Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17861
Title: Tanzimat'ın Türk Müziği'ne Etkileri
Other Titles: The Affects Of The Period Of Tanzimat To Turkish Music
Authors: İçli, Selahattin
Karamahmutoğlu, Gülay
43863
Türk Müziği
Turkish Music
Keywords: Güzel Sanatlar
Müzik
Tanzimat Dönemi
Türk müziği
Türk sanat müziği
Fine Arts
Music
Tanzimat Period
Turkish music
Turkish art music
Issue Date: 1995
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Tanzimat Dönemi'nin Türk Müziği'ne Etkileri" konulu bu çalışma; İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Musikî Sanat Dalı, Türk Sanat Müziği Alanında Yüksek Lisans Tezi olarak hazırlanmıştır. Tanzimat Dönemi'ndeki müzik hayatı; o yıllarda içinde bulunu lan devlet düzeni de incelenerek ele alınmış, bu düzen içinde ülkemizdeki müziğin ne durumda olduğu ve ne gibi gelişimler gösterdiği, araştırılmıştır. Burada, Tanzimat Dönemi padişahlarının müziğe bakış açılarına, askerî alanda yapılan batılı hareketlerin askerî müziğimize getir diklerine ve bunun bir sonucu olarak Saray'daki Batı tarzı çalışmalara, değişen müzik anlayışı ve uygulamalara, devam eden Türk müziği çalışmalarına, toplumun ve klâsik bestecilerimizin yeni tarz müziğe bakış açılarına yer verilmiştir. Dönem'in müzisyenleri ve besteleri belli bir sistem içinde, ek siksiz biraraya getirilmeye çalışılmış ve elde edilen bilgiler geniş bir şekilde anlatılmıştır. Böylece Tanzimat Dönemi hareketlerinin müziğimiz ve bestecilerimiz üzerinde gösterdiği etkiler tespit edilmek istenmiştir. Müziğimiz açısından Tanzimat yıllarına ait bilinmek istenen özelliklerin toplu halde bulunabileceği bir kaynak olmasına yönelik bu çalışmanın, müziğimizin geleceği bakımından daha sonraki çalışmalara da faydalı olacağı kanaatindeyim
This study, regarding "The Affects of The Period of Tanzimat to Turkish Music", has been prepared as a master thesis for The Techni cal University of Istanbul, Institute of Social Sciences, Turkish Music Division. The musical life in The Period of Tanzimat has been exami ned with a literature survey covering The Ottoman Empire regularity at that time and, the development and the conditions of* our music in this regularity. In this study; the view-point of The Sultans of Ottoman Empire to the music of The Period of Tanzimat, western style novelty carried out in military field and its affects to military music and, as a result of this, westerner studies in palace, changing musical approach and practice, Turkish music studies continuing at that time, the view point of our classical composers and community to new-style music have been indicated. The musicians and the compositions of that period of time have been tried to gather in a specific system and, the knowledge taken from this exertion has been widely expressed. Thus, the influences of the activities of The Period of Tanzimat to our music and composers had been tried to determine. It is expected that; this study which was prepared as a reffe- rence concerning the characteristics of The Period of Tanzimat in a collected form, is also usefull for the later studies and, to light the way for the future of our music. Tanzimat means reorganizing as a vocabulary. Meanwhile, Tan zimat in Ottoman History means the political and social reforms ma de in Ottoman State in 1839. This reorganizing was tried to make by taking "Western" as a complete model. Ottoman Organizations taking a place between the best organi zations of the world were run orderly at least three hundred years but, they lost their influences since increasing technological and in tellectual movement of western countries so, they became hardly exist against those developments. Therefore, to catch the improving world and to be contemporary with western, Tanzimat activities had been started. In Ottoman History those activities were called "The Pe riod of Tanzimat" or 'The Period of Westernize." vi Tanzimat Edict was written and signed by Sultan Abdülmecid (1823-1861) and announced to the community by grand vizier Mus tafa Reşid Pasha (1799-1857) in Gülhane Plaza (1839). Tanzimat Edict is also called "Gülhane Hatt-ı Hümâyûnu." After this edict an nounced The Period of Tanzimat and reform started (1839-1876). Tanzimat activities in political and social areas change the life style of Ottoman Community and, these changes indicate themselves in The Ottoman Arts and mostly in music. Although Tanzimat Edict was announced in Sultan Abdülme- cid's Period, his father's (Sultan Mahmud II) sultanate years prepared The Period of Tanzimat. Sultan Mahmud II (1785-1839) abolished the army "Nizâm-ı Cedid" which was established by Sultan Selim III (1761-1808) and, established new army "Asakir-i Mansure-yi Mu- hammadiye" to fit the conditions at that time and westerner develop ments. Mehterhane, which was boosted the army's morale during the wars and accompanied the soldiers training until that time, discor ded this new style army. There upon, Sultan Mahmud II. had Giusep pe Donizetti (1788-1856) who was a brother of famous musician Gea- tano Donizetti (1797-1848) charged so, "Muzıka-yı Hümâyûn" which was a new military band of palace and, accompanist of new style army, established (1826). Firstly, Donizetti learned "Hamparsum notation" that was used at that time and he translated the compositions written in Hampar sum notations to Western Staff notations. He thaught Western staff notations to the students of Muzıka-yı Hümâyûn. Repertoire inclu ding classical music compositions of that time and Western style marches performed before sultan. Muzıka-yı Hümâyûn continued to improve during The Period of Sultan Abdülmecid. In this period a chorus added to the military band. Sultan Abdülmecid had a theater constructed inside Dolma- bahçe Palace because he liked classical music, opera and ballet. In palace, Western music was in great demand during The Peri od of Sultan Abdülmecid and Sultan Mahmud II. Beside this the mu sicians of Muzıka-yı Hümâyûn also accompanied a lot of opera and ballet coming from Western countries. In Beyoğlu, a district of Istan bul, many theatres opened and community had the possibility of fol lowing the westerner arts. After Muzıka-yı Hümâyûn established, classical music entered in our country officially. The Sultans of Tanzimat are Sultan Mahmud II (1785-1839), Sultan Abdülmecid (1823-1861) and Sultan Abdülaziz (1829-1876). Sultan Mahmud II was a progressive. He was interested in Classic music and tried to settle this music down in palace. Meanw hile he loved Turkish classical music and watched over. He was also a good musician and composer. He had good compositions in Turkish notations Sultan Mahmud II, is the first composer of Turkish march (The March of Acemaşiran). vii Sultan Abdülmecid was also a good composer but he liked clas sic music. During his sultanate, he imported a lot of pianos from Eu rope to his palace. Interest of palace to Classical Turkish Music, has been decreased during The Period of Abdülmecid. On the other hand, classical Turkish Music continued its existence. Some great Turkish music composers and musicians of that period of time, denied the in terest of Sultan Abdülmecid and palace to Western style music. Some of those composers like Hacı Arif Bey (1831-1885), Rif at bey (1820- 1888) continued to live in palace to have our classical music survived and the others like Hammâmizâde Ismail Dede Efendi (1778-1846), Dellâlzâde İsmail Efendi (1797-1869),... moved away from palace and inclined towards the community. Sultan Abdülaziz (1829-1876) liked Classical Turkish Music more than his brother Sultan Abdülmecid did. In his period of time Classical Turkish music led the way again but it took a short time. Sultan Abdülaziz was interested In arts and music particularly. Alt hough he had some compositions in Classical Turkish Music form, He was not interested in music like Sultan Mahmud II and Sultan Abdülmecid. The affects and the results of The Period of Tanzimat to our music are as follows; During the Period of Tanzimat, Western style activities in politi cal and social fields have been made and the army has been reorgani zed. As a result of these studies, our military music inclined toward western. Instead of Mehterhane which was suitable for old fashioned army, Muzıka-yı Hümâyûn has been established. Sultan Mahmud II sent for musical teacher from Europe. New Western style music sui table to new army has been tought to the cadets. So, Western music did its first enter to our country officially. Giuseppe Donizetti coming from Italy by order of Sultan Mah mud II, changed musical notations. Instead of Hamparsurn,. notation which was widely used at that time, Western "Staff notation has be en started to use. Hamparsurn notation consisted of Armenian let ters. This notation did not have a staff. In new notation; (Western Staff notation), there was no sign suit to Classical Turkish music re quirements for long. """'?'"* '"N*,.... :;^& Muzıka-yı Hümâyûn was a military band which was formed by military musicians but it was not the band only accompanied the army. Meanwhile Muzıka-yı Hümâyûn tie-Id a position to serve as an orchestra of European opera and ballet come to Istanbul and attemp ted polyphonic music so, polyphonic and orchestral work in our co untry started. First opera and ballet activities of Ottoman started before Tan zimat (nineteenth century). European Artists come to Istanbul and they performed opera and ballet in many entertainments arranged in palace. In The Period of Tanzimat, many theatres have been opened in Beyoğlu and the community had the opportunity to follow these viii performances. Remembered names from these theatres were Naum's Theatre, Güllü Agop... Interest of that kind performances has been increased because sultan watched them time to time. So, community of the capital started to have Western culture gradually. Previously, European Artist had the roles In the opera and ballet performances afterwards, Turkish artists started to have the role in those perfor mances. During those years, very European Monarch had his own the atre in palace. So, Abdülmecid had a theatre constructed against Dol- mabahçe Palace. Many famous Classical music artist entertained In this theatre. Because of Western style activities in The Period of Tanzimat, Classical Turkish music become marginal from time to time but, con tinued its existence in palace. Although, Sultans of Tanzimat, Sultan Mahmud II, Sultan Abdülmecid and Sultan Abdülaziz were interested in Classic music, they also protected Classical Turkish Music. Sultan Mahmud II was a musician and eager of music so, he got the classic music established in our country officially. Although he had the com positions in Classical Turkish music's form, he had composed a march called The March of Acem Aşiran so, he was the first Turkish Composer who had a Western style march. Sultan Abdülmecid had an education of Classical music and piano, starting from his childho od. He was good at playing the piano and knew the theoretical of Classical music, as a result of this, he liked Classical music too much. During his sultanate, in palace, Classical music was in de mand. He was not interested in Classical Turkish music and, did not know much. Although he protected Classical Turkish music in pala ce, it was no longer in demand during his sultanate, Sultan Abdül mecid invited famous musicians of the world, Franz Liszt was one of them. Sultan had custom-made pianos ordered from Europe for his children and Harem. So, he encouraged his family to Classical music. Sultan Abdülaziz did not like Classical music as much as Sultan Ab dülmecid did. He did not like Western style entertainment in palace anyway. He was eager of Classical Turkish music and he had some Classical Turkish music compositions. During his period, our music was in demand again but, it lasted no longer. Although he liked arts and music he was interested in sport. In the Period of Tanzimat demand to the polyphonic music stu dies and opera performances have been continued in Ottoman Pala ces. There were female students in Muzıka-yı Hümâyûn and, this was the most important characteristics of The Period of Tanzimat. They performed as a musician in band and orchestra in palace. More over, there was a female ballet trup in palace called "Kızlar Fanfarı". Kızlar Fanfarı which was accompanied by the orchestra consisted of fema les, performed many ballet before Sultan in palace only. The number of the composers of Classical Turkish music dec reased during that period in palace but, they continued to compose. The movement starts in our classical music and, its affects reaches ix todays Republic. This movement is called "Şarkı Besteciliği (Song Writing)". Song becomes the most important form of Tanzimat. Until that time, Classical Turkish music composers have the forms peşrev, kâr, beste, ağır semaî, yürük semaî, saz semaîsi in general. They we re not interested in songs because song was an easy form. Hacı Arif Bey (1831-1885) is the pioneer of "Şarkı Besteciliği" movement. He inclined to song forms which were understood and li ked by the community of Ottoman. But, this song form was different from old song forms. Hacı Arif Bey added some rules to the song form. He made some changes; the number of the line (from four to six and eight) and, tempo (transition of tempo) of song. So, the song form gained a different style. The Music of Tanzimat can not be defined as 'The Palace Mu sic" because this music also leaned to the community of Ottoman. Briefly, Classical Turkish music which was performed for comprehen sion of "art for art" until that time, was changed to the comprehensi on of "art for public". Decreasing interest to Classical Turkish music in palace caused to adopt this comprehension. Classical Turkish music in The Period of Sultan Selim III, star ted to include romantic elements and, considered important to perso nal feelings. This consideration continued in The Period of Tanzimat. After this, in compositions instead of "Love of God", theme concerning "Human Love" has been expressed. With the movement of song, lyrics had been taken from the poets of that time. Shortly, during The Peri od of Tanzimat, our music caused to lose interest to classical style and, feelings were most important place. Many Classical Turkish music composers of Tanzimat were in tellectual and educated in palace but, they leant towards community to react the losing interest of palace to Classical Turkish music. Even, Hammâmizâde Ismail Dede Efendi moved from palace with two of his musical students because he was angry about Sultan Abdül- mecid's lack of interest to Classical Turkish music. City dweller in The Period of Tanzimat denied Western style ac tivities in country but, they concealed their criticisms because of the conditions of that time. It took time to accept Western music for the community of Ottoman. But Classical Turkish music which was for med and developed as a result of rich repertoires and long experi mental studies and, was performed, listened for years, continued to be effective and it protected its value a little. Our Great Composers continued to write musical compositions in classical style. Some of those composers are Hammâmizâde Ismail Dede Efendi, Dellâlzâde Ismail Efendi, Zekâi Dede. Furthermore, Hacı Arif Bey, Püf at Bey and their friends stayed at palace and continued their "Fasıl Movements" in palace. They tried to get the demand of Sultan and palace towards our music again with their compositions seperated from Classical style. Although city dweller become familiar with new style music, the people listening our Classical music which was pleasant to ear for years, was not pleased with that kind of mu sic. Even, they found this music banal. Until The Period of Tanzimat, Classical Turkish music continu ed its studies with the help of "master-apprentice" relations. As a re sult of leaning towards Western in music, methodic study has been adopted. So, the theoretical studies of Classical Turkish music had been established in a methodic system. This is very important for the continuity and widespreadness of our music in the future. During The Period of Tanzimat, some of our musicians like Dik- ran Çuhaciyon (1837-1898), Notacı Emin Efendi (1845-1907) wrote the compositions in Western style. Although they wrote their compo sitions in Western style, they were devoted the rule of Turkish moda lity. Those compositions have been performed both, before Sultan in palace and public in Beyoğlu. Considering the words of a song in The Period of Tanzimat, it is seen that, those words were chosen from the writer for lyrics. Nevert heless, it can be said that small amount of Classical Ottoman Poetry "Dîvan Şiiri" had been composed in this period. Considering our Clas sical music was lent towards community in The Period of Tanzimat, it can be said that the increasing value of Classical Ottoman poetry as lyrics and their reaches to public had been advantageous. Briefly, The Period of Tanzimat, is a new inspiration to Classi cal Turkish music and, is also a "transition period" that will influence our music for years.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1995
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17861
Appears in Collections:Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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