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|Title:||Aydın Yöresi Sözsüz Zeybeklerin Tavır Olarak İncelenmesi|
Türk Halk Müziği
Turkish folk music
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Bu araştırma Aydın' dan derlenmiş sözsüz zeybek notalarının bağlama ile seslendirilmesi sırasında kullanılan tezene vuruşlarının nasıl olduğunu ortaya koymuştur, yörede belirgin olarak kullanılan tezene vuraşlarının bağlamayla uygulanışı şekillerle anlatılmış ve yazılacak olan zeybek notalarının bağlamanın çalmış özelliklerine göre yazılması gerektiği açıklanmıştır. Bu araştırmada kaynak kişilerin seslendirdiği zeybekler TRT arşivindeki bantlardan dinlenmiştir. Yazılmış olan TRT Repertuanndaki Aydın yöresi sözsüz zeybek notalarının her bir motifi bağlamayla çalınarak yöreye ait tezene vuruşları ve kullanılan ortak motifler ortaya çıkarılmıştır|
Zeybek is a kind of folk dance in Aegean Region, Turkey. The original name "Seybek, which meant a strong and protective hero, has changed to 'Saybak', 'Zeybak', and finally Zeybek throughout centuries. Zeybek also means a folk song which is performed with traditional Turkish instruments such as 'bağlama', which is a string instrument, zurna, which is a woodwind instrument and davul, which is a kind of drum. The First Factor determining Zeybek songs is that it has nine time measure and there is The second factor is that they require a special 'zeybek Tezenesi.' (Tezene is also used for plectrum in Turkish). The third factor is the 'tempo' or the speed of the song. Tavır: In the first stage of tavır continuous sounds are divided to form new units of sounds. In the second stage of tavır these units are performed by using 'tezene' style to divide the sounds to the strings of bağlama. Analysing Aydın Zeybeği Composition With Its Tavır: The original notes of Aydın Zeybeği were written by playing davul and zurna. However, Aydın Zeybeği can also be performed with bağlama by making some changes in the composition. The continuous sounds produced with zurna can also be produced with bağlama by dividing or breaking these sounds into broken notes by the hits of tezene (plectrum). These broken notes for bağlama are shown in the notes of Aydın Zeybeği with its tavır in figure 1. The figure below the staff shows the strings of bağlama. There are three strings at the buttom, two strings in the middle and two or three strings at the top in a 'tambura bağlama' The arrows on the strings in figure 1 shown the direction of tezene beat. VI Quaver: The rapid tezene beat is performed by beating tezene on both directions (up and down) on the strings and by hitting the second finger to the lower note with the same speed. This is shown in figure 4. Usui arrangement was shown as (3+2+2+2) in figure 5. Usui is a special term in Turkish music. Its metronome number is 52. Analyzing Yörük Ali Zeybeği Composition With Its Tavır: The original notes of Yörük Ali Zeybeği were written by playing davul and zurna. The melody on the first staff was also written on the second staff in the notes of Yörük Ali Zeybeği TRT T.H.M. (Turkish Folk Music) repertoire. However, there must be a repeat mark on the first staff in this original note. A flat was put in front of -B- sound in the fourth pattern of the fourth staff. This flat shows that all -B- sounds have to be played by lowering without having to put a flat on the other -B- sounds. The melodies of the sixth and seventh staff are the repetition of one another. Also, they are the same as the third staff. However, a segno mark must be put at the beginning of the third staff and at the end of the fourth staff so that the composition can be shortened. Its usul arrangement is shown in figure 5 as (3+2+2+2). Analyzing Zeybek Composition With Its Tavır: The original notes of Zeybek composition in TRT, THM repertuary were written by playing bağlama. Tavır, used in the composition, is shown in figure 8. In our study with Yücel PAŞMAKÇI at İTÜ, Yücel PAŞMAKÇI told me that Zeybek composition was written with bağlama and that its metronome number was 72. He also added that since its notes were written by playing bağlama, it was performed with tavır because of the special characteristics of bağlama. However, the original notes in TRT, THM repertoire were not written using tavır. Therefor, there are some differences between the original notes and the performance with bağlama. In my thesis Zeybek composition was written with tavır for bağlama Usul arrangement for Zeybek is (3+2+2+2). vn Analyzing 'Dd Parmak Zeybeği ' Composition With Its Tavır: Yücel PAŞMAKÇI said that 'îki Parmak Zeybeği' was written by playing bağlama, and that its metronome number was 64. However, this is not found in TRT, THM reertoire. Its tavır was shown in figures 10, 11, 12. Explanations on tezene beats with bağlama for 'Aydın Zeybeği' are valid for 'İki Parmak Zeybeği, too. Its usul arrangement is (3+2+2+2) Yücel PAŞMAKÇI also noted that there was a mistake in the notes and it was in the second pattern on the last staff. (Figure 14,15) Analyzing Süslü Jandarma Composition With Its Tavır: The original notes were written by playing davul and zurna. Its metronome number is 60. In our study with Doç. Dr. Şenel ÖNALDI and Doç. Dr. Mutlu TORUN, who are lecturers at İTÜ, we determined that the first measure of 'Süslü Jandarma Zeybeği was nine - four time and that all the other measures were nine- two time. Tavır, used in 'Süslü Jandarma Zeybeği' is shown in figures 16, 17, 18. Explanations on tezene beats with bağlama for 'Aydın Zeybeği' are valid for 'Süslü Jandarma Zeybeği', too. Its usul arrangement is shown in figure 19 as; (3+2+2+2) nine-four time and (3+2+2+2) nine - two time. Some patterns of 'Süslü Jandarma Zeybeği' are played as they were originally written without using tezene beats. (Figures 21, 22, 23) Analyzing 'Kocagür Zeybeği' Composition With Its Tavır: The notes of 'Kocagür Zeybeği were taken from Dr. Atmç EMNALAR, who is a lecturer at Turkish Conservatuary of Ege University. In my interview with Atmç EMNALAR he told me that its original notes were written by playing bağlama. He added that its metronome number was 66 in the original notes in TRT, THM repertoire No: 41 1. Usui lines of Kocagür Zeybeği were drawn as that of nine - four time lines. However, at the beginning of the notes of Kocagür Zeybeği it is written that it is nine - two time. Also, the melody in the second measure is the same as that in the third measure and there is a repeat mark on the third measure. However, there vin must be a repeat mark at the end of second measure with a number 2 on it. This would shorten the composition. A segno mark was put at the end of the original notes. However, this mark should be put at the beginning of the notes, instead. Tezene beat, used in Kocagür Zeybeği is shown in Figures 25, 26,27. Explanations for Aydın Zeybeği in figure 1 are valid for Kocagür Zeybeği, too. Its usul arrangement is shown in figure 28 as (3+2+2+2) Analyzing Nalbant Zeybeği Composition With Its Tavır: Its original notes were written by playing davul and zurna The notes of Nalbant Zeybeği, like that of the others, were not written with bağlama tavrı. Also its metrome number was not written. Its metronome number was found as 72 in our study. The ending sound of Nalbant Zeybeği is shown as -G- in TRT, THM repertoire No: 232. However, it. must be -A- in accordance with the melody. Explanations for Aydın Zeybeği in figure 1 are valid for Nalbant Zeybeği, too. Its usul arrangement is shown in figure 23 as (3+2+2+2) Analyzing Koca Arap Zeybeği Composition With Its Tavır: Its notes were written by playing davul and zurna. In this study the notes are written with tezene beats by playing bağlama. Its metronome number was not written in TRT, THM repertoire. In my study it was found as 56. B flat sign was written in the notes as pitch changing sign. However, -C- sounds took a sharp sign in the composition. Therefore, -C- sharp and -B- flat signs must be written after treble clef. Its tezene beats are shown in figures 34, 35. The explanations for Aydın Zeybeği are valid for Koca Arap Zeybeği, too. Its usul arrangement is shown in figure 36 as (2+2+2+3). IX Analyzing Karaburun Zeybeği Composition With Its Tavır: Its notes were written by playing davul and zurna. Its metronome number was not written in TRT, THM repertoire. In my study its metronom number was found as 72. The beat sound in Karaburun Zeybeği (fig. 40) forms the motives in figure 41 when applied to tavır in bağlama it's tezene beats are shown in figures 37, 38, 39. The explanations for Aydın Zeybeği are valid for Karaburun Zeybeği, too. Its usul arrangement is shown in figure 42 as (3+2+2+2) CONCLUSION: The instrumental Zeybek in Aydın region generally begins with a delayed tezene beat and continues with a rapid tezene beat and ends with an accent beat (fig. 43). Sometimes it begins with a rapid tezene beat and ends with an additional accent (fig. 44). Sometimes it begins with an additional beat and it continues with a rapid tezene beat and ends with an additional beat (fig. 45). The most important factor determining the number of tezene beats in Zeybeks in their metronome number. However, in my study I found that in most of the instrumental Zeybeks in Aydın region the metronom numbers were not written. These metronome numbers are necessary to determine the speed of each instrumental Zeybek. In may study the metronom number of very slow zeybek, slow zeybek, and rapied zeybek were determined 40-60, 60-70 and 76-108 respectively. Lastly, the notes of instrumental Zeybeks should also be written according to the technical qualities of the instruments with which they are to be played no matter what instruments were used in the original notes.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1995|
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1995
|Appears in Collections:||Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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