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|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||The theme of this work, is the translation of a book that's called " Methodical teaching - theoritical and practical - for learning and deseminatin of the authentic external melody, of our Greek music in comparison of the Arabian- Persian music. This works was fitting by the expert musician P. G. Killtzanidis. Under the lisence of the Imperial Ministry of the Public Education by the number 24. istanbul ( October 26 1881 ) ". From the title of this work, everybody can understand that it is about a special theme of music and every effort for getting in to it, will be unsuccesful without giving the proper information. in this translated book's preface, the writer makes a historical retrogradation of how Hellenizm accepted Christianity and from Christian Hellenizm, with the birth of the Byzantine empire, became Byzantine Hellenizm. it also explains that from the time of missionaries (the Apostles ), especially from the begining of the 4th century when the official religion of the Roman Empire became Christianity, the ancient Greek music which became Christian and later Byzantine, was separated in two specific kinds. And the khıd that was accepted by the Church for the use of dignified praising of the Divine, was called Church orlnternal Music, and the other which was used for the folk ( peoples1 entertainment), was calledExternal music. Then the writer, gives some general infonnation about the masters of Church music in the Byzantine empire : loannis Damascinos ( from Damascus ), as Hrisanthos1 of blessed memory 1 : Hrisanthos was öne of three persons who changed the Byzantine notation system, in 1814. The other two mens' name is Grigorios and Hurmuzios. Hrisanthos also, vvrote a book, which's called " The big theoritical book of Byzantine Church music " including the theory, the practical part of the new Byzantine notation system and a historical previevv of the Byzantine music. ( Teriest 1832 ). He was a metropolit. XVI says, who was born in Damascus in 676 and has been a student of sacred Koşma from Kalabria of Italy, lived at the time of the Empire of Leon the ffl, has been the founder and leader of the Church music. After Damascinos who died in 754, by others in 756, ör 760, in the chorus of the mucisians, not only common people, but some of the emperors also took place. For example, Theofüos ( 829 - 842 ), vvise Leon the VI ( 886 - 912 ), his son Konstantinos the Porfırogennitos ( 912 - 959 ) and many others. These men, until the time of Emperor konstandinos Paleologos Dragatsis (1448 - 1453 ), didn't stop, cultivate and make richer this kind of music like Manuel Hrisafis the Lambadarios2 of Saint Sofla, and Gennadios Scholarios the next Ecumenical Patriarch ( 1454 ). After the fail of the empire, inspite of the less of spreading medias, this kind of music, was in different ways and placcs spread, as in types of manuscripts, ör books, and many vvise men were missioned to continue teaching this music. For example, hı Athos ( The Holy Mountain ), in the Large Patriarchal Church, this Music was continually taught until today. And the kind of the external, as it was called, music, also didn't stop cultivated in the Byzantine times. Some of the names of the masters of music that were refered to before, had been keepers of this tradition and they left much of these works. After the fail of the empire, the number of musicians who really were interested in this external music was very small as the number of the musicians vvho really cared about the religious ( church) music. The vvriter refers that in his days ( the end of the 19.th century ) there was a large interest in church music, but not the same öne for the external ( folk ) music. He also complains that 2 : Lambadarios is a title ( dignity, axiom ) vvhich was given by the Byzantine emperor to a man whose duty was to keep the emperor's candle in the time of service and to take çare of the whole candles in Saint Sofla. After the fail of the Byzantine empire, this title remained in church, but its1 ali meaning changed. Novvdays, Lambadarios, is the director of the choir on the left of the church. As it's known in East church, there are two choirs. The director of the choir on the right of the church, is called Protopsaltis, vvhich means the first singer. The title of Protopsltis was the same and in the Byzantine empire. XVII there were a lot of manuscripts refering to this theme, and nobody took care of them. As a result, the teaching of this type of music, stayed within the old systems and methods, so that today they would be useless. In the other side, nobody wrote anything like Kiltzanidis' work. So, he decided to write something for the teaching of the external type of music. In this effort, he was given help from two manuscripts. The first is called " About external music " and belongs to his Highness Dimitrius Kantemir, a prince of Moldo- vlahia, and the second belongs to Hafîd Efendi, an Ottoman citizen, who was not a musician, but wrote about music and his work 's called " Common mistakes in Ottoman language ". Metropolitan Hrisanthos, in his theoritical book, refers to El Kantemir, saying that he wrote in the Greek and in Turkish languages a book about music, but just the Turkish one was rescued. He also says that he visited Turkey, Arabia and Persia ( Iran ) and in these countries, he was learned their own music. He also could play the nay and the tanbur instruments. Kiltzanidis, then refers that he found Kantemir's book written in the Greek language and reading it, he understood that Kantemir, really knew the Greek, Turkish, Arabian and Persian music. Kiltzanidis, saying that he was based on these two books and to his forty years experience, wrote this book; and now he introduces this book. The writer forgets to refer to a very important point. It is that, the external kind of Byzantine music, in the past and now present is used by Turks as their national music by the title of Turkish classical or Turkish art music. As it's normal, Turks developed this music by creating new forms and terms. That is, Kiltzanidis supports, that after the fall of the Byzantine empire, the Byzantine folk music didn't stop existing, but it just changed names. As he says in his work, in the time of Byzantine Empire, the names of all the terms used were in the Greek language, and in this work some, existed with their original names. In Kiltzanidis's book the themes he develops and presents are the following : XVIII - The Arap-Persians modes3 and their divisions and subdivisions with their own names. - There are two diagrams: in the first the 12 modes ( makams ) and the 13 main division modes ( şubeler ) take place; in the second, the 44 improper division modes ( katahristikos şubeler ). There is a third diagram showing the Arap-Persians modes, in comparison with the church's modes ( ihos ) and with some signs ( martiries ) of the new and the old Byzantine notation system. - Every mode ( makam ) is accompanied : a) from distinct and clear instructions, b) from the mode's relative scale and c) from it's relative melody. The makams are compared with the church modes and the modes that become from them are exploded. - There is a chapter which referes to instrumental compositions ( Greek : crrpo^ec, Turkish : peşrev ), and to z form that looks like songs ( Greek : Seauoi, Turkish : beste ). There is also a chapter refered to rythms : and to make it seem more clear, he presents Greek and Turkish examples; refered also to measures and the orthographical rules of the ( church ) music, but the theme of this work, doesn't include this part, so it wasn't translated.. - There are two artistic compositions; the first is called " makamlar kâri ", ( Modes' collection ) which contains the Ottoman's modes ( makams ) like the way they teach it. This composition's verse was written by a Greek philologist named Beyzade Yanco Karatza, and the music was written by another Greek poet named Beyzade Yanco Theologos. This composition was written in the old Bizantine system notation by the Protopsaltis of the Ecumenical Patriarchate Konstanntinos Bizantios ( died in 1864 ), and was published by the music teachers Stefanos Lambadarios and Theodoras Fokaefs. The other composition is called " Makamlar Semaisi " ( a composition that contains different modes in a rythm of 3/4 time. This 3 : The word mode, for the Greek music corresponds to ihos, and for the Turkish music in makam. Also there are some special terms used in this work, like martiries. Martina is an indication of every note in the Byzantine notation sistem So every note, has a martiria. XIX rxmnnvrrl rf, composition, begins from a specific mode, which passes to another 63 modes, and ends with the fîrst öne it was started. - Except these, there are some other artistle compositions Greek and Turkish called şarkılar (lookslike the form of songs ). From ali these refered before, everybody easily can understand that this book, by the theoretical and practical method of teaching, is useful to the ones that vvant to learn the external kind of Greek music, and by the large number and the different types of the examples used, are beeing useful to those who are busy with the general composition of music. Generally, the usefulness of this work, concentrated to these : - A lot of historical information about tîıe two types of music ( Greek and Turkish ) are given. EspeciaUy in the preface, alot of information is given about the sources that were written before him about this theme, the sources he used to do his vvork; he also gives details about the etymology of the names of the main modes ( makams ). - Refering to the written sources of Turkish music, because of the non existence of a specific notation system,4 this work, brüıgs to the national bibüography and the science of the ethnomusicology very useful information. - Another interesting point, is that ali this information about Turkish music, was given from Kiltzanidis who was an Ottoman citizen with Greek nationality. This gives tinder to the science of history of these two countries and to the science of anthropology also. - The vvriter of this translated book who was based not only on his own forty years experience, but also, on the two refered manuscripts, gives us information about the music and its use, not only at the end of the 19th century, but also from the time before 4 : in the Turkish music's notation sistems, could be refered the follovving : in the time of 8 centuries, about 7 sistems have been used. But the most of the compositions of this kind of music was spreaded from the teacher to student and from mouth to mouth. Öne of these notation sistems was the Greek minority's öne, vvhich is not other from the Byzantine music notation sistem. XX him. That is because in every explanation of the theory, he refers to rules of the theory that were before him, sometimes getting up to the ancient tünes. - The fact that the Byzantine notation system he used for the registration of the Turkish compositions fit with the Turkish sistem of the 17 notes, creates new horizons for the searches of the tvvo musical roots. - Kiltzanidis refers to a new mode ( Gümüş Gerdan makam ) vvhich refered for the fırst time to this vvork. He also uses some new and different names of the notes. Generally we could say that this work is a part of a big research which we can cali " Turkish music under the view of ali Greek sources ", and it sure composes an important source of Turkish music.|
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997|
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1997
|Appears in Collections:||Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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