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Title: Tanburi Cemil Bey'in Kemençe İle Eser İcrası Üzerine Bir Çalışma (icra-nota Farklılığı)
Authors: Torun, Mutlu
Eruzun, Aslıhan
Türk Müziği
Turkish Music
Keywords: Müzik
Tanburi Cemil Bey
Tanburi Cemil Bey
Issue Date: 1997
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Tanburî Cemil Bey (XIX. y.y. sonu - XX. y.y. başı) Türk Musikisi'ne virtüozluğu ve bestekarlığı ile üslup (tavır, tarz), üstün icra tekniği açılarından yeni bir anlayış getirmiştir. Cemil Bey'den sonra bu anlayış bir kısım saz ve söz icracıları tarafından benimsenmiştir. Cemil Bey batılılaşma hareketlerinin arttığı; taş plakların, kovan ve gramofonların ülkeye yeni gelmeye başladığı zamanlarda yaşadığından, icra üslubu plaklara kaydedilmiş ve günümüze kadar ulaşmıştır. Ondan öncesine ait kayıt bulunmamaktadır. Bu sebepten ötürü kemence icracıları arasında elde kaydı bulunan en eski ve virtüozluk seviyesine ulaşmış kişi Tanburî Cemil Bey'dir. Cemil Bey'in kemence tekniği, çaldığı eserlerde ve yaptığı taksimlerde çok net bir biçimde duyulmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, kemençede geleneksel icranın teknik gelişmeye etkisi olacağı düşüncesinden hareketle, Cemil Bey'in eldeki kayıtlan incelenmiştir. Öncelikle saz eserlerinin kayıtları notaya alınarak içindeki teknik özellikler (yay bağlan, farklı hareketler vs), üslûp özellikleri (süslemeler) incelenmiş ve sınıflandırılmıştır. Sonuçta belgelere dayandırılabilecek somut materyaller ortaya çıkmıştır. Bundan sonraki aşama kemence için teknik ve üslûp özelliklerine ağırlık verilerek bir metod ortaya çıkarılması olmalıdır. Bu çalışma, geleneksel icra üslubumuza dayanan bir anahtar görevi üstlenmesi için yapılmıştır.
The concept of method in the instruments of Turkish music is coming to the agenda only with the help of recent studies. The absence of method in Turkish music has already been felt, but master-apprentice relationship has already been more effective. This kind of education system is an indicator that, the people who take courses from the artists who play their instruments very good, are carrying the discipline, the technique and style of their teachers until today. But there are very few notes on the subject which is available for exercises from that period. On the other hand in Western music, in incalculable amount of violin, piano, cello, guitar etc. methods have a part of musical education and had a great contribution to the master-apprentice relationships. When the subject of this study is chosen, three stringed "kemancha" (a small violin played like cello) is considered as an instrument which needs more development from the perspective of performance technique and a contribution to recent "kemancha" education is aimed. In Turkish music, from the past to today, two kind of instruments with bow, "rebap" (a stringed instrument, the sounding box of which is made from coconut shell) and kemancha had been used. "Rebap" was used in very old period of time, but in recent times kemancha is more preferred. The reason may be is that, the kemancha has qualities which are available to the possibility of technical developments. Learning process to play instruments from past to today had been performed by collective musical exercises called "meşk". Musical education was actualised at first in dervish lodaes and convents and afterwards in musical associations and in music academies. Ill The foundation of the structure of old musical edication whitin the limits of each instruments which shows its characteristics was dependent on memorising. This shows that a rich repertory in artist memory, was an unavoidable necessity. In addition to this, their alignment on partitions of the instruments was considered a great skill. In modern music education, increasing methods made musical development process highly easer and faster. In recent years, this kind of methods in Turkish musical instruments are available but they are very few and not enough. Because of that transformation of the knowledge takes too much time, and aimed product of education can not be achieved. In order to construct a kemancha method, the structure and capacity of the kemancha should be known very well and its instrumentalisation must done. In addition to that traditional performance must be studied in all detail. The other works afterward are tne exercices and studies which are going to establish the main stucture of the method. These studies must be prepared by the influence of the recorded materials. The aim must be to establish exercises to touch traditional performance. After that in order to improve that performance, new investigations must be done from the help of Western thinking system, folk music and other world music which contain high musicality. After the aim is determined like that, the right method in this study is accepted as to begin with the great masters and their documents. But because of that kind research needs detailed investigation and a lot of time, it is considered to be mode selective and decided to start with Tanburî Cemil Bey, who is one of the first representative of kemancha players. As it is known, Tanburî Cemil Bey lived in a period that old single records are very popular and so many of them are available for today. Because of that, there is no other record considered as a document before him, to start with Tanburî Cemil Bey was a necessity for an analysis. Cemil Bey was not only a master in tanbur, but also in kemancha, cello, lute and tanbur with bow, and characteristic attitude of each instrument was synthesised with each other and reflected to the performances of them. IV This was a great contribution to Turkish music in this period. Some of the other musicians after him accepted Tanburî Cemil Bey's performance style and they added dimensions to the Turkish music. Because of his great sicilli to the high quality of our music in both traditional and modern perspective, thes great master is always going be a guider for educating especially kemancha and tanbur (a Ion necked, stringed instrument similar to mandolin) players. In the aimed researches of contribution to the Turkish music and making the education easier, Tanburî Cemil Bey is a useful example to be examined for. As it is understood from the records of many singles, he is accompanied with so many "hanendes" (professional singers in Turkish music), performed so many improvisations, (taksim) extemporaneous vocal taksims, (gazel) some pieces for insruments and vocal pieces. Before all else it is thought to write down the notes of all the kemancha performances as they are performed in order to get the most clear results. In this way even though the extension is narrowed, with the hdp of analysis on written notes increased the profundity of it. Fancies in musical pieces and ties of bow is writen down to notes by reducing the velocity of tour of the old records with the help of a special mixer deck. These fancies and bow ties was tried to be used as correct as it would be. After all the pieces were writen, in each piece, all the fancies which are used by Cemil Bey were classified (except strikings). The aim of classifying in this study is to show numerically that the performances of Tanburî Cemil Bey is different from written notes. At the same time, it is aimed to clarify the style of Cemil Bey's kemancha playing more evidently. Cemil Bey has used strikes which come from previous notes and added to the other one almost in all notes. Detailed, knowledge on this point requires detailed studies on notes. The elements of fancies which are classified are here in an orderly way: - To fill the note with few repetitions - Trill - Mordan V - Grupetto - Triole - Senkop - Series - Two sounds at the same time - Small scale sounds - Large scale sounds - Staccato - Pizzicato - Heavy glissando - Glissando in two main sounds - Glissando of strike comes from first - Glissando of few strike come from first - Glissando added to the last.After the result of the classification, it is tried to determine how Tanburi Cemil Bey perfomed overture (peşrev) "Saz Semai" and other forms of music's by kemancha. The most of the fancies used by Cemil Bey are: - Staccato (discontinous playing) - Glissando of strite comes from first - Glissando between two sounds - Triole - Grupetto Generally in the beginning of the pieces, glissando of strite comes from first, and at the ends of them mordan were used. In the fouth section of "Saz Semai's" rhytms of 6/4 triole were used in plain notes. Rhythmic passages were played in order to distinguish strong sounds and also to reduce the monotony by using staccato techniques. Slow and glissando betweend two sounds is used to find a tone which is soft and effective and related to "makam" (mode of melodic creation). In long sounds VI in order to prevent monotony he used trill to make kemancha more energetic instrument. Sometimes the large vibrations with long sounds, and sometimes playing of the notes without any change, were gained different characters to the melodies with respect to rhythm and "makams". In this way Tanburî Cemil Bey and other composer's pieces were gained characteristics with a new understanding. In the time of recordings, the musicians were keeping the music's in their memory and performances were done without following the notes. For example in the last parts of any instrumental piece were played differently in each different performance. Tha was very normal. When few instruments come together to perform a musical piece, different melodies could be heard because of the different interpretations of each instruments. Because of that reason, the performance of Tanburî Cemil Bey and his friends in recordings was not in great harmony. In Western music however, performance is done consciously and the notes are followed and it is called counterpoint. It is seen that, in the perspective of performance, it is possible to find similar points between Turkish music and Western music. Especially the performance in Turkish music sometimes is in the structure of counterpoint and this can be shown as the most important point of this subject. A need to find similarities between Western music and Turkish music is the unsystematic and slow progress of instrumental performance of Turkish music. As a result it is decided that, systematic studies are the best way for the developments of instruments in performance. The accomplishment of these studies requiers a great variety of researches between tradition to future. The goal must be to improve the instrumental performance as soon as possible. For the three stringed kemancha however, the beginning of the methodical studies towards this goal seems the best way.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1997
Appears in Collections:Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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