as on the instruments used. XI Hatib Zakiri Hasan Efendi who forms the seconds big part of this thesis with his importance was considered in terms of his life and works. Although the birthdate of the composer is not known clearly, it is estimated to be 1545. It is known that the composer was born in Foça, and died in 1620 or 1622. Hasan Efendi was a great zakirbaşı of his time. He had also rendered preaching services in some mosques. The poems of Hasan Efendi survived up to the present under the pen-name Zakiri. But despite the fact that he was so prolific, we have a very limited number of his works at hand today. At the same time, there are some works which create doubts on the minds of musical authorities don't decide firmly on which of them belong to Hasan Efendi and which of them belong to Buharizade Mustafa Itri. These works were also investigated in o separate chapter, and the opinions of the musical authorities were included. At the same time, a separate chapter was allocated to some of his works whose notations are not available today but whose lyrics survived up to the present. If an investigation is made into the musical styles all over the world, it can be seen that their underlying foundations and roots are religious musics. Our music, too, has taken its basic understanding and stylistic characteristics from Islam. Islam religion gave rise to the emergence of highly important personalities and works in Turkish culture and art as was the case in many other areas. When we take into consideration the divisioning of our music which is the essential part of Turkish culture and art, it is possible to see that it is examined in two main groups called religious and non-religious xn styles. The religious music itself which has closer links with our study and have had effects on the non-religious music as well was divided in two groups; mosque music and dervish lodge music. Our topic is under the scope of dervish lodge music. Despite the fact that there is such a division, it is for the purpose of making the analyses on the musical styles easier. It is a fact that the music constitutes a whole and must be investigated accordingly. The dervish lodges have made big contributions to Turkish culture and sciense at the time during which they were in service. Their enourmous contribution to the field of music is, especially, beyond doubt. This argument should be accepted to be true without favouring or disregarding any dervish lodge or religious sect. Our people are not inclined to investigate the matters at their source. For this reason, they tend to form an opinion according to their first impressions on or perception of the matters. One of the opinions formed so is on the contribution of the Mevlevi Dervish Sect to our music. People thought that the Mevlevis attached more importance to music than other sects did because of the fact that the Mevlevi rite is the greatest form in our music, and that it involves a really great composing talent, and that many instruments are used during the rite etc. The fact that the rites of other religious sects involve only percussions and contains only hymns whose structures are simpler than those which are sung during the Mevlevi rites gave rise to a wrong impression on people's minds. People thought that the music have had no much meaning in the eyes of these sects. It is a fact that making a selection among the appropriate modes and works out xm of the thousands of sufic/mystical musical pieces in terms of time and setting, and singing them and getting them sung in parallel to the progression of the recitation presented more troublesome difficulties musically than the Mevlevi rite did. In the meantime, it is understood that some dervish lodge musicians composed Mevlevi rite pieces although they weren't from the Mevlevi sect, and that the Mevlevi musicians composed, in turn, pieces in the forms applied by other religious sects in their own rites such as durak (pause) savt and hymn. Therefore, it is wrong to say that the Mevlevi houses were the only conservatories of Turkish music. Furthermore, the closedown of the conservatory-nature dervish lodges without establishing any substitution has locked the way to improve this music and to carry the stylistic and modal approach thereof up to the present. In this way, one of the blood vessels of Turkish music was cut off. This collapse has, according to great Dede Efendi, begun with the closedown of the military band's quarters (Mehterhane). Thus, the musical training was provided as limited to the tutorials of industrious teachers and to the musical societies. Despite this all-negative setting, many Mevlevi rites and hymns of various modes and many compositions of various sufic/mystical modes were made after 1925. However, the conformity of these pieces with the composition and performance styles and modes of sufic/mystical music is a subject at issue. Because of the underdevelopment of religious music and, for that matter, of the decline in the productivity in Turkish Classical Music, the XTV production and performance of compositions in the classical form is about to disappear in today's Turkey. In conclusion, we can say that the existence of conservatories will compensate the breakdown in our culture to some degree by virtue of musical training to be provided by the competent people, and that the younger generations will be familiar with the better and richer musical pieces.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1995
Appears in Collections:Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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