Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17739
Title: 1980-1992 Arası İstanbul Yapılarında Tarihsel Biçim Kullanımı Üzerine Analitik Bir Çalışma
Authors: Batur, Afife
Boynudelik, Zerrin
22638
Sanat Tarihi
Art History
Keywords: Mimarlık
Modernizm
Postmodernizm
Tarihselcilik
İstanbul
Architecture
Modernism
Postmodernism
Historicism
Istanbul
Issue Date: 1992
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: 19.yy. sonlarından başlayıp 20.yy. ortalarına kadar devam eden dönem genel olarak MODERN DÖNEM olarak adlandırılır. Modern dönem ve genel olarak bu dönem içinde hayatın hemen her alanında hakim olmuş olan düşünce biçimi temel olarak 19.yy. eklektisizmine karşı oluşturulmuş bir harekettir. 19.yy. içinde yaşanan eklektik ve bunun yarattığı karmaşıklık içinden çıkış yolu olarak Modem dönem bir ideoloji olarak Aydınlanma dönemi felsefesini benimsemiş, bu felsefî yaklaşımın insan ve akıla verdiği değeri ve buna bağlı kavramları kullanarak kendi felsefesini oluşturmuştur. Bu yaklaşım, edebiyattan sanata, mimariden siyasi düşüncelere kadar hayatın hemen her alanında etkili olmaya başlamıştır. 20.yy. ortalarına gelindiğinde Modern dönem ideolojisi, özellikle mimari ve plastik sanatlardaki uygulamaları artık kuşku ile karşılanmaya başlanmış ve dolayısıyla Aydınlanma felsefesi terim ve kavramları yeni bir gözle okunmaya çalışılmıştır. Geçmişle tüm ilişkilerin kesilmeye çalışıldığı, en somut örneklerini mimarlık alanında görebildiğimiz, bu alanda kendi iç kuralları ve söylemini oluşturmuş olan Modern dönem ve daha dar anlamı ile Modern mimari sorgulanmaya başlanmıştır. Değişen toplumsal düzenler, ekonomik koşullar, siyasi tercihler bu yeni durumun yeni bir kavram ile açıklanması gereğini ortaya çıkarmıştır. Bu yeni durum, uzun süre üzerinde tartışıldıktan sonra önce mimari alanda kullanılmaya başlanıp, daha sonra her etkinlik alanına kaymaya başlayan Post-Modernizm ile açıklanmaya/tanımlanmaya başlanmıştır. Türkiye'de de Cumhuriyetin kurulması ile birlikte yeni bir toplum ve kent ima¬ jı yaratma çabalan gündeme gelmiş, bu beklentiye en iyi cevaplar dönem ola¬ rak da uygunluk göstermesi bakımından Modern düşünce ve Modern mimari anlayışta bulunmuştur. Bugün ise tüm dünya toplumlarında yaşanan, öncelikle mimari alanda Modernizm'e bir karşı çıkış olarak kabul edilen Post-Modernizm Batı toplumlarında olduğu kadar özgür ve cesurca olmasa bile Türkiye'de de özellikle edebiyat ve mimari alanlarında ve daha geniş bir çerçevede bakıldığın¬ da günlük yaşam içinde etkili obuaya başlamıştır. Bu çalışmada, günümüzün bu gerçeğinden yola çıkılarak, daha dar bir çerçeve de, özellikle mimari uygulamalar bağlamında ve istanbul kenti ile sınırlanmış olarak örneklenmeye çalışılmıştır. Örneklerde Modern mimariye bir karşı çıkış olarak gündemi meşgul eden ve özellikle de Modern mimari'nin kesinlikle kaçındığı tarihçilik konusunda Modern mimariye tarihsel referansları kullanması bakımından taban tabana zıt olan Post-Modern mimarinin tarihsel biçim kullanma serbestliği ortak özellik olarak ele alınmıştır. Yapılan çalışma Türkiye'de, Batı ülkelerinde olduğundan farklı bir biçimde özellikle vitrin düzenlemelerinde daha yaygın olarak kullanıldığı sonucuna ulaşılmasına neden olmuştur. Çünkü Batı toplumlarında yapıların tamamında da en az vitrin düzenlemeleri kadar yaygın bir kullanım söz konusudur.
The period, starting from the last decades of 19th century till the mid 20th century which has been effective almost in all aspects of life, literature, arts, thought and especially in architecture is generally called the MODERN PERIOD. Modern period and the prevailing movement in this period is basically developed as a reaction to the confusion of art in 19th century. 19th century has been supported by Enlightenment thought's rationalism which is the result of an awakening starting from Renaissance, liberated from the pressure of the church, dogmas and metapysical thought, explaining the human existance with his own mind, trying to find a place and a way of life in cosmos. With all this, 19th century is regarded as a period of thought prosperity. Nevertheless, 19th century seems to be sort of multidimensioned, just like many other periods. In this period too, as well as many philosophers, artists and writers who approve of new ideologies, there was a majority who regard themselves excluded from the society they live in and force themselves to bear the tendencies and beliefs the society accepts. The alternatives for the catastrophic ways of life in 19th century were created by Ruskin, Morris and Arts and Crafts movement. After those, Art Nouveau appeared, which probably was the outburst of art since 200 years. 20th century, then became a period that the belief of universal form was to be discovered which could not have been in 19th century. This was the expectation: Starting from this century, people everywhere will dress the same way, sit on the chairs that have the same design, eat the same kind of food and live in the same sort of buildings. The focal point of arguments have concentrated upon this problem was that the machines have replaced the handcrafts. From that point, the priority was given to the suitable working conditions for the machines, to improve the machine aesthetics and finding out aesthetical forms liberated from embellishment. There was the necessity of suitability to industrial process for forms either created for daily life or for art. -VI There was a common purpose within all radical trends of Modern period which was an epoch of reaction: To pioneer a visual integrity and change what is valid. In architecture, it is possible to observe all substantial examples of this reactionary period that reigned all fields of art. In the beginning of 20th century, the concept of architecture showed a heterogeneus structure which was constituted of ideologies having the common point of confronting the 19th century eclecticism though in fact being different from each other. All tendencies mentioned above which can be named as Modern architecture have another common point: they all accepted the principle of functionalism. In this period, determination of the programme, the clear expression of structure, belief in technology and industry, the universality of solutions reached by mind, deliberately keeping off from embellishment and historical references were the period's thus the Modern architecture's main principles. Modernism appeared as a radical change in the end of 19th century through the beginning of 20th century and left traces in all aspects of life, but gave its most striking examples in architecture, but when we come to 1970's, it lost its dominance and left its place to an opponent concept; Post-Modernism. Modernism had found its most important source in Enlightenment philosophy. The celestial order was no more and the scholastic Middle Age thought was abolished. The humanistic principles like freedom, fraternity, equality had started to take roots. The most important of all was the will to grasp the universality. From the second half of 20th century onwards, concept like integrity, totality etc. belonging to Enligtenment philosophy were reinquired especially when the independence movement of the colonies accelerated. With this inquiry, all superior theories which tried to explain the universal concept and supported the Modern movement lost their respectability. Today, it is no more possible to mention the 'centers' which were supported by Enlightenment philosophy. The new human model created with this reinquiry has no unity, consistancy nor conscious subject that can build up the history. This model is effecting and effected and can talk for different subject point of views. With this reinquiry, showed up the need of 'redefiniton' and many concepts were put forwards: Post-industry, Post-fordism, consumption society, communication society etc. vn - SUMMARY The period, starting from the last decades of 19th century till the mid 20th century which has been effective almost in all aspects of life, literature, arts, thought and especially in architecture is generally called the MODERN PERIOD. Modern period and the prevailing movement in this period is basically developed as a reaction to the confusion of art in 19th century. 19th century has been supported by Enlightenment thought's rationalism which is the result of an awakening starting from Renaissance, liberated from the pressure of the church, dogmas and metapysical thought, explaining the human existance with his own mind, trying to find a place and a way of life in cosmos. With all this, 19th century is regarded as a period of thought prosperity. Nevertheless, 19th century seems to be sort of multidimensioned, just like many other periods. In this period too, as well as many philosophers, artists and writers who approve of new ideologies, there was a majority who regard themselves excluded from the society they live in and force themselves to bear the tendencies and beliefs the society accepts. The alternatives for the catastrophic ways of life in 19th century were created by Ruskin, Morris and Arts and Crafts movement. After those, Art Nouveau appeared, which probably was the outburst of art since 200 years. 20th century, then became a period that the belief of universal form was to be discovered which could not have been in 19th century. This was the expectation: Starting from this century, people everywhere will dress the same way, sit on the chairs that have the same design, eat the same kind of food and live in the same sort of buildings. The focal point of arguments have concentrated upon this problem was that the machines have replaced the handcrafts. From that point, the priority was given to the suitable working conditions for the machines, to improve the machine aesthetics and finding out aesthetical forms liberated from embellishment. There was the necessity of suitability to industrial process for forms either created for daily life or for art. -VI There was a common purpose within all radical trends of Modern period which was an epoch of reaction: To pioneer a visual integrity and change what is valid. In architecture, it is possible to observe all substantial examples of this reactionary period that reigned all fields of art. In the beginning of 20th century, the concept of architecture showed a heterogeneus structure which was constituted of ideologies having the common point of confronting the 19th century eclecticism though in fact being different from each other. All tendencies mentioned above which can be named as Modern architecture have another common point: they all accepted the principle of functionalism. In this period, determination of the programme, the clear expression of structure, belief in technology and industry, the universality of solutions reached by mind, deliberately keeping off from embellishment and historical references were the period's thus the Modern architecture's main principles. Modernism appeared as a radical change in the end of 19th century through the beginning of 20th century and left traces in all aspects of life, but gave its most striking examples in architecture, but when we come to 1970's, it lost its dominance and left its place to an opponent concept; Post-Modernism. Modernism had found its most important source in Enlightenment philosophy. The celestial order was no more and the scholastic Middle Age thought was abolished. The humanistic principles like freedom, fraternity, equality had started to take roots. The most important of all was the will to grasp the universality. From the second half of 20th century onwards, concept like integrity, totality etc. belonging to Enligtenment philosophy were reinquired especially when the independence movement of the colonies accelerated. With this inquiry, all superior theories which tried to explain the universal concept and supported the Modern movement lost their respectability. Today, it is no more possible to mention the 'centers' which were supported by Enlightenment philosophy. The new human model created with this reinquiry has no unity, consistancy nor conscious subject that can build up the history. This model is effecting and effected and can talk for different subject point of views. With this reinquiry, showed up the need of 'redefiniton' and many concepts were put forwards: Post-industry, Post-fordism, consumption society, communication society etc. vn - SUMMARY The period, starting from the last decades of 19th century till the mid 20th century which has been effective almost in all aspects of life, literature, arts, thought and especially in architecture is generally called the MODERN PERIOD. Modern period and the prevailing movement in this period is basically developed as a reaction to the confusion of art in 19th century. 19th century has been supported by Enlightenment thought's rationalism which is the result of an awakening starting from Renaissance, liberated from the pressure of the church, dogmas and metapysical thought, explaining the human existance with his own mind, trying to find a place and a way of life in cosmos. With all this, 19th century is regarded as a period of thought prosperity. Nevertheless, 19th century seems to be sort of multidimensioned, just like many other periods. In this period too, as well as many philosophers, artists and writers who approve of new ideologies, there was a majority who regard themselves excluded from the society they live in and force themselves to bear the tendencies and beliefs the society accepts. The alternatives for the catastrophic ways of life in 19th century were created by Ruskin, Morris and Arts and Crafts movement. After those, Art Nouveau appeared, which probably was the outburst of art since 200 years. 20th century, then became a period that the belief of universal form was to be discovered which could not have been in 19th century. This was the expectation: Starting from this century, people everywhere will dress the same way, sit on the chairs that have the same design, eat the same kind of food and live in the same sort of buildings. The focal point of arguments have concentrated upon this problem was that the machines have replaced the handcrafts. From that point, the priority was given to the suitable working conditions for the machines, to improve the machine aesthetics and finding out aesthetical forms liberated from embellishment. There was the necessity of suitability to industrial process for forms either created for daily life or for art.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1992
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1992
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17739
Appears in Collections:Sanat Tarihi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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