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|Title:||Yıldız Sarayı'nın Kimliğini Belirlemede Resim Ve Fotoğrafların Önemi|
|Other Titles:||The Importance Of The Paintings And Photograps To Identify The Yildiz Palace|
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Araştırma konumuz olan Yıldız Sarayı pek çok değişik fonksiyonlu yapıların bir araya gelmesinden oluşmuş bir saray kompleksidir. Yıldız Sarayı 'nın çok önemli bir özelliği de Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun son sarayı olmasıdır. Bu sebeple sarayın araştırılan her unsuru Osmanlı İmparatorluğunun son dönem mimarisi, yaşayış tarzı ve daha pek çok özellikleri hakkında değerli bilgiler vermektedir. Bizde bu çalışma çerçevesinde ulaşma imkanı bulabildiğimiz görsel malzemeleri de bir araya getirip bir değerlendirme yaparak sarayın kimliğini araştırmaya çalıştık. Ve bu çalışmalarımız sırasında gördük ki asıl gelişmesini yakın diyebileceğimiz bir zamanda tamamlamış olan saray yapıları yanında sarayın üzerinde bulunduğu alanın tarihi oldukça gerilere hatta Bizans devrine kadar inmektedir. Bugün saray yapılarının üzerinde bulunduğu tepeler, güzel bitki örtüsü ile insanların her zaman ilgisini çekmiş Osmanlı sultanları da buraları çok amaçlı olarak kullanmışlardır. 1877 'de Sultan II.Abdülhamid' in buraya taşınması ve ilk zamanlarından beri bir tek tasarımla değilde zaman içinde ihtiyaç ve isteğe göre yapılan binalarla Sultan evi haline gelen saray 1909 yılına kadar en hareketli devrini yaşamıştır. Sultan Abdülhamid' in tahttan indirilmesi ile bir bakıma sarayın da düşüşü başlamıştır. Daha sonra gelen sultanlar tarafından da zaman zaman kullanılan saray yapıları ve bahçeleri gittikçe ilgiden uzak kalmış, ve sonunda yorgun düşen sarayın bazı yapıları harabe haline gelmiş, bu güne kadar yapılan restorasyon çalışmaları ile bu yapıların çoğu kurtarılabilmiştir. Bugün bu yapıların çoğu bazı değişik kurumlar tarafından kullanılmaktadır. Biz bu çalışmada sarayın geçirdiği bu evreleri, acısı ve tatlısıyle içinde yaşanan hayatı, verdiği kayıpları, geçirdiği tamir ve değişiklikleri saptıyarak ve bunları her türlü görsel malzeme ile pekiştirerek Yıldız Sarayı'nın kimliğini belirlemeye gayret edeceğiz|
Yıldız Palace complex, which consists of some pavilions, kiosks and some different kinds of structural buildings, spreads out in a large area. Borders of this area start from Yıldız hills and extend till Beşiktaş, Ortaköy and Çıragan. The total area of this land is approximately 500.000 m2. Yıldız Palace is the last Ottoman Palace and differs from other Ottoman period palaces such as Dolmabahçe and Beylerbeyi, in consisting of pavillions scattered over an extensive area. History of this land goes till Byzantium Period. We also know that Ottoman Sultans are used this area quite often for different reasons. For instances Sultan Süleyman (Süleyman the Magnif iciant) (1520-1566) and his successors often made excursions here. We also know this area used for hunting or recreation by other sultans. It's obvious that they had some buildings built in this area for different reasons. But unfortunately, we haven't got any certain documents about the architectural history of this area before 19th century. Starting from 19th century, we have got more records to identfy the history of this lands. For example; in the reign of Sultan Selim III. (1789-1807), a summer palace built here for his mother Mihrişah Valide Sultan and a fountain constructed in the name of his father, Mustafa III. This rococo style fountain can still be seen in the inner garden of palace (Selamlık Bahçesi), but summer palace is no more stands today. Sultan Mahmud II. (1808-1839) frequently visited the slopes of Yıldız to observe the training of his newly founded army, "The Victorious Soldiers of Mohammed", as they were called. Altough Mahmud II is known to have had a kiosk built within this area in 1834-1835, no trace of it is to be found today. Starting from the period of Sultan Abdülmecid (1839- 1861) we can follow the architectural structure of this area till today. Vİİ In 1842, Sultan Abdülmecid had a new kiosk in this area, which was called Kasr-ı Dilküşa (Summer Palace of the Beloved) built for his mother Bezmialem Valide Sultan. This is believed that have been the care of the structure known today as the kiosk of the Queen Mother. This building had taken many reparations and additions till today. Now it's used by Yıldız Technical Universty, as a rectorship building. For a while Sultan Abdülmecid stayed in this building with his harem and he governed from Yıldız because he was having his new palace (Dolmabahçe) built at that moment. In 1856 he moved Dolmabahçe Palace and left Yıldız. In the reign of Sultan Abdülaziz (1861-1876), we can say that the important progress of Yıldız Palace was started. First of all he bought some new lands and extended the borders of the palace, had all the previous buildings repaired, gardens organised in a modern way and finally had some new buildings built in this area. These buildings can be still seen today. Malta and Çadır pavilions in the external garden (Yıldız Parkı), Büyük Mabeyn and Çit Summer Palace (Çit Kasrı) in the main part of palace. These kiosks built by architect Sarkis Balyan. Sultan Abdülaziz also had a stone bridge constructed to join Beşiktaş and Ortaköy to each other. This bridge also can be still seen today on the way of Beşiktaş-Ortaköy. Büyük Mabeyn Köşkü (Greater Chamberlain's Kiosk), originally was built as a place of relaxation for Sultan Abdülaziz by Sarkis Balyan in 1866 as mentioned before. This two-story masonry kiosk is the largest structure in the complex. Afterwards, in the reign of Sultan Abdülhamid II. it was used for a number of official functions and receptions and that sultan also had his own office here. That's why we mentioned this building as a main directing building in the part 3.1.1. After 1866, one of the room on the upper floor of this building was used as an office by Gazi Osman Pasha, marshal of the sultan's household, while the rooms on the lower floor were used by court chamberlains. Many important persons were hosted in this kiosk therefore we can say that it witnesed many important events too. Çit Kasrı (Çit Summer-Palace), is located to the right of Büyük Mabeyn Kiosk, which was built in the time of Sultan Abdülaziz, (It's said that this kiosk might be built in the reign of Abdülhamid II) consists of a series of rooms, each one connecting to the next, like links of a chain. This single-storey building was also used as a directing building during the reign of Abdülhamid II. viii In 1876 Abdülhamid II. (1876-1909) ascended the throne. He chosed none of the palaces to live but Yıldız. Afterwards, Yıldız became a Sultan's house and the centre of the govern. He extended the borders of the palace and surrounded all this area by walls. Security was so important for him. That's why along the borders some barracks constructed again for security. There were about 14.000 soldiers in these barracks. In this period innumarable buildings built here such as Küçük Mabeyn (Lesser Chamberlain Kiosk), Yaveran Dairesi (Apertments of the Aides-de-Camp), Armory, Coachmen's House, Coach House, Private Apertment, Harem Buildings, Concubines Apartments, Kızlarağası Kiosk, carpentry Workshop, The lock Factory, The Library, Theatre, Porcelain Factory, Yıldız (Hamidiye) Mosque, Sale Kiosk and many more of them. Additional to these buildings inner garden and external garden are re-organized, lots of precious trees planted here. Many of rare animals were brought from all over the world for Yıldız Palace's zoo. So Yıldız became a self-contained town with containing a different building for each function and a large enviroment supporting this innumarable buildings. Sultan Abdülhamid II. wanted to try all the architectural techniques on these buildings. It was a kind of studying and applying meterials that were newly discovered or newly developed in 19th century Europe. In this sense some buildings built in a very short time in Yıldız Palace. We can consider these as the first examples of the use of the techniques of pref abrication in our architecture. Within these structures, the last palace of the Ottoman era, one observes no pervasive unity of style. Those who visit the palace today find themselves facing an example of eclecticisim resulting from the combination of many forms and techniques. In a sense, one could call this the "Tanzimat Style", a style characteristic of the period of constitutional reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839. There are four main gates to enter the Palace. One of them is for enterance to external gardens (Yıldız Parkı) of palace calls "Mecidiye Gate", entering from this gate one can reach Çadır, Malta and Sale Kiosks and The Pocelain Factory of Yıldız Palace. Koltuk Gate is for general use. It's the first gate on the left hand side walking through by the side of the Hamidiye Mosque, which was built again in the reign of Sultan Abdülhamid II. for friday processions in 1885-1886. IX Passing through the Koltuk Gate Büyük Mabeyn Kiosk is on our right while to our left is the main chancellery. As we ascend the hill by the side of the Haraidiye Mosque, we can reach to Valide Sultan Gate. (Gate Of The Queen Mother) Entering from this gate, we can see the Yaveran Dairesi (Apertments of the Aides-de-Camp) in the opposite direction. This group of structures consisting of linked rooms. It's built by Sultan Abdülhamid II's chief architect Raimondo D'Aranco in Art Nouveau style with Nöbet Odası (Guard Room), which occupied by the chief of the Imperial Guards responsible for the security of the sovereign and the Harem. Another long structure of buildings can be seen opposite to Yaveran Dairesi. This building is called Silahhane (Armory), which was originally built by order of Sultan Abdülhamid II as a dining hall for palace servants. Its exterior consists of a facade enlivened with columns, Corinthian capitals, cornices, and mouldings. This building began to be used as a weapons museum after previously existing armory at the palace was converted into a library. Next to this structure Coachmen's Apartments and Coach House can be seen side by side, altough they look like one building with armory, they are three different structures. Another main gate called Saltanat Kapısı, (Royal Gate) was only for Sultan's use. Inside the palace there is one more big gate to enter the Harem Part. Entering from Harem Gate the first building on the right hand-side is the Küçük Mabeyn Kiosk (Lesser Chamberlain's Kiosk). There is a strong posibility that this structure was also built by chief architect Raimondo D'Aronco. This was the private residence of Abdülhamid II, consisting of a study, a dining room, a relaxation room, an audience room, and a bedroom. Sultan Abdülhamid II was notified of the decision ordering his deposition on 27 April 1909 In one of the rooms of lower floor. If we keep on walking after Küçük Mabeyn, again on the right hand-side we can see the Kaskad Kiosk, and then there used to be Private Apertment of Abdülhamid II. But this beautiful building is burned down in 1919, because of the short-circuit in the reign of Sultan Vahdettin VI (1918-1922). Then he had have a kiosk built here which called Vahdettin Kiosk. In 1922, and it still stands today. Opposite to these structures, Valide Sultan Kiosk and Yıldız Palace Theatre can be seen. Theatre also belongs to Abdülhamid' s period buildings. Which built in 1889 by Vasilaki Kalfa, Harem buildings were located on the far left side of these buildings. In the inner garden there are some small resting kiosks such as Kebab Kiosk and Kxslik Kameriye Kiosk, and one bigger kiosk called Cihannüma Kiosk (Scenic Kiosk). This was a three storey lath and plaster building with a high gabled roof. It has got a wonderful scenery of the sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus. There is the biggest kiosk of Yıldız Palace in the external garden which is called Sale and it consists of three different parts which was built in three different periods. It's built for the visits of German Emperor Wilhelm II. We tried to summarize some of the buildings like that, but in fact there are many buildings which we haven't got any information about, which do not exist today. There are some dificulties to date and identfy some buildings correctly which even can be seen today. To search their identfy we tried to use visual metarials such as old photographs from Abdülhamid albums, oil-on canvas paintings which painted by early Turkish painters, some Ottoman archive documents related to Yıldız Palace, plans and maps. We also considered the long historical period of the palace area. At the end of our resarches we tried to sum up the situation of the buildings till today. Comparing to the old photos it's clear to see that palace's buildings, gardens and even environment of the palace is highly changed. On 27 April 1909, after the deposition of Sultan Abdülhamid II, Yıldız Palace used by other sultans such as Sultan Mehmet Reşat V (1909-1918), but he didn't spend all his time in the palace like Sultan Abdülhamid. And Sultan Vahdettin (1918-1922) stayed both in Yıldız and Dolmabahçe Palaces during his reign. During these Sultans period buildings are repaired time by time. Meanwhile, several of them burned down or demolished. Following the declaration of the Turkish Republic in 1923, the palace remained empty for a while. At Atatürk' s orders the valuable works in its library were transferred to istanbul University and its other movables were scattered about in other Ottoman palaces. In 1924 Yıldız Sarayı was assigned for use by Turkish Armed Forces and the complex served as part of the War Academy. During this period some of the buildings were repaired, and some changes had been made both inside and outside of the buildings, In 1977 the palace was turned over to the Ministery of Culture, at which time extensive restoration work was begun and its still xi going on. We hope that after all this restoration this palace also can be used as a museum-palace like others in the near future.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1993|
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1993
|Appears in Collections:||Sanat Tarihi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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