Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17716
Title: 16-18. Yüzyıl Osmanlı Minyatürlerinde Bahçe Teması
Authors: Batur, Afife
Ekmekçibaşı, İpek
53274
Sanat Tarihi
Art History
Keywords: Sanat Tarihi
Bahçeler
Minyatür
Osmanlı Dönemi
Tasvir
Art History
Gardens
Minyature
Ottoman Period
Description
Issue Date: 1996
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: 16. - 18. yüzyıl Osmanlı minyatüründe bahçe teması" konulu tezimizde, minyatür sanatının geleneksel yapısı içinde çeşitli şekillerde yer alan bahçe tasvirleri örneklerini irdelemeyi amaçladık. incelememiz sırasında öncelikle bahçe olgusunun Osmanlı kültüründeki yeri, önemi ve bunun minyatür sanatına yansıma şekli belirlenmeye çalışıldı. Daha sonra 16. yüzyıldan itibaren tarihi konulan resimleme yoluna gitmiş ve estetik özellikleri yanında belge niteliğinde değer kazanmış Osmanlı minyatür sanatının, gerçekçi üslubu içinde tasvir edilmiş bahçe görüntülerinin, kompozisyonlar genelinde kullanım şekilleri ve tasvirlerde yer alan kalıplaşmış motifler belirlenmeye çalışıldı. 16. yüzyıldan 18.yüzyıla kadar rastladığımız bahçe tasvirlerinin, gelişim ve değişim çizgisi oluşturulmaya çalışıldı. Son olarak dönemin diğer İslam ülkelerinde yapılmış minyatürlerdeki bahçe tasvirleri ile Osmanlı minyatürlerindeki bahçe tasvirleri arasındaki ortak ve ayrı unsurlar üzerinde duruldu. Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi ve İstanbul Üniversitesi Kütüphanesi'nde ulaşabildiğimiz minyatürlü yazmalar ve mevcut kaynakların incelenmesi sonunda, Osmanlı minyatür sanatının gelişim çizgisine paralel üslup özellikleri gösteren bahçe tasvirlerinin, minyatürün asıl konusunu oluşturduğu örneklerin yanı sıra, konuya fon yada ön plan teşkil ederken içerdiği motiflerin -Osmanlı minyatür sanatının gerçekçi ve detaycı yaklaşımımdan da yola çıkarak- dönemin bahçe mekanlarının karakterini oluşturan elemanlarla yakın benzerlikler gösterdiğini söylemek mümkün olmaktadır. Yüzyıllar boyunca Osmanlı minyatürlerinde ince bir zevk ile işlenmiş bahçe tasvirleri, 18.yüzyıldan itibaren, Osmanlı kültürünün hemen her alanında hissedilen batı etkileri neticesinde değişimlere uğramış, minyatürlerdeki diğer doğa tasvirleri ile beraber, başlıbaşına manzara resimlerine dönüşen bir yol izlemişlerdir.
From the beginning of human history, humans as they domesticated animals they also surrounded their environment with plants useful for their survival. In the beginning, their gardens constitute plants for their consumption but as the humanity evolve the gardens were populated with beautiful flowers and trees for their visual and spiritual pleasure. Gardening has been introduced to Middle Asian Turks later as they were originally nomadic tribes. Turkish tribes brought with them the concept of gardens with many variety of flowers when they came to settle in Anatolia. With the acceptance of Islam, the identification of gardens with Eden started. In the Islamic Ottoman culture, the importance and preference given to life in outside gardens can be seen as a reflection to their earlier nomadic traditions. For the construction of the Ottoman palaces, the choice of location was based on the design of the gardens followed by constructions of the actual buildings. The simplicity in the design of the gardens in the Ottoman tradition with its mall fountains and pools, streams, flower fields and arrangements, sitting arrangements with pathways and stairs and finally with animals living around the trees and plants reflects their life approach to gardens. Since gardens are part of Ottomans everyday life rather than a simple pleasure ground, there were parts allocated to fruit trees as well as vegetable used for food and medicinally purposes. Even though the remains of early Ottomans gardens are no longer, descriptions of many royal gardens (Hasbahçe) in Bursa, Edirne, Manisa and Amasya are encountered in the historical documents. The Topkapi Palace gardens, frequently seen in the 16th till 18th century miniatures of was a summary of all the existing Ottoman culture of gardening. Topkapi Palace gardens with many courts located in strategic places showed simplicity in design can be seen now as well as in the miniatures existing today. Many gardens and commons located in the city were used by all citizen, rich or poor, as a place to gather and share the natural beauty. Sources available to us on the gardens and gardening culture of Ottoman Empire during the 16th till 18th century, are the historical documents prepared during this period as well as miniatures of the same period. In this thesis of " The concept of "Garden" in the Ottoman miniature art between the 16th -18th century", the designated aim was the analysis of gardens seen in the miniature of this period IV As a start, the importance of concept of "garden" in the Ottoman Culture and its spread over the miniature art was explained and the view of gardens were mentioned with different characteristic approach in the general view of miniature composition. Looking through the view of gardens in realistic style of Ottoman miniature art, the common motives were investigated. As we progressed, the changes and the developments can be seen in the 16th till 18th century miniatures. For the conclusion, the common and contradictory properties of the view of gardens in the Ottoman miniature and other Islamic civilisations especially in Persian miniature were explained. After investigating the examples of miniature in the Topkapi Palace Museum and the Istanbul University Library and various written documents, It became apparent that the development of style in the miniature art parallels the development of the gardening style during the Ottoman period. While choosing the miniatures of garden views from Topkapi Palace Museum Library and İstanbul University Library, we found the illustrated documents which can be seen below in this sequence : Kitab-ı Bahriye T.S.M.H. 642 Selimname T.S.M.H. 1597-98 Beyanı Menazil-i Sefer-i Irakeyn İ.Ü.KTP.5964 Süleymanname T.S.M.H. 1517 Şehinşahnamel. İ.Ü.KTP.T.1404 Hünernamel T.S.M.H.1523 Hünername2. T.S.M.H.1524 Şehinşahname 2. T.S.M.H. B.200 Şecaatname İ.Ü.KTP 6043 Surname-i Hümayun T.S.M.H.1344 Şemailname-i Ali-i Osman T.S.M.A.3597 Şehname-i Nadir-i T.S.M.A.1124 1. Ahmet Albümü T.S.M.B.408 Falname T.S.M.H.1703 Surname-i Vehbi T.S.M.A.3593 Hübanname ve Zenanname İ.Ü.KTP 5502 Gardens were not only seen in the miniature describing the specific garden but can be seen as the background or the foreground for various subjects. The motives used in the miniatures as descriptive notations are also found in the architectural sites of the period, therefore bringing the conclusion that these miniature are also actual documents for the gardens of the period. This conclusion can also be derived from the fact that the Ottoman Miniature art is a realistic and detailed art form. The garden in the Ottoman miniature were influenced by the West like many other branches of Ottoman art, and soon become landscape views. The art of miniature painting from the 16th and the 18th century of the Ottoman Era always progressed with the support of royalty. Starting from the 16th century that created the essential characteristic of the Ottoman miniature art and that later improved it, began the tradition of illustrating the written documents of the historical events. So not the miniature gained an additional perspective functioning as a document but it remained an aesthetic work of art as well. Looking through this perspective of miniatures acting as documents, we came to believe that the gardens seen in the illustrations gave us the actual characteristics of the royal gardens or open air places. The style of showing the gardens itself in miniatures started with Matrakçı Nasuh, who is one of the important artist of early 16th century, had his drawing more like a map. After Matrakçı, the other important artists like Osman improving the style, thus by the middle of the 16th century, gardens gained their actual topographic character, further leading to the panoramic form. Naturally along with the improvement of the miniature drawing style, the garden paysage in them also improved. From the middle of the 16th century to the beginning the 17th century, garden paysage have been used in lots of illustrations. The garden in miniatures are seen in two ways. In one it is in the background of whatever happening is documented. The other is in the foreground used for configuration. In this two ways which gardens are seen either in the background or in the foreground, except a few examples, drawing do not stress much about the garden's design but shows it only as the place of the event. But the details used in garden paysage like streams, pond, kiosks, fountains, winding paths, flower arrangements, trees and several kinds of animals - like birds, deer etc. - were also in real life. The most favourite motifs of the garden are cypress trees and other kinds in blossom. Fountains with ponds of flowing water are also important. Another interesting thing in miniatures is that the garden view is always seen even only it's through a window at the back of either a kiosk or a throne. The miniatures in which many garden views can be seen, can be divided into groups according to their subject : 1) Garden views representing the whole subject 2) Garden views in the ceremonies of succession 3) Garden views in the ceremonies of Sultans' accepting the members 4) Garden views in various facilities, like processionals in festivals Whatever the subject was, the same motives were used. Garden bottoms were indicated in different styles: Not only bottoms of all the same colour could be seen but a bunch of flowers and plants on a certain colour could also be seen as well. In these kind of styles leaves took the most attention. Naturally, tree is the most impressive and unforgettable motives in garden paysage. Trees' stylistic properties and its holy place in Islam Culture enabled it to be drawn in almost every part of Ottoman Art. Cypress are important as much as plane trees according to garden views of miniatures.Trees are placed in systematic orders in huge areas. Water is known for its holyness in Ottoman Culture and it is a constant motive. The places which are related with water, are painted in silver colour so that it gains an impressive approach. VI Flowers representing the nature's beautiness also plays an important role in garden views of miniature. You can see various kinds of these flowers, especially rose and tulip which are known to be more special. Small kiosk have been used in garden paysage, especially miniatures showing garden maquettes in 18th century. Naturalist behaviored animals in their natural ways especially gazelle can be seen as adorning the garden views of miniature. The most important -garden paysage from the first half of the 17th century are seen in albums. The miniatures in these album have great documentary value when it comes to information about the life and entertainment of Ottoman in the first half of the 17th century. The garden paysage in these miniatures are characteristic examples of an original palace style in time. Hardly any work of importance had came down from the second half of the 17th century, which is the most obscure period in Ottoman miniature painting. Miniature art gradually lost prestige parallel to the decline of Empire, and the palace in İstanbul had lost it's previous importance. The İstanbul palace studio was no longer encouraged. The 18th century is a significant period in Ottoman miniature painting. The best representative of the new style is Levni who is an excitingly productive and creative artist. While no strict details about the garden architecture are seen in the above mentioned miniatures, one can find every detail of an actual Ottoman garden design, in the model gardens we see in processional miniatures like of Levni's Surname-i Vehbi. This garden models are invaluable not only because they reflect the miniature style of time, but also they throw some light on early 18th century garden architecture. Through the 18th century the impact of the west increased and serious efforts were made by royalty to westernise the traditional ideas. Naturally during this period that a new artistic style originated in the Ottoman miniature painting. From this time classical style forms left their places to natural view. The artists were interested in the European style in every way, so the garden paysage in this time were very different from the classical ones. The technical style of miniature has been changed, so the water-colour paintings lost their classical miniature properties and garden paysage turned to landscape view. They painted with soft brush stroke and pastel colours and the tradition of garden paysage began to disappear. These are the illustrated documents which we gained while we are trying to find the similarities and constractions between garden views in Ottoman and Persian miniatures: Firdevsi Şehnamesi T.S.M.H. 1519 Firdevsi Şehnamesi İ. Ü.KTP. F.1405 Firdevsi Şehnamesi T.S.M.H. 1512 Divan-ı Hafiz-i T.S.M.H. 986 There are many similarities between the Ottoman Miniature art and the Persian Miniature art which had a certain influence on the Ottoman miniatures as well as VII diversification. The usage of garden elements such as the background wall murals as well as a foreground site in the miniature can be seen in the Persian miniatures as well. One of the major diversification between the Persian and Ottoman miniatures is the difference in the usage of gardens by the Persian artists for proof of their artistic capacities rather than the Ottoman artists usage for the provision of realistic details. The Ottoman miniatures described the historical moments with as much as accuracy possible with the exacts details whereas the Persian miniatures were used for literary purposes describing fictional events. This lead the difference in the style and basically in the description of the landscape between the two cultures. Their common points are the motifs and certain styles of description such as picture windows showing the garden from inside position
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1996
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17716
Appears in Collections:Sanat Tarihi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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