Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17845
Title: Zaharya`nın Hayatı Eserleri Ve Musikimize Etkileri
Other Titles: Life And Wors Of Zaharya And His Effects Over Our Music
Authors: Atlığ, Nevzad
Örsel, Yağmur Damla
53320
Türk Müziği
Turkish Music
Keywords: Müzik
Bestekarlar
Türk Sanat Müziği
Zaharya
Music
Composers
Turkish art music
Zaharya
Issue Date: 1996
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Zaharya'nın Hayatı, Eserleri ve Musikimize Etkileri" konulu bu çalışma yüksek lisans tezi olarak hazırlanmıştır. Zaharya'nın hayatı hakkında yeteri kadar bilgi olmamasına rağmen, hayatının birçok ayrıntıları incelenmeye, araştırılmaya çalışılmıştır. Hakkında yazdı kaynaklardaki bilgi ve belgelerden; kitap, ansiklopedi, musiki mecmuaları ve kendi yazdığı kitaptan (Efterpi) hayatı ve eserleri araştırılmıştır. Doğum tarihi hakkında hiçbir yerde kesin bir kayıda rastlanmayan Zaharya, İstanbul'da doğdu. IILAhmet ve I.Mahmut döneminde yaşadı. Dolayısıyla yaşamının bir bölümünü Lale Devri'nin etkisi aranda sürdürdü. Türk Musikisinin büyük ustası Buhurizade Mustafa Itrî Efendi ile mukayese edildi. Bestelerinde kullandığı şiirlere gösterdiği özenle de dikkatleri çeken Zaharya, özellikle ağır çenber usulünü de büyük bir ustalıkla kullanarak musikimize abidevi eserler bırakmıştır. Aslen Rum asıllı bu büyük bestekâr, verdiği eserler ve musikimize yaptığı katkılardan dolayı çağdaşları gibi, bir Osmanlı-Türk sanatçısı kabul edilmiştir. ömrünün son yıllarında İslamiyeti kabullenmiş, Zaharya olan ismi "Mir Cemil" olarak kuşanılmaya başlanmıştır. Fener'deki Rum Patrikliği Kilisesinin baş hanendesi olduğu söylenmektedir. Bazı kaynaklara göre 100 kadar eser bestelediği bildirilmekle beraber elimizde, notaları ile ulaşabilmiş eserlerinin sayısı 17'dir. Biz bu 17 eserin ancak 15'inin notalarını temin ettik. Ancak yaptığımız araştırmalar sonunda notası diğer kaynaklarda belirtilmeyen üç eserinin notasını sağladık (Hüseyni Beste, Hümâyûn Ağır Semaî, Saba Saz Semaisi). Bu suretle bugüne kadar notası bulunmayan üç eserini musiki âlemimizin faydasına sunmuş oluyoruz. Doğum tarihi belli olmayan Zaharya'nın ölüm tarihi de şüpheli olup, 1740 olarak tahmin edilmektedir.
This study with the subject of "Life and Wors of Zaharya and His Effects Over Our Music" was prepared to be a postgraduation thesis. Despite that there is no sufficient information about the life of Zaharya, many details of his life were searched out and examined. If the lack of written source over Turkish Music which lack have been continuing for centuries, is taken into consideration, one reach to the opinion that this and similar studies will provide large benefits in compensating this insufficiency. The desire of collecting extensive information about Zaharya and making him known by future generations and the insufficient and inconsistent information over this subject have directed us towards research on this field. The certificates and knowledges which we have been first to discover them have excited us from time to time and have proved us that we had taken the right decision. His life and works were searched from information and certificates available with sources written about him and from books, encyclopedias and music magazinez. The real purpose of our study was to search more healthily the biography of the great composer Zaharya who is estimated to five around the end of 17th century and the first half of 18th century and to examine his works and to add new ones to his works. We know very little about the life of Zaharya, of Greek origin, Lutist and Vocalist Minor Mir Cemil - Cemil Bey ( - 1740), probably the greatest of minority composers in Turkish Music and the known information is nothing other than rumors circulating from mouth to mouth. There is no record about the date of birth of this great composer who contributed masterpieces to the Turkish Music. His date of death of suspectedly estimated to be 1740. It is presumed that he was born around the end of 17th century in Istanbul and died around the middle of 18th century again in Istanbul. It is said that Zaharya was Head Vocalist of Orthodox Universe Patriarch Church situated at Fener. The fact that he was a great vocalist is obvious from his works. At the same time it is narrated as a hearsay that he was a superior lutist. When the authors of our music history have copared Zaharya with Itri who is deemed to be Bach of the Turkish Music, they did not consider this great artist less imiportant than Itri. Zaharya was a complete Ottoman-Turk composer in regard to both the benefited poem materials and the motifs taken from our music. Especially if the poems selected by him to be text of his works are taken into consideration, it can also be said that he was also competent on the Classic Turkish Poem. It is understood that Zaharya who was the most potent composer among minority composers and artists on Classic Turkish Music lived around the end of 17th century and first half of 18th century which term was productive for our music and became Vocalist of Illrd Sultan Ahmet and 1st Sultan Mahmut. Zaharya who became singer in churches due to the merit of his sound quality was also "furrier" connected to the palace. Therefore it is deemed definite that his life was always in welfare. According to the Music Dictionary of Kiryakos Filokzenis which was published in 1838, the book named "Efterpi" which belongs to Zaharya and edtion of which could not be completed, was published by Teodor and Stauraki of Foça and was corrected by Hurmizios. But no mention was made about Zaharya in this book. Zaharya has accepted the religion of Islam towards the end of his life with a strong probability and was called "Mir Cemil" since his socal level was high and was assigned for an imiportant duty and also called "Cemil Bey" to the same meaning. The likelihood that this Cemil Bey is not Zaharya, but a pupil ofhim is weaker. There are rumors such that the composer Zaharya who provided big services toTurkish Music isMoslem. Two of these rumors are as follows : The inhabitants of Süleymaniye wake up at a morning with sweet melodies of minaret call. Minaret call is sung so nice that the community going to Mosque discuss among themselves that who was the singer of Minaret call and commence to wait for the singer outside the door of minaret. In result they see Zaharya oppsite to them and become surprised. Other rumor is as follows : Zaharya was closing himself to a private room at his home and remaining there for hours. Despite that home residents wondered this room for years and asked its mystery, Zaharya neither have shown them this room nor said a single word about it. Then this great composer died in this room and when the door was broken and people have entered to the room, it was seen that the master was on a huge prayer rug and holding a rosary at his hand. As it can easily be understood from this event, Zaharya had accepted Islam, but have not disclosed his feelings due to his fear for bmecoming excommunicated by the Church. vi i In result of examination of works ofZaharya it was seen that he had mostly composed works in the form of "Tune" and had used the method of "Heavy Circumference" with great competence, He has motsly composed the poems of the poet Nafiz in his works. The number of works ofZaharya available with written sources is 17. The notes of his three qorks notes of which had not been discovered up to now, were presented to the music universe in addition to 17 works. The list of works composed by Zaharya is as follows : The work "Cemalin ateş-i cam ile bir şem-i Şebistandır" by the method of heavy circumference with Hüseyni tune, the work "Şebnem gibi saçılsın hun-i eşk-ı pür- revanim" by the method of berefşan with Hüseyni tune; the heavy popular song "Tal'atin devr-i kamerde mihri a'lem- tab eder" with Hüseyni tune; the lame popular song "Cemalin mihr-i alem tabe benzer" with Hüseyni tune; the work "Leyle-i Zülfün gibi dil, mecnun olur divanesi" by heavy circumference method with Isfahan tune; the embroidery sangın sun "Nafe-i müşg-i huten-i turra ki olmaz hem- bu" with the Isfahan tune; the embroidery lame sun "Karar etmez gönül mürgu bu bağın değme şahında" with Isfahan tune; the work "Yine tab-i nigah-i hayrete eşk-i kühül çekdim" by the method of Darbeyn with Hicaz tune; the work "Tab-i ruhu sanma dil-i suzamma düşdü" by the method of Berefşan with Hicaz Tune; the embroidery pastoral sun "Terk eyledi gerçi beni ol mah-i cemalin" with Hicaz tune; the work "Cam-ı lal'ın sunpey-apey hatır-ı mestane yap" by the method of heavy circumference with Uşşak tune; the work "Kaküldeki bu mürg-i hata yasamende yok" by the method of Berefşan with Uşşak tune; the work "La'lin emdir, hikmetin sorma, dil-i şeyda bilir" by the method of heavy circumference with Buselik Aşiran tune; the work "Düşmesin miskin gönüller zülf-i anber - busuna" by the method of heavy circumference with Hicaz Hümayun tune; the work "Reng-i mevc-i ab-ı zümrüden boyanmış camesi" by the method of heavy circumference with Rast tun; the work "Gülistan nakş-ı hüsnünden baharistan yazar" by the method of devr-i kebir with Saba tune; the work "Çeşm-i mey-günün ki, bezm-i meyde canan döndürür" by the method of heavy circumference with Segah tune; the heavy popular song "Cihanı hüsnüne meftun eden şuh-i cihansın sen" with Hicaz Hümayun tune, the work "Nigaha ruhsat olmuş neyleyim ol afitabımdan" by the method of circumference with Hüseyni tune, the stringed instrument popular song with Saba tune. The three Works of Zaharya which were written by Byzantaine note system and Greek poems were determined in result of our studies. The works ofZaharya available with us are the most dark and most decorated examples of the Classic Turkish Music. Vll Each sentence of the music was composed of little melodies piled over each other and intermingled. Üsküp is extremely heavy, ostentatious and perfect. Every single syllable was strictly studied and many tune features were given. In his statements mere is an ortodox mysticism and even a daily smell. Whereas there is another allegation such that : Some people say that the works of Zaharya give a daily smell, i.e. they are in Church music method, but this allegation is devoid of any supporting hase. Because Zaharya has not occupied himself on church music and also has resigned from his head vocalist post at the Greek Chucrh and then has succeeded to compose his immortal works. In our opinion the reason of the spiritual and sensational method which can easily be seen in the works of Zaharya should be sought in the fact that he has listened our religious music so much. Because if the works composed by Zaharya were allegedly giving a daily smell, he would not possibly be mentioned any at all by our music masters who lived in that era. Today we also see ad appreciate the fact that the works of Zaharya are embroidered by the fine pleasure of the Classic Turkish Music. He has so hard a competence in his art that any of his works can easily be discerned among thirty-forth works consisting of various tunes. In order to better understand Zaharya and to recognize this great composer within the concept of "Art Music", the era in which he lived should first be looked at. The reign period of Third Ahmet or if we put it more correctly the twelwe years Grand Vizierate period of Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Paşa lasting from 1718 to 1730 under the reign of Third Ahmet was called as "Tulip Era". This peace era commencing after long and bitterdestruction years was the rising period for OttomanState on every field, material or moral. While trying to strenghten the values still owned by the state with the reform movement commercing in accordance with western methods, on the other side huge efforts was being shown for the reconstruction of the country. This era was at the same time the elevation period of Turkish idea, literary and music lives. The Experts of science, literary and art was always taking incentives and protection from both Sultan and Grand Vizier Damat İbrahim Paşa. In this era there was abundance of scientists, poets, musicians and other masters. The flame of Tulip Era become extinguished by the rebellion of Patrona Halil in the year 1730 and although it seemed to be ended, since the new Sultan 1st Mahmud was open- minded and literary, science nad musician loving person, he collected the scientists, poets and musicians who were not harmed by Patrona Halil rebellion around himself after the settling of environment. Vlll So Zaharya who was one of most brilliant stars of our music, has grown in this era and air. It is understood that he become Vocalist of Illrd Ahmet and 1st Mahmud and become famous in the Tulip Era (1718- 1730). In his music dictionary publiched in the year 1838 the musicolog Kiryakos Filokzenis mentioned about the book of Zaharya named "Efterpi" and stated that this book belonging to Zaharya was written by him at the end of the year 1790. The era in which Zaharya lived seems at least fifty years near to our era as per this statement and Zaharya is deemed contemporenous with the period of nird Selim. This point of view contradicts to the allegation that he lived in the Tulip Era. Zaharya has no work in the form of song. Therefore to think Zaharya nearer from the Tulip Era becomes incorrect in regard to the greatness of his works. According to the rumors extended from our old masters, Zaharya was in general passing his time in Convents of Whirling Dervishes and Chappels of Dervishes which were the music conservatoires of his era. He was singing in these places Rites, Hymns, Eulogies and Minaret Calls. Yahya Kemal said that "If Itri is Süleymaniye of our music, Zaharya is its Sultan Ahmed" The factor which made us near to Zaharya is the singing of his works by Münir Nurettin Selçuk. Zaharya was among the mostpotent of our Classic Turkish Music artistsad composers. It is undoubtful that he granted great masterpieces to our music. He was Lutist and a famous Vocalist of his era as well as his superior quality as a composer. His place and imiportance in our music is undebatable by the merit of his masterpieces.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1996
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17845
Appears in Collections:Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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