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|Title:||Helvai Tekkesi restorasyon projesi|
|Other Titles:||Restoration project of the Helvai Tekkesi|
Başkır, Cemil Cenk
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
|Abstract:||Tez çalışmasına konu olan Helvai Tekkesi, Süleymaniye, Kalenderhane Mahallesi" nde yer almaktadır. Tekke, selamlık, tevhidhane-türbe, ve harem bölümlerinden oluşmaktadır. Tek kenin kuruluşu XVI. yüzyılın ikinci ya da üçüncü çeyreğine rastlamaktadır. Bu çalışmanın ilk bölümünde, ülkemizdeki tarihi eserle rin ve çevrelerin korunması konusunda çeşitli kesimlerin konuya yaklaşımları gibi sorunlara değinilmiş ayrıca Helvai Tekkesi'nin tez konusu olarak seçilmesindeki etmenler kısaca açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. İkinci bölümde, tarikatların ana düşüncelerini yansıtan tasavvuf kavramına, üçüncü bölümde ise, tarikatların türediği mezheplere değinilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde tekkelerin varoluş nedeni olan tarikatlar konusu ele alınmıştır. Beşinci bölümde, tarikatların savunduğu fikirle rin bir uygulama alanı olarak ortaya çıkan tarikat yapıları nın İslâm ülkeleri ile Anadolu'da yayılması, etkileri ve tekke mimarisinin tarih içindeki gelişimi gibi konulara açık lık kazandırılmaya çalışılmıştır. Altıncı bölümde ise, Helvai Tekkesi'nin bağlı bulunduğu Bayrami Tarikatı' nın analizi ya pılmış ve İstanbul'da bulunan diğer Bayrami tekkelerine deği nilmiştir. Yedinci bölümde söz konusu tekkenin tarihçesi ve mimari tanımlaması ele alınmıştır. Sekizinci bölümde yapıdaki strüktür ve malzeme bozulmaları açıklanmış, restitüsyon çalış malarına başlık olan dokuzuncu bölümde ise rölöve çalışmaları sırasında yapılan saptamalara göre yapının özgün durumunun ortaya çıkarılmasına çalışılmıştır. Onuncu ve son bölüm olan restorasyon önerisinde tekkenin yeniden işlevlendirilmesi doğrultusunda yapılan öneriye değinilmiştir. Bu yönde yapının "Eski El Yazma Eserleri Enstitüsü' ne dönüştürülmesi ve doku zuncu bölümde ele alınan restitüsyon önerileri ve projesine uygun olarak restore edilmesi açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır.|
The Helvai Tekkesi which is selected as the subject of this thesis is located on Bozdoğan Kemeri Street, Kalender- hane District, Süleymaniye (Istanbul/Turkey) and is comprised of selamlık, tevhidhane-tomb and harem buildings. Although the construction date of the tekke is not definitely known, it is clear. That it was established during the years that Sheikh Yakup Efendi, the founder and the first sheikh of the tekke lived. Thus making it evident that the tekke belonged to the XVI. Century. The reason of our selection of the Helvai Tekkesi as the subject of my thesis is that this tekke which needs urgent core is one of the rare surviving examples of this type of building while it is a living proof of the social, esthetic and cultural values of its period. Another aim of this preference and study is to draw attention to one part of the construction which constitutes a typical old Istanbul city tissue in which Byzantine and Ottoman works exist in combination, but which is destroyed day by day, and to be able to have this construction own its real value which it deserves. In the second part of the thesis introductory informa tions about tariqa sound sufism are presented. The development of early sufism outside Turkey in Arab countries as well as in Iran and Central Asia is summarily explained. Its early Anatolian growth until Mevlâna has also been presented. In the third part, mention has been made of the mezheps, their descriptions made, and a short consideration has been given to the mezheps which resulted from same difference in ways of worshipping and in the understanding of law. It may be concluded that, Tarigas were subsidiary institutions of a mezhep. They were attached to fundamental principles, while mezheps are extension of them ideological system which involved tariqa. In the fourth part, the rise of tariqas and the basic tariqas are reviewed. In this part the twelve important tariqas "Madiriyye", "Yeseviyye", "Rıfaiyye", "Kübreviyye", "Medyeniyye", "Desukiyye", "Bedeviyye",. "Şazeliyye", "Ekberiyye", "Mevleviyye", "Sadiyye", "Nakşibendiyye" are described. The administrative division of the tariqas constitued a subsection in the thesis, in which the specific rules of discipline and division of labor were explained. It is indicated with an explanatory sample on XV. Century Ottoman zaviye that different persons were assigned to almost all positions. In the following sections of the same part, attempt is made to give an explanatory descrip tion of such special titles as "şeyh", "baba", "çelebi", "can", "caliph" etc., all of which were frequently encountered with in relation to tarikat, which reflected the hierarchic order, and which were given to the members of tariqa. In the section of tariqas in view of their ritual characteristics efforts are made to describe tariqas which fall into three different qrapsi ("Klymai", "Devrani", "Mevleviye and Bektaşiye") depending on to what rules dervishes should abide by in the tevhidhane. These rites which appeared after the tariqas had been founded and structural! zed and which showed differences from tariqa to tariqa ("Sema", "Hatm-ı Hace", "Darb-ı Esma", "Zikr-i Kxyam", "Deveran"). In the section related with tariqa constructions, consideration has been given to the localities which a tariqa construction should have in order to fulfill some essential requirements, as well as the tariqa constructions which were designated as different names in accordance with various criteria "pir evi", "asitane", "hanikâh", "dergah", "tekke", "zaviye". The sources of income possessed by these tariqas all of which had to fulfil a number of social requirements, were all collected under three headings such as foundations, private donations, and aids effected by state administrations and are explained in detail under the section, "The income sources of the Tariqas". In the fifth section, a detailed consideration has been given to the subject of "The Expansion of Tariqa Constructions in the Islamic Countries and Anatolia, its ef effects, and the Historical Development of the Tekke Archi tecture". In this section mention has been made to the apperance of zaviye (s) in the Islamic world, besides, attempts have been made to clarify such subjects as the appearance of zaviye (s) in North Africa, Middle East Islamic countries and Anatolia, and what aims they served to. The Anatolian zaviye (s) are reviewed under such headings as the Sel juki Period Zaviye (s) and the Ottoman Periods Zaviye (s), their tasks were listed in items like expanding Islam and its tasavvuf in Anatolia, maintaining the restora tion and residence problems of newly captured lands, reviving these lands, fulling various requirements of the travellers providing security meanwhile. The characteristics of the early dervishes which differentiated them from the successors have been identified. In this section, mention has also been -xvix»- made of the historical development of tekke architecture. In this direction, attempts have been made to describe in illustrations the schematic plans of the first tekkes which comprised of domed central space and attached liwans; schematic plans of the transition period tekkes which started in the shope of plan scheme of medrese with dosed courtyard; but which later changed and the last era tekkes which were generally included in a külliye and which had plan schemes of medrese with an open courtyard. The last era tekkes were handled likewise as they possessed tevhidhanes built in of different plan schemes (rectangular, sguare, pahlx square, octagon, dadecagon, circular and elliptical plans) due to the fact that the tariqas practice different rites. Furthermore, these tekkes are collected under two different groups due to the differences in the relations between the volumes which comprise the last era tekkes. The final section of this part mention has also been made of some other samples which gained different charac teristics with additions made in accordance with requirements which arose in the countries which followed the centuries they were constructed. In the sixth part, attempts have been made to describe under such subdivisions as Bayrami Tariqa to which. Helvais Tekkesi, the subject of our thesis, was a sect; Hacx Bayram-x Veli and the foundation, expansion and characteristics of the tariqa. Under the subdivision of the Bayrami Tariqa and its tekkes in Istanbul, efforts have been made to interpret with various theses the inconsistency between the number of tekkes in Istanbul of the aforementioned tariqa which was admitted to have expanded in Istanbul and its admittance in Istanbul. The tekkes of this tariqa in Istanbul are separately examined (Abdi Baba Tekkesi, Abdüssamed Efendi Tekkesi, Akşemseddin Tekkesi, Başçı Tekkesi, Divitçiler Tek kesi, Emekyemez Tekkesi, Haşimi Emir Osman Efendi Tekkesi, Helvai Tekkesi, Himmetzade Tekkesi, Mehmed AŞa Tekkesi, Oğlan lar Tekkesi, Tavil Mehmed Efendi Tekkesi) and a comparision is made between the plan and material aspects of these tekkes in the conclusion part. In the seventh part, a short history of the tekke has been reviewed. Starting from this point attempts have been made to discover the foundation century of the tekke, first from the sources investigated, and then from the construction itself with ampire approaches due to the fact that. There were no clarifying data related with the foundation date of the tekke. Taking as a basis the birth and death dates of Yakup Efendi, who was stated to be the founder and the first sheikh of the tekke in a reference related with the subject alone, it was claimed that Helvai Tekkesi was -xvxix- established in either the second or third period of the XVIth century. In the rest past of the chapter, people who became sheiks in the tekke were shortly mentioned, and the information collected about these people from various sources were presented in addendum. Under the light of these data, it was concluded that due to the fact that there were sheiks in the tekke were also sheiks bounded to various tekkes the tekke in question which was attached to the Bayrami Tariqa was also shown as a tekke belonging to different tariqas in the lists which were prepared in relation to tekkes at various times. Furthermore, under the heading of general consideration, a very stort description of the district, zone, etc., where the tekke was located was given as well as the constructions which comprise the tekkes. Following this under the subsection of constructive descrip tion, each of the construction which comprise the tekke (selamlık, tevhidhane-tomb, harem), were individually dealth with, and detailed def inititions were made on mainly from their elections down to their sizes. In the eight part, effort is made to explain structural and material deteriorations and their causes which resulted from various events in time in the structures which comprised the tekke. The detections in the structural deteriorations were dealt with at "bina ölçeği" and the detections in material deterioration at "hacim Ölçeği". At the end of these detections, it was concluded that both instructural and material deteriorations such causes as the dampness from the ground, man made destruction, fungi as well as microor ganisms and harmful insects as woodwarm, external factors (roun, sun) etc., had a great stare in the deteriorations. In the ninth part, under the heading of restition depending on data obtained both from the old documents found and from the releve studies the restitution of the tekke was attempted. The three constructions (selamlık, tevhidhane-tomb, harem) which comprised the tekke were individually handled as in the other parts and related suggestions of restitution were presented depending on concerte findings (old document photograph, data of the construction, etc.). In the tenth and last part under the heading of restoration, it was started that most of the historic buildings lost their functions at the present day, and that the most important step is the selection of correct function in the restorations to be made for these buildings. Later, mention has been made of the fact that as a first step in the restoration of the tekke the selection of function was dealt with due to the fact that the function Helvai Tekkesi had during the years of activation was ended, and the reason was explained as to why the construction was converted into "the Institute of Old Manuscripts". Thus, again mention has been made of Old Manuscripts the Istanbul University, -xxx- ' the owner of the tekke, had, but it was also indicated that the University could not present these valuable pieces with modern systems. Under the light of these data it was recommended that an archive of microfilms of these works be established in the tekke. Furthermore, it was also suggested that another archive comprising of the Turkish version or duplicated form of the original manuspripts at the University be founded. The spaces in Selamlık and Harem and Mabeyn Odası were reserved spaces required for these functions, while tevhidhane was suggested to be used as a multi faceted hall for such activities meetings debales, or demonstrations etc. Moreover, on the third floor of Harem, a repair workshop was suggested to be established, where worn out, distorted manuscripts could be mended. In addition, spaces comprising Selamlık and Harem and Mabeyn Odası were each individually signified what functions they were assigned to. The kind of interventions which should take place in the spaces comprising the tekke, the suggestions of restitution made, were each handled with individually, under the light of structural and material deteriorations detected in the structure and their causes. Taking into consideration the severe structural and material deteriorations in the structure a "reconstruction" was suggested for selamlık and tevhidhane- tomb and different methods of intervention for harem, Which was in a better condition. Moreover, mention is also made of the technique of empregne which protected the wood and its deterioration as well as protective substances of varmish base which served as U.V. filter and which protected against U.V. rays from the sun the elevation covering materials and improved wood protection methods and materials.
|Appears in Collections:||Restorasyon Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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