Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17842
Title: İstanbul Türküleri'nin Musiki Açısından Analizi
Authors: Torun, Mutlu
Çiftdal, Vuslat
53250
Türk Müziği
Turkish Music
Keywords: Müzik
Türküler
İstanbul
Music
Folk songs
İstanbul
Issue Date: 1996
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: İstanbul Türküleri, İstanbul halkının benliğinden doğmuş, bu şehre ait karakter arzeden, bir bölümü eskiden Semai Kahveleri'nde Anadolu'dan gelen saz şairlerinin doğuştan ve Klâsik Musikinin etkisinde kalarak besteledikleri, bir bölümü kanto ve duettolar, bir bölümü ise Rumeli ve Anadolu Türküleri'ne çok yakın, sahibi bilinmeyen şarkı ve türkülerdir. Bu çalışma, ilk önce türkülerin tesbiti ile başladı. Çeşitli kaynaklardan türküler toplandı ve İstanbul'a ait olup olmadıkları araştırıldı. Kaynaklarda türkülerin yöreleri kesin belirtilmediği için bu konuda uzman olan kişilerin görüşleri alındı. Türküler belirlendikten sonra konularına, dil özelliklerine, şiirlerin yapılarına ve şiir-müzik ilişkisine göre; yani güfte açısından, daha sonra tür, biçim-yapı, üslûp yani form açısından, sonra makam kullanılışı ve geçkiler, kullanılan ses alanı ve melodi çizgisinin genel karakteri yani melodi açısmdan, son olarak da usul kullanılışı, ritm-melodi ilişkisi; yani ritm açısından incelendi.
Work Analysis of Istanbul Folk Songs. A folk songs is a kind of repeated melody in Turkish folk poetry. Generally it has a private tune in folk language. In Turkish folk song is called "TÜRKÜ". Türkü means for Turks. They find "türkü" by adding Arabic "i" at the end of the word TÜRK - "Türkü" but in Turkish it became "Türkü" because of the Turkish Phonetics; so Türkü is a Turkish word now. Türkü is a kind of folk poetry. The difference between the folk poetry and the folk song is it's melody. For example a mama and a ballad are folk song if they have melody in them. Be sides all poems are "Türkü" if they have got melody. It's hard to find which is the real folk song. "Türkü" is the opposite of the clasical song form. It is between the clasical song form and folklore. Generally the text of a folk music has word metrical. Sometimes they are nonmetrical but they have not any prosody in them. Folk song sometimes have half rhymes. Many rhymes have pun on them. Most of them are rhymeless. As a matter of fact you can't understand the text of music clearly. It isn't always good, also sometimes it is meaningless. Some songs are wonderful. Some of them have short word metrical. Folk songs generally have four lines in each part. Some of them have 5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 lines, but these are unusual. Generally a song has three parts. Each piece has the same repeated melody at the and of the line. We call it "nakarat" in Turkish. It fastens the lines and gives a very good sound. Lines are important for the songs but parts are important for the whole of the songs. We have two kinds of folk songs called Anatolia and Rumelia songs. In these songs Turks used a lot of private Turkish forms called Uşşak, Hüseyni, Karcigar, Muhayyer, Hicaz, Gerdainye, Segah, Hüzzam, Beyati, Eviç, Çargah, Rast, Mahur in Turkish. These are important Forms of the Turkish Songs. You can't find these forms in the ather countries. Most of the songs have written by unknown folklorists. People sang these songs for years and so they became to our century. These tunes are called songs by the clasical composers but in fact they look like folk songs. These compositions were written by the important composers like Mustafa Çavuş, Dede, Dellâl Zade, Şakir Ağa. They gave the best models of the classical music. These are the best clasical composeis. They used general music rules. They made very good compositions. We know that many of the Rumelia songs composed by the educated composers. New v composers collected a lot of folk songs. Many of these compositions are very good and bright. There were good and a bad melodies. People forgat bad melodies, but they have sang good melodies for years. They are still living now. We can say the same rule for the clasical melodies too. Rhythm is different between the folk song and the clasical Turkish music. In the past "Türkü" was written by the clasical composers in syllabic meter. They are bright compositions. Composers wrote many folk songs (Türkü) in the XV.-XVII centuries. They were influenced both the folk poem and the folk rhythm. Clasic composers composed a lot of compositions but we have some of them in our archives now. There are three kinds of folk songs (Türkü) because of their characteristic. A. According to Tune : 1. Generally they are folklore. They have private rhythm. In Turkish they are called "Oturak" in Konya but "Kırık" in Urfa. 2. Songs have no private rhythm. They are called "Buzlak, Hoyrat and Kavabaşı" in Turkish. B. According to Subjects : It's hard to classify these folk songs according to their subjects. The subjects of the songs are very different. Here are some subjects. VI C. According to Structure : A kind of ryhtm that shows the structure of the song. Connection lines are the best chracteristic of the songs. Repeated melody between the linesand the terms are the important parts of the structure. Istanbul Folk Songs Istanbul Songs are neither in nor out of the clasical music world. They just blong to Istanbul Song are very. Important for the Art World of Istanbul too. All Istanbul Songs have the same chracteristic. They depend on the same tune and anonymous music Istanbul Songs are libertine, pert. They are still living. There are no difference between the clasical songs and folk songs tecnicaly. Some clasical composers composed both clasical Turkish songs and folk songs. Texts of these compositions depend on the life in Istanbul. Many of these composers came from the good, old and rich families. They were born in Istanbul. Istanbul songs have anonymous characteristic. They were composed by the men who were educated. They have explained their living very well. They are unmixed but rich compositions. We can understand these songs very well. We enjom these songs. Istanbul Songs look like Rumelia Songs. They were born in Istanbul, but Rumelia Songs come from the different parts of Rumelia. Rumelia doesn't have a real center. Rumelia compositions are very rich. Their texts are about riligion, out of riligion, and related all kind of life in different places. For ewample riligious music in mosques, simple music at home, and streets, clasical music in the Place of Otoman Empire, in Cafes, in Turkish Tekke's, in Taverns, in Churges, in Sinagogs. They are the mesozoic of Istanbul. The natural decor of the Istanbul songs is Istanbul, everything, everywhere and every beautiful thing. There are the names of some decors. Regions of Istanbul, water, sea, ship, boats, moonlight, fire, streets, beautiful young ladies, handsome men, love stories, fashion and the fun places in Istanbul. These songs are as same as living creatures. Here are the some Turkish names of the Istanbul songs : Istanbuldan Usküdara Yol Gider, Camlıcanın Yolu ince, Sarayburnundan Ben Geçerken, Beyoğlunda Gezersin, Usküdara Gider iken, Fındıklı Bizim yolumuz, Sanyerin Ortasında Var Bir Çeşme. We can find a many of the regions of istanbul in the songs. It is on the sea shore, so there are ship, boats and sailors in the song too. Now Sea Songs : Istanbuldan Gelir Kayık; Gemilerde Talim vıı Var - Bahriyeli Yarim Var; Gemideyim Gemide - Ayağım Yememde; Sevdim Bir Bahriyeli Yar. Now the Garden Songs : Bahçelerde saz olur, Naziksin yavrum gonca gülden, Be bahçevan ben bahçemi bellerim, Ey bostancı Musavver bir ak param var, Bahçenizde bir gül olsam, Bahçelerde aşlama. These songs are about flowers, fields and gardens of Istanbul. The other songs are about places: Yaniyormu yeşil köşkün lambası, Istanbulun konaklan köşeli, Sanyerin ortasında var bir çeşme. Some songs give imformation about the architecture of Istanbul. Now the old fashion songs : Sanada yaptırayım Naciyem fildişi tarak, Mavi gözlük takarsın - Cok canlan yakarsın, Setiremin düğmeleri çiftsıra, Saçlarım dökersin, Yemenimin uçlan. We can find music and conversation in everywhere in Turkey. For example in mosques, in barracks in village rooms and in cafes. In the second part of the 19th century, in Turkish Ramazan nights a lot of folkorists had come together and they've sung songs to each other. Sometimes clasical composer went to listen to the folk singers. Semai Cafes took part in Istanbul life from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. There were arbours in front of the cafes. They are decorated with the paper lanterns. Men from the different parts of Istanbul, who were educated or uneducated were coming together, talking and singing songs. Even if the clasical composers have gone to this cafes. They composed wonderful and unforgetable music compositions together. Istanbul song are still living. Most of them are very important for us. I recearched about Istanbul songs in T.R.T. Turkish Music Archives, in İ.T.Ü. Tecnical University archives and in Rahmi Kalacıoğlu's music depertment, but I didn't find any notes weather these songs blong to Istanbul or not. At last I had an interview with my dear teacher Nevzat Atlığ, Alaaddin Yavaşça, Selahaddin İçli, Sadûn Aksüt and Yücel Paşmakçı and than I made a üst of istanbul Songs. First 1 studied on text of music. İt is veıy important for the style and the tune of a song. Text of music contains the meaning of the song. I worked on musical compositions and the structure of poems. I put them in categories looking at their names. For example names of fields, flowers, architectural places, fashin, sea, sailors ex. Generally poems has four lines. Rytm is quick. Melody is very active. Meaning is simple but it's meaning fac. Second the forms of the songs. I studied an kinds, styles and structure. Repeated melody makes it active and gives it quickness, most of the songs are simple but alive. viii Third is Melody. In this part I worked on the melody and the cracteristic line of the song. Notes are the parts of melody. How do we pass one note to other. Tune sometimes goes up and down. At last rhythm and method. In this part of studied on the rhythm. Quick rhythm makes us happy but slow doesn't. Sometimes rhythm is one of the stybles. Connection parts of a song is more rhythmic the other parts. Istanbul Folk Songs have played an important role in man's experience. Music was all around Istanbul men, but no one knows who wrote some of the Istanbul songs, music has played an important role in man's life. The variety of the people's music are almost endless. They created many kinds of songs and beside them they composed religious songs too. In this century more than thirty folk songs have been collected. When you realize that Istanbul folk songs were passing along from father to son for many generations. Folk music is constantly changing. Each singer sings a tune in his own way. As the tune is repeated frequently over a period of years, the singer makes slight changes in words and music without being a ware of doing so. The melodic lines are dissimilar. In their own way, many folk musicians are true art ists. Although the trained composer and the maker of lolk songs live in different words, they share a common trait : a constant intrest in new musical expression. Neither the composer nor the imaginative folk singer considers music a fixed language, but rather a world of new sound combinations waiting to be discovered. Some of the greatest modern folk composers have felt its vitality and used it in their compositions, just as lusicians have done for hundreds of years. There is syllabique structure between the poem and the melody. First we can hear rytm because of the syllabique style. As a result Istanbul Folk Songs are simple than clasical songs. They are nice, active, simple bu still living in our century.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1996
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17842
Appears in Collections:Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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