Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17870
Title: Sakil Usulü: Tarihçesi Ve Tatbiki
Authors: Kutluğ, Fikret
Erdoğru, Yeşim
36817
Türk Müziği
Turkish Music
Keywords: Müzik
Sakil usulü
Türk müziği
Türk sanat müziği
Usul
Music
Music
Turkish music
Turkish art music
Rhytm
Issue Date: 1994
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: SAKÎL terimi Fârâbfden bu yana usuller arasında yer almıştır. Fârâbî, İbn-i Sînâ, Sistemci Okul müzikologları verdikleri usul tasniflerinde "Araplar'ın 6 usulü" içersinde Sakîl-i Evvel, Sakîl-i Sânî ve Hafîf-üs-Sakîl usullerini sayarlar. Ancak bu üç usul bugün tanıdığımız 48 zamanlı Sakîl usulün ataları değildirler. Zira bu usuller 16 zamanlıdır ve değişmeleri iki katları kadar büyüyüp değişik darblar alarak 32 za manlı Berefşân, Muhammes gibi usullere dönmek şeklinde olmuştur. Bugün tanıdığımız 48 zamanlı Sakîl usulünün ataları ise yine "Araplar'ın 6 usulü" arasında yer alan Hezec ve Remel usulleridir. Hezec bileşik (usulü meydana getiren birimler aynı süreye sahip) bir usuldür ve Remel usulü bundan türemiştir. Fârâbî ve Ibn-i Sînâ'nın Remel ve Hafîf-i Remel çeşitlerini temel 6 usul arasında saydıkları Remel usulü ise Safiyyüddîn'de artık değişmeyecek şeklini almıştır. Tabii bahsedilen şekil 28 zamanlı Remel usulü değil, Sistemci Okul ve önceki ustaların verdiği orijinal 12 zamanlı Remel usulüdür. Safiyyüddîn RemePi üçe ayırmıştır: Sakîl-i Remel, Remel ve Hafîf-i Remel. Bunlardan Sakîl-i Remel'i ağır temposu dolayısıyla Darb-el-asl sayarak ana usuller içersinde sıra numarası vermemiş, Remel başlığı altında anlatmıştır. Safiyyüddîn ve Merâgî'den anlaşıldığına göre, Sakîl-i Remel usulüne SAKÎL de denmektedir. Merâgî yeni usulleri sayarken §akîl ismini vermiş, fakat bir terkip vermemiştir. Usul listesinin hemen altında verilen bilgiden Sakîl'in Sakîl-i Remel için ikinci bir isim olduğu anlaşıldığına ve Sakîl-i Remel usulü de eski 6 usul içinde anlatıldığına göre, ikinci bir terkip vermeyi gereksiz görmüş olmalıdır. Hızır b. Abdullah Sakîl usulünü bir Sakîl-i Hezec terkibiyle vermiştir. Daha sonra Fethullah M.Şirvânî'de Sakîl-i Remel usulünden çok küçük bir değişiklik ile elde edilmesi mümkün olan 24 zamanlı Sakîl usulünü görüyoruz. Ladikli Mehmet Çelebi ise bu gün kullandığımız Sakîl usulünden ifade olarak farklı 48 zamanlı bir terkibi vermiştir. Daha sonra Ali Şah'ın da verdiği bu 48 zamanlı şekle nasıl gelindiği konusunda ya zılı bilgi bulunamamıştır. Usul'ün 'düm-tek'lerle ilk ifadesini Kantemiroğlu'nda görüyoruz. Daha sonra gelenler usulü Kantemiroğlu'nun verdiği şekliyle kabul etmişlerdir. Zamanla usul vel- velelenmiş, aynı çağın müzikçilerinden kimi düz, kimi velvelen şekli tercih etmiştir. Usulün Ladikli'de verilen 48 zamanlı orijinal şekline uygun (birim zamanı bölmeyen) düz şeklini S.Ezgi'nin verdiği terkipte görüyoruz. 4,8 ve 9 ve lO.ölçülerin velvelelen-diği son şeklini ise İ.H.Özkan tam olarak vermiştir.
SAKÎL", as a term, has existed in the vocabulary of music since earliest times accountable for in terms of written documents. As a musical rhythm (ika'), it is first seen in al-Fârâbî's writings on music. This study deals with the 48-time* rhythm SAKÎL", tracing it to its antecedents, giving examples of its application to verse and instrumental music, and finally reaching a profile of the rhythm comprising all the features researched. For ease of comprehension, it will perhaps be useful to follow the order of the paper itself in listing the conclusion: 1- The History of The Rhythm 'SAKİL' The history of Turkish Classical Music can be divided into four prominent eras: Pre-Systematic School Systematic School Rauf Yekta School Arel-Ezgi-Uzdilek School Al-Fârâbî and Ibn-i Sînâ are the sole representatives of the pre-Systematic School period. According to their theory, Rhythms are studied in three aspects: whether they are Sakîl or Hafîf, conjunctive or disjunctive, and the number of beats they are comprised of. Sakîl is used both to indicate tempo, and to name a number of rhythms. Both musicians give a list of what they identify as "the six prominent rhythms of Arabs". Of these six rhythms, four are denominated 'SAKÎL': Sakîl-i Sânî, Sakîl-i Evvel, Hafîf-Sakîl, and Sakîl-i Ramel. Sakîl-i Remel is not actually Notice the use of 'time' as opposed to 'beat'. In Turkish Music, all times of a rhythm are not beaten. - vii - among the rhythms cited, but al-Fârâbî informs that the rhythm Remel is also known by this name. The significance of this fact will later be discussed. Of the four rhythms mentioned above, Sakîl-i Evvel, Sakîl-i Sânî, and Hafîf-Sakîl are 16-time rhythms and Remel is a 12-time rhythm. The 48-time SAKÎL is yet nonexistent. In the Systematic School, the leading figure is Safiyyüddîn abd-el Mü'min Urmevî. All later scholars have accepted the musical system he set up, and followed in his footsteps. Safiyyüddîn also mentions the basic rhythms of the Arabs, and adds a number of new rhythms. It is understood that during his time Sakîl-i Remel has become a rhythm of its own right. Safiyyüddîn does not consider it a separate rhythm, but rather a "fundamental cadence', because it has a very slow tempo. It is also understood that during this period some of the earlier rhythms underwent significant changes and some had a change of name. For example, musicians called Sakîl-i Evvel 'Varaşân' (Berefşân), Sakîl-i Sânî 'Hafîf, and Sakîl-i Remel ' SAKÎL' for practical reasons. Hafîf-Sakîl changed to become 'Muhammes'. Here lies the significance of the relationship between Remel and Sakîl-i Remel. The relationship between Sakîl-i Evvel, Sakîl-i Sânî and Hafîf-Sakîl is by this time established: they are sister rhythms all sharing the same 'fundamental beats'. The rhythms that later evolved from these three still are known by the names given above, and ail are 32-time rhythms. Remel, Sakîl-i Remel and Sakîi are also closely related with a 1 :1 or 1 :2 ratio. Doubling the duration of a rhythmic pattern was a common practice, and it seems some new patterns resulted, Sakîl-i Remel being one. This conjecture is also accounted for by the fact that Sakîl-i Remel was a second name for 'Double Remel'. The nature of this 'doubling' is, of course, difficult to formulate, since the 'fundamental beats' of the two rhythms are different. The conclusion drawn from these facts is as follows: Sakîl-i Remel, a sister rhythm to Remel, is a 24-time rhythm also named ' SAKÎL' for short. (Sakîl-i Remel is a disjunctive pattern that evolved out of the conjunctive Hezec-i Hafîf). Its presence is not related to the other three rhythmic patterns denominated 'Sakîk..', since they are not related with a 1 :1 or 1 :2 ratio. At this time, Sakîl is not a separate rhythm, but the sign of the emergence of one. VIII - The second great musician of the Systematic School, A.Merâgî, mentions Sakîl as one of the new rhythmic patterns, but gives no paradigm. Hızır b. Abdullah gives a paradigm for Sakîl, but it must be the very fundamental expression for the rhythm, since it consists of uniform units (it indicates a conjunctive rhythm: the antecedent to Sakîl is conjunctive, but Sakîl itself is, in effect, disjunctive). This paradigm indicates a 24-time rhythm. F.M.Şirvânî also gives the paradigm for a 24- time rhythm, but this time it is disjunctive. How he arrived at this disjunctive form cannot be traced from written documents, as it is not explained in the manuscripts available to the researcher. It is, however, easy to obtain the disjunctive 24-time paradigm from the 24-time Sakîl-i Remel with a small change in the beats. It would not be too far-fetched to assume this is how 24-time Sakîl was obtained, because it was another common practice of the day to consider a paradigm a whole instead of the unification of smaller units, and change the place and number of beats within the framework of the whole form. Ladikli Mehmed Çelebi gives the first 48-time form of the rhythm. This change, again, is impossible to trace, since there are no written documents explaining the procedure. It is, however, safe to assume that this 48-time form is a descendent of the 24-time Sakîl, since the term appears in no other context. Ali Şah gives the same information as Ladikli. After Ali Şah, Kantemiroğlu gives the paradigm in 'DÜM-TEK' units. By this time some beats are doubled. The time value and strength of the beats are assumedly unchanged, but there is more motion. The musicians of later times have remained faithful to the paradigm as given by Kantemiroğlu, with minor changes caused by doubled units. R.Yekta accepts the rhythm (which now consists of ten unequal units) with doublement in the 4th, 8th, and 9th units. S.Ezgi returns to the original form of the rhythm and gives the basic paradigm in the terminology of our day. The fully doubled form in wide use today is given by İ.H.Özkan*. * For a full view of all the paradigms, please see the section captioned "3.5.1. Zaman İçinde Sakil Terkipleri - IX - 2- SAKİL in Practice: the Peşrev Up until the 18th Century, there is no significant rule as to the distribution of musical themes to the rhythmic units. It seems the expression of the modes (Makam) was the principal concern. After the 18th Century, the application of the rhythm to the sections of the musical form (Peşrev) and of the themes to the rhythm seem to have acquired importance. It is possible to express the distribution of themes to the rhythmic units in the following figure: Haneler (Body) Mülazime (Final) I \i- II II II I Theme : 1 2 3 4 5 The reader must bear in mind that there will be exceptions to the rule, of course. 3- SAKİL in Practice: the Kâr and the Beste Unfortunately, only four examples have been found of what obviously was a vast collection of verse composed in Sakîl. The vezin (rhythmic measure of poetry) of these compositions, however, are two that have been most commonly used for poetry written for the purpose of composing in Sakîl. The distribution of time units to the vezin in the compositions found is as follows: X - The sections in parantheses are words outside the verses, commonly used in compositions as befitted the musical flow. 4- SAKİL in Practice: Verses (to Which the Music is Lost) The rhythmic patterns are known to have been derived from the rhythmic patterns of verse. The patterns are units of larger units, namely 'bahr". The patterns most commonly used belong to the 'bahr's designated 'Hezec', 'Remel', and 'Muzân'; 'Muzârı' being derived from the likeness of the pattern to the 'bahr's Remel and Hezec. This fact is in total accordance with our previous findings: Sakîl is a rhythm derived from the pattern Sakîl-i Remei, which, in turn, has been derived from the conjunctive rhythm Hezec. The themes most commonly used are love, beauty, yearning for the absence or unfaithfulness of the beloved, philosophically or painfully expressed, and dwellings on divinity.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1994
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1994
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17870
Appears in Collections:Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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