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|Title:||Resimde Işık Etkileri|
Bayezid, Ayşe Fethiye
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Sanatçılar, yapay ve doğal ışığı doğrudan ele alarak veya ışık etkisini kullanarak her dönemde çarpıcı yapıtları ile tarih sayfalarında yer almışlardır. Edison dönemi öncesi sanatçılar, mum, meşale, gaz lambası gibi o çağın yapay aydınlatma araçlarını kullanarak resimler yapmışlardır. Bu yapay ışık kaynakları ressamların objeleri doğal olarak ortamlarından ayırarak izole etmelerini sağlamıştır. Böylece resme daha çok kişilik kazandırılmış ve gün ışığına göre çok farklı efektler elde edilmiştir. Doğal ve yapay ışık olarak ele aldığımız resim yapıtlarında, ışığın renkle ilişkisi, sanatçıya göre değişen görme alanı içindeki farklılığı, ışık- gölge doğrultusundaki karşıtlıkları, ışığın resimdeki rolü, ifadesi, ışık ve boya renklerinin tanımı, Newton'dan Munsell renk dizgesine kadar uzanan bilimsel araştırmaları karşımıza çıkarmıştır. Leonardo Da Vinci, Elsheimer, Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Georges de La Tour gibi batılı sanatçılar, ışık etkisini yaşadıkları zamana göre büyük bir ustalıkla ifade eden ışık-gölge, üslup, form ve renk anlayışı bakımından farklı özellikler gösteren yapıtlar ortaya koymuşlardır. Diğer taraftan, görsel sanat anlamı ile yapay ışığı kullanan doğu sanatında ise ışık, özellikle minyatür ve baskılarda görülen sembolik bir ifade anlayışında yer alır. Fransız devrimi ile, düşüncede özgürlük kavramı oluşması ve endüstrinin gelişmesi sanatçıyı ve sanatı büyük ölçüde etkilemiştir. Yaşamı olduğu gibi ifade eden sanatçılar yeni ışık kaynakları ile farklı akımlara ait yapıtlar ortaya çıkartmışlardır. Bu çalışmada, Edison'dan önceki çağda yaşamış ressamların çalışmalarında ışık etkisi ayrı bir bölümde incelendikten sonra, Edisondan sonraki çağ da, üç ana grupta toplanmıştır. Birincisi, 1880-1940 arasındaki empresyonistler, ikincisi 1930 dan günümüze kadar gelen realistler, üçüncüsü ise 1950 den günümüze kadar gelen luministlerdir. Realist grupta, doğrudan realistler, sürrealistler ve neo-realistler kapsanmıştır. Resmi bir tarafa bırakarak ışık kaynağının önde olduğu kolaj, obje ve heykelleri kullanarak kompozisyonlar yaratan sanatçılarda luministler grubuna dahil edilmişlerdir. Sonuç bölümünde ise tez yazarının ışık-resim ilişkisi üzerine görüşleri ve bu ilişkinin farklı dönemlerdeki yapıtlarına etkisi incelenmiştir. Bu çalışmayı tamamlayan, sanatçının yapıtları ve bu yapıtların kendisi ve onu yönlerinden danışman hocası tarafından yorumlanmasıdır.|
Working with the light as an art object had a considerable effect in painting style throughout the history of the art. The artists with visual skill like painters, noticed the change in appearance of objects and surrounding environment under the effect of light, and created many distinctive works of art by working on the effects of natural and artificial light in painting. The artist before the Edison's era used artificial light sources like candle, torch and oil lamp in their works. These artificial light sources had helped to isolate the objects from their surroundings. In this way, more intimacy was achieved and quite different effects were obtained than those of the day light situation and special traits were accomplished in painting. The subject of artificial and natural light in painting required to study the relation between the light and colour, the difference in the visual zone which varies according to the artist, the contrast in the direction of light and shadow, the effect of the light on the painting, the definition of light and paint colours, and Newton and Munseel Colour Charts. The Munsell System is the most satisfactory system which determines the colour pattern, fulfilling today's requirements of colour studies. The relationship between light and colour is also mentioned. The light radiating from a source or reflecting from an object which is not a source of light, creates the colour when comes onto the cornea of the eye. In other words, colour is a feature of the light reflecting from objects, and fills the space because of its three dimensional (volumetric) property. Hence,, the colours of the planes forming the space should be considered together, when determining the light and colour arrangement of a space and rules of x colourmatic counter-influences have to be taken into account. This can be achieved by using natural and artificial light. In order to notice any object in the visual zone, lights coming from different areas forming that space, should be differentiated from each other so that the difference shall be recognized. In primitive societies, colours are used freely, that is free from fitting any system, whereas colour selection and colour harmony concepts developed in 16th century. The light itself being an element of painting art entered into European painting with Masacio and formed an essential part of the painting art. Great artists like Leonardo da Vinci, Elsheimer, Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Georges de La Tour has created works of art in a masterful manner according to their time, by working on the light effects which showed different characteristics from the points of the views of light-shadow, style, form and colour considerations. On the other hand, the artificial light had only a symbolic meaning in eastern painting art, which were seen in miniatures and lithographs, as an object of visual art. The effect of light is shown as density and purity of the colour, and appearance of dark and light colour stains in Chinese, Japanese and Indian miniature and lithographic works. The light being only a composition element in pre-impressionist age, starting being the essential subject forming the picture, with impressionism. Impressinist artist did not see the objects alone while looking at their surroundings, but they saw the colours created by light, and pictured them. Consequently, the main element of the picture turned to the light and colour from the form and contour. XI All painting schools upto the impressionism, considered the light as a mean. It was taken in the same way in baroque, classic and romantic art. Light was used as a mean to emphasize plastic values of the figures in painting, being a constructive element. Initiation of the concept of freedom in thought and industrial development with French revolution affected the artist and the art considerably. The artists who illustrated the life in its real form have created works in different painting styles with new light sources. In 19th century, the artists used the light in two different ways, one is romantic and the other is tragic and principal. Romantics used the light softly and misty, whereas neoclassics used the light in a clear and scattered form. In early period of artificial light (1850-1880), effects on the night time views of interiors created by candles and torches, and of streets created by oil lamps were shown by painters, working in colour and black-and-white. Among the artists, who showed this change in night time appearance, we can count Elsheimer, Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Georges de La Tour, Luke Fildes, Daumier and Van Gogh. After starting to use the electricity in lighting, that is, after introduction of incandescent lamp which was presented in the World Fair in Paris in 1881, French impressionists such as Pissaro, Bonnard, Degas and Marquet, saw the effects of powerful electrical artificial light closely, and later the impressionist from other countries followed them. John Atkinson Grimshaw and Victor Pasmore in England, Karl Spitzweg, Adolf Menzel and Felix Valloton in Germany, Isaac Israel and Breitner in Holland are some of the artists coming to the mind, in this group. In this study, the effect of light upon the works of painting artists who lived in pre-Edison era have been explained in a separate section, and post-Edison era has been divided into three main groups. The first one is impressionists XII between 1880-1940, the second one is realists from 1930 to date, the third one is luminists from 1950 to date. In realist group, the straight-forward realists, surrealists and neo-realists are covered. The artists who worked with collage, object and sculpture, in which the light source is in front, rather than dealing with painting are called as luminists. In a separate part, cubist artists are mentioned. Cubist thinking emerged from creating a formal object by taking out the emotional views from nature and objects. According to the cubist artists, the art of painting is an art of creating. In this group, Pablo Picasso's and Lyonel Feininger's works, who used light effects, though rarely in their works, are mentioned. It is not easy to say how consciously the cubist artist used light effect in their works. However, the light effect in the works of Vincent Van Gogh and Paul Delvaux is very clear. Among the artist using light effect in painting, Paul Klee's and Miro's abstract works can be mentioned. In this art style, authentic painting works have been created, by using the colour as the essential element of the painting, and by mixing it with the drawing elements in a harmony. In this kind of painting style, that most of the writer's painting work can be considered as belonging to this group, geometric colour planes and frames are used in fore-and-back ground of the picture, giving third dimension. Luminists have taken the light itself as the essential subject. They are related with the graphical artists, draftsmen, architects and sculptors, rather than painting artists. In the works made by the artists who belong to this group like Livinus, John Healey, Heinz Mack and Dan Flavin, lines from light beams replace lines from artist's brush and quite controlled light zone replaces area and volume. XIII In the final section, the writer explained her personal thoughts on the light- painting relationship, and its effect on her painting works. In this part, works made by the writer at different times are explained in general and from the light-colour effects points of view. The painting works made by the writer are also commented in consideration of abstract interest, distinction, confrontation, disclosure, colour contrast, direction, arrangement, motif and adornment. In general, her visual perception of the objects and figures, and transformation of her imaginative world into abstract shapes is explained. In conclusion, it is also noted that expression of the light and colour effects is related with the visual and conceptual skill of the artist, and can be expressed in different ways and styles in the artists interior world.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997|
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1997
|Appears in Collections:||Sanat Tarihi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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