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|Title:||Zekâi Dede Efendi'ye Ait Mevlevi Âyin-i Şerif'lerin Makam, Usûl Ve Güfte Yönünden İncelenmesi|
Zekai Dede Efendi
Zekai Dede Efendi
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Zekâî Dede Efendi'ye Aİt Mevlevî Âyin-i Şeriflerin Makam, Usûl ve Güfte Yönünden lncelenmesi"konulu çalışmada, bugüne kadar üzerinde durulmayan hususlar ele alınarak, incelenmiştir. XIX. yüzyılın ikinci yarısında büyük önem kazanmış olan Zekâî Dede Efendi, dinî ve ladinî eserler bestelemiştir. Mûsikî tarihinde Buhûrizâde Mustafa Itrî ve Hammamîzâde İsmail Dede gibi, ekol sahibi olan bir bestekârımız da hiç şüphe yok ki Zekâî Dede Efendi'dir. Bu çalışmada, Zekâî Dede Efendi'nin Suz-idil, Mâye, Isfahan, Suzinak ve Saba Zemzeme Âyin-i Şeriflerinin makam analizi, usûl tasnifi ve Farsça, Arapça güftelerinin Türkçe açıklaması yapılmıştır. Zekâî Dede Efendi'nin hayatı ve Âyin-i Şerif Formu özet olarak ele alınmıştır. Âyin-i Şerifler; dinî mûsikîmizin en büyük formu, hatta şaheserleri olarak kabul edilmektedir. En fazla Âyin-i Şerifin XTX. yüzyılda bestelenmiş olması ve bu yüzyılın en büyük bestekârı olan İsmail Dede Efendi' den sonra en fazla Âyin-i Şerif bestelemiş bestekârın Zekâî Dede Efendi olması nedeniyle bu çalışma yapılmıştır. Araştırmada, konusunda uzman kişilere danışılarak İstanbul Konservatuarı Neşriyau'nın Dr. Suphi Ezgi, Mes'ud Cemil ve Zekâî Dede Efendi'nin oğlu Ahmed Irsoy tarafindan hazırlanan Mevlevî Âyin-i Şerif fasikülleri, yetkili kişilerle yapılan görüşmeler ve yazılı kaynaklar materyal olarak kullanılarak değerlendirilmiştir. Güftelerin çevirisi icrada, ifade kazandırması açısından önem taşımaktadır. Usûllerin ayırımı Âyin-i Şerif besteleyecek bestekârlarımıza bu konuda kaynak olabilecektir. Makamların analizi, Zekâî Dede Efendi'nin dinî eserlerindeki mistik heyecanla, dindışı alanlarındaki sanat anlayışı ve duyuşunu karıştırmamış olduğunu, makamları büyük bir ustalıkla Âyin-i Şerif Formu' na uyguladığını göstermesi açısından ele alınarak incelenmiştir.|
Mevlevîlik, whose members are called as "Mevlevi" is a reliqious order of dervishes that has been founded upon the ideos of Mevlânâ, one of the greatest sufis of the Turkish Islamic World who has lived in the XDI. century. Allhough this order considered the persion language very important, my be becouse the order was Sünni, it couldn't spread around much in Persia; but among the Turks, counter to any other religrous order, was so popular that it has gained a Turkish nationality and has been taken to the lands where Turkish was not spoken, by the Turks; and there it has fundioned as the greatest teacher of the Turkish Culture, The leader of this order is called as "Çelebi" and the used to live in Konya until 30 th November 1925, when all the dervish lodges qere shut down by the low, he had to be a descendant of Mevlânâ. The convent which qas settled around Yeşil Türbe, where Mevlânâ, his son Sultan Veled and others from his family were buried, was the center of the order and Çelebi used to live in this convent. The lodges in the other cities were headed by "Şeyh" s qho used to be appointed by the Çelebi. The main city, sheltering many Mevlevî lodges, was Istanbul. The mevlevis who were not "Dede"s were called as "muhib". Mevlevihanes have been the most important centers of the Turkish culture for centuries. They were the great education centers of Mesnevi, sufism and aspecially music. Every kind of instrument playing was tought and Turkish was practiced there. Mevlânâ Celâleddin-i Rumî (30.IV. 1207-17.XH. 1273) the great poet and sufi and one of the most forestanding figures of the Asian history. His master piece is "Mesnevi". He was considered to be one of the greatest poets of the world foor his work "Divan- l Kebîr" and has said a lot of "Rubaf's and "GazeF's in Persian Language. He was born in Belh (South Türkistan, todays Afgghanistan), and has died Konya at two months and seventeen days past the age of 66. He is buried in hnis mausoleum in Konya, which is a museum today. He had the knowledge of Turkish, Persion, Arabic, Greek and Hebrew Languages. This great Sufi and the man of great ideas and emotions has offected the Turkish Culture in such an unchangaable vay. His most famous works are "Divan-i Şems-i tebriz-i", "Mesnevi" and "Rubaiyat". Hz. Mevlânâ is known for his affection for Hz. Muhammed (s.a.v.) and Kur'ân-ı Kerim. This is stated by him nicely bsay "being a dust particle on the track of Hz. Muhammed" and "being a slave of Kur'ân-ı Kerim" VI Mevlânâ, who had been doinf kindness to everyone whole life long, and who had lived a life away from fame and ostentation, had started a new and bright era, and had enlightened the humanity by going beyond the times. The music of the Mevlevî order is called as "Mevlevi Mûsikîsi". It is absolutely the most important brannch of the Sufi Music part of Religious Turkish Music. No other religions order has given as much importance to music as Mevlevîlik. The big form of this music is the "Âyin-i Şerif' form. There had formed t>n instrumental verbal music to accompany the sulfi dance called "Semâ", fromed by the "Âyin-i Serif's. Semâ, which was started by Hz. Mevlânâ in Mevlevîlik, was fater regulated by some rules, and at last in XV. century it has gainde its "mukabele" form by Pîr Âdil Çelebi, who is a descendent of Hz. Mevlânâ. As the "Semâ" s became religuous ritvals, the "Âyin-i Şerif s, which are mostly composed by Mevlevî compposers, were born in order to accompany this ritual dance. The first three of the "Beste-i Kadim"s are thought to be composed either in the second half of the XV. century, or in the beginning of the XVI. century. These anonymous rites which have guided the "Âyin-i Şerif' s that were composed later, were in the "makam" s of Dügâh, Pençgâh and Hüseynî. According to Sadeddin Nüzhet Ergun, the total number of "Âyin-i Şerif' s that were performed ot the Mevlevîhâne's- until they were shut down in 1975 is 66. Although the "Semâ couldn" be performed for a long time after the Mevlevîhâne's were shut down, the "Âyin-i Şerif s contunued to be composed, and a big number of "Âyin-i Şerif s were added to the number of those composed befoe. Only the number of those composed by Sadettin Arel is 51 and by Saadettin Heper is 30. The taxonomy of the composers of 43 "Âyin-i Şerif s that have historical vallues and of which the notes are present today according to the centuries is a follows : In XV. or XVI. century Beste-i Kadim, In XVH. century Köçek Derviş Mustafa Dede, In XVni. century Buhûrizâde Mustafa Itrî Efendi, Nâyi Osman Dede, Musahip Ahmed Ağa, Bursalı Sadık Aefendi, Hâfiz Abdülrrabim Şeyda Dede, Eyyûbi Hüseyin Dede. In XDC century Mustafa Nakşi Dede, m. Selim, Şeyh Abdülbâki Nasır Dede, Hammamizâde îsmâil Efendi, Zekâî Dede Efendi, Şeyh Mehmed Celâleddin Dede, Ahmet Hüsameddin Dede EfendiŞeyh Hüseyin Fahrâddin Dede, Bolâhenk Nuri Bey, Rifat Bey. in XX. century Zekâîzâde Hâfiz Uımet Efendi, Ahmet Avni Konuk, Rauf Yekta, Kâzım Uz. vn The Âyins kmake up a whole wwith the parts played only by instruments and with the parts song along with the instruments. It consists of a na't song alone by Na'than, pollowed by an imporvization with ney, on Âyin Peşrevi", 1. Selâm, 2. Selâm, 3. Selâm, 4. Selâm, Son Peşrev, Son Yürük Semaî When an Âyins was being composed, it was a rule that the text for music shall be taken from "Divân-ı Kebîr" and "Mesnevî" the two mosterpieces of Mevlânâ Celâleddin. But in some Âyins, lyrics taken from teh poems of Sultan Veled, Yunus Emre, some other Sufi poets and composers of the Âyins ore present. Religions "Peşrev" s and "Semâ"s have also been composed by the Âyins composers. The usûl of "Devr-i Kebîr" is preferrably used in these "Peşrev" s. The rhythms used in the ffour Selâms are as follows. 1. Selâm : Ağır Düyek, Devr-i Revan, Devr-i Hindi, Düyek 2. Selâm: Ağır Evfer 3. Selâm : Devr-i Kebîr (Towards the end of this selâm, a change in the usûl to usûls like Ağır Düyek Frenkçin, Çifte Düyek, Aksak Semaî is possible. 4. Selâm : Ağır Evfer, it is like the 2. Selâm and has the some composition with it. Because in the taxonomy of 43 "Âyin-i Şerif' composers according the the conturies it is observed thet the XDC. century is the period most of the "Âyin-i Şerif' were composed, and becouse after Dede Efendi, the greatest composer of that time, comes Zekâî Dede Efendi as the most productive composer of the period, his five "Âyin-i Şerif' s are analysed according to their makams, usûls and lyries. Zekâî Dede Efendi (Eyyûbî Hâfiz Mehmet) : (1825-24.11.1897) Zekâî Dede, the last great composer of the Classical Turkish Music was bom in İstanbul. He know the whole Kur'ân-ı Kerim by heart at the age of 18. He learned the art of calligraphy from his father. From Mustafa izzet Efendi, who was a master of music and calligraphy, he learned the details of some styles of Arabic script like "mnesih" and "Sülüs". He was tought by Balıklı Hoca Efendi, Eyyûbî Mehmed Bey and İsmail Dede Efendi. He was the last student of İsmail Dede Efendi. 1 In 1868 he entered the Mevlevî order and become a Mevlevî. At the age of 60, Zekâî Efendi become Zekâî Dede. Hes was a "Kudümzenbaşı" for 13 years. Zekâî Dede" s first work with a big form was composed in the makam kof "Sûz-i dil". His firs Âyin is kal so composed in the some makam. Zekâî Dede's son Ahmet irsoy has stated thet Zekâî Dede has composed 5 Âyins, about 100 "Kâr"s, Beste's and "Semaî" s, more the 400 hymas, "Şugl" s and marchs. Although 5 Âyins and 95 "Kâr"s, Beste's and "Semaî" s, are present today, only 157 of his composition in little form have managed bo stay upto this date. Zekâî Dede with his incredible talent, and great appreciation of music, is one of the most forestanding composers of the Classical Turkish Music. vm Zekâî Dede's first Âyin-i Şerif' (Sûz-i Dil Âyini) qas composed in on night. When a composer is as caguable as composing a big Mevlevi Âyini in one night and if his work is truely valuable, then there's no doubt in considering him to be a prodigy. 1884 was Zekât Dede's must productive year. Because he was appointed as "Kudümzenbaşı", he had to compose, thus he composed 4 Âyins in one year and this was 15 years ofter he composed his first Âyin. Te second is Âyin-i Mâye, 3 rd is Âyin-i Isfahan, 4 th is Âyin-i Sûznak and the 5 th is Âyin-i Saba Zemzeme. Zekâî Dede had such a speed in composing that, it was enough for him to take a look at the lyrics before be started to perform it to those around. Zekâî Dede has rendered a great service in religious music. In this research, "Mevlevi Âyinleri" that heve been noted down by the "Tasnif ve Tesbit Heyeti" of the "Istanbul Konservatuarı Neşriyatı", by Zekâîzâde Ahmet, Dr. Suphi and Mes'ud Cemil, who make up this "Tasnif ve Tesbit Heyeti", have been considered as kthe main resource. Zekâî Dede has stressed the qualities of the makams very well in has Âyins. He has used every kind go "Çeşni" in the makams. He has udes "usûl" s which are proper for the form of teh "Âyin-i Şerif, and in the places where the usûl changed he hadn't cut the sentence but rather had corried it on untill the and of the second usûl. His this ability of earring on with the same sentence without letting the change in the usûl interrupt it, shows what a great composer khe is. The lyrics of his "Âyin-i Serif's which are "Sûz-i Dil, Mâye, Isfahan and Saba Zemzeme" are in Persion Language, the lyrics of "Sûznâk" is kin Arabic. The first strophe of the 1. Selâm of "Sûz-idil" is also in Arabic. Zekâî Dede never mixed the mystical anxiety found in his religious works kwith his vision of arts in fields besides religion. Teh analysis of the "Mevlevi Âyin-i Serif's of Zekâî Dede, who has marked the XDC. century classically and whose works are examples of immaculate melody and üslûps, is a good source for those interested in this concept. In believe, with such researches our musical values. DC Terminology : Mevlevi : Memberof the order of dervishes founded by Mevlânâ Celâleddin Rûmi, called also the "whirling derwishes" Mevlevihane : Lodge of Mevlevi derwishes. Mevlevîlik : State of being a Mevlevi. Makam : A concept of melodic creation which determines tonal relations, tessitura, starting tone, and the finalis, as kwell as an averall indication of the kmelodic contour and patterns. Its closest counterpart in Western Music is the medieval concept of mode. Usûl : Scale of a "makam" Kudümzen : The player of a small drum used for rhythm in Mevlevi Music, played with special sticks. Kudümzenbaşı: Head of the "Kudumzan"s Na't : A poem pratsing the pophet Muhammed. Na'than : One who reads this poem outhaud. Semâ : A vhirling dance performed during a Mevlevi service.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997|
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1997
|Appears in Collections:||Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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