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|Title:||Türkiye'de Film Müzikleri Tarihi Ve Gelişimi|
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Türkiye'de ilk Film gösterisi Romanya uyruklu bir Polonya yahudisi Sigmund Weingberg tarafından 1896 yılında yapılmıştır. İlk filmler Müdafaa-i Milliye Cemiyetinin, merkez ordu sinema dairesi katkılarıyla daha sonrada, Malul Gaziler Cemiyeti tarafından yapılmış ilk film Fuat Uzkınay tarafından çekilmiştir. 1914 - 1922 arası belgesel niteliğinde filmler çekilmiş ilk konulu filmlere yönelinmiştir. 1922 (2 film), 1923 (3 film), 1925 (3 film), 1929 (1 film), 1931 (1 film), 1933 (7 film), 1934 (3 film) ve böylece 1990'Iara kadar sürecek bir serüven başlamış oluyordu. 1939 - 1949 yılları arasında bir geçiş dönemi yaşanmıştır. 1948'e kadar senede 2-4 film arasında oynayan eğri 1948'de 18 film çıkmış. İlk sinemacılar döneminde ise 1949 yılında 19 filme ulaşmıştır. 1950'de (22 film), 1959'da ise bu rakam 77 filme ulaşmıştır. Olgun sinemacılar dönemi (1960 - 1965) 65 senesinde 214 filmle rekor seviyeye ulaşmış. 1965 sonrası Türk sinemasında ise 301 filmle 1972 senesi en fazla film çekilen yıldır. 80'li yıllardan sonra yılda 68 filmle ani bir yükselmenin ardından 1990 yılından itibaren senede 6-10 filme yerini bırakmıştır. Birçok konuda olduğu gibi toplumdaki tüm olumsuz gelişmeler sanat ve sanatçı eğitiminin yetersizliği, sinema ve film müziğinde de kendini geliştiren bir sektörün oluşmasını engellemiş, amatörlerin teknik arayışları olarak süregelmesine neden olmuştur. Burada Amatör yaptığı mesleğin sahibi olmayan kişi anlamındadır. Türk sinemasında Filmin Müziğine ayrılan bütçe tüm maliyetin % 0;5 - 1'l arasındadır. Filmin bitiminden çok kısa bir süre sonra ticari endişe ile filme alel acele müzik yapılmakta adeta zamanla yarışan, daha doğrusu belli süreler içinde başlama ve bitme özellikleri dışında, Filme hiçbir katkı sağlamayan, genelde bir skoru, (Notasyonu) olmayan anlayışla yapılmaktadır. Filmlerde Orkestral yazı kullanılmamaktadır, (genelde) kullanılsa dahi birlikte çalma alışkanlığı olmayan toplama müzisyenlerle oluşturulmakla, -V- hatta bir orkestra kaydını yapabilecek film stüdyosu bulmakta güçlük çekilmektedir. Müzik adamı herşeydir yani kompozitör, aranjör, kondüktör hatta ton maister. Belli konularda ekolleşmiş besteciler yoktur. Besteci seçiminde seçilen yol kişisel Referans yada sağduyudur. Film müziği eğitiminin Akademik bir boyut kazanması zamanı gelmiş ve geçmektedir. Bir film endüstrisi kurulmalı profesyonel boyutta eğitim ve ticari ilişkiler geliştirilmelidir. Yetenek olarak birçok konuda kendini kanıtlamış Türk insanının iyi bir eğitimle birçok uluslararası başarıya imza atacağı düşüncesi en büyük beklentimizdir.|
Cinema was first born in December 22nd 1895 on a public show that French Brothers Auguste Lovis Lumiere gave in Paris Grand Cafe. In Turkey the history of prehistoric Cinema "The Big Candle" and "Optical Theatre" is known, but the date of the first public show of cinema has not been disclosed despite all the inventigations made. A shaw that Ercüment Ekrem Talu has personally witnessed at 1896- 1897 "A Train's Entrance To Ciotat Train Station" (L'arrive Train En de la Ciotat, 1 895) can be assumed as the first public show. According to Nurullah Tilgen the first film show in Turkey was realised by a Polihs Jew Sigmund Weingberg at 1896. Ayşe Osmanoğlu, daughter of Sultan II. Abdülhamit, in her memories states that the first cinema show was made by a French Joggler Bertrand at 1896 in Yıldız Palace, to sultan and palace population. Sigmund Weingberg is one of the most important people in terms of introducing cinema to Turkey. It was also Weingberg that opened the first cinema saloon in 1908. The first 10-11 years that has passed between the first introduction of cinema in Turkey or to İstanbul to be more precise, to the first saloon has passed without leaving any traces except a few memories and a few newspaper news. Cinema was centralised mainly in Beyoğlu district until 1914. Shows in other districts are in minority. Turks became interested in cinema after 1914 Kemal Seden and Fuat Uzkınay have opened cinema saloons in Sirkeci and Demirkapi districts. In Abdulhamit's Turkey where every proression were looked upon with suspicion, the foreign operators that came to Turkey with great difficulties were greatly influenced with Turkeys exotic look, an one of the most important man of Lumiere Brother's Alexandre Promio has visited İstanbul and İzmir and have shot films of Turkish Infantry, Bosphours, and Haliç. The films that were shot -VII- by French, English, German and Italians were later shown in Turkey. Like Films on İstanbul at Weingberg's Tepebaşı Theatre at 1908, or The Revolution of Young Turks at 1909 in Odeon. In 1914, when cinema was living it's golden era in the west, when the directors were really creating masterships of art, there were no Turkish films shot. "Fuat Uzkınay" who first introduced cinema to schools for educational purposes and who has opened cinema saloons with "Seden" brothers, has became the person to first shoot a Turkish Film. He has learned how to operate a camera from the technisians of Messter Gesselchaft company who were invited from Vienna, and has shot demolishing the "Arc of Victory" erected in Ayastefenos by the Russians. 150 metre documentary "Demolishing of Russian Monument in Ayastefenos" has became the first Turkish Film, and the shooting date November 14th 1914 has became the birth date of Turkish Film. This film were followed by two long metered films directed by Weingberg and Fuat Uzkınay assistant director ; "Marriage of Himmet Ağa" and "Horhor the Chickpeasman". Fuat Uzkınay after a trip to Germany in 1917 to became an expert, has passed to history as an active cinemaman of documentaries and normal films in the era of silent movies. He is the first cinemaman that has no connection with theatre. "Müdafaa-i Milliye" Organisation aiming to establish physical and spiritual ties between the army and nation has encouraged shooting long metered films. A member of the organisation Sedat Simavi has shot a movie of Mehmet Rauf s "Pençe" (The Claw) play of four acts at 1917. Later on Fuat Uzkınay has finished "The Marriage of Himmet Ağa" that Weingberg has left half (1918). In the years of occupation the films were shot by Malulin-i Askeriye Muavenet Heyeti (Organisation of Veterans). The organisation first made a long film from the novel by "Mürebbiye" of Hüseyin Rahmi Gürpınar with the same name (1919). With Sadi Fikret Karagözoğlu, the famous comedian of that time, a comedy series were shot by the name of "Bican Efendi". Ali Efendi and Seden brothers have formed a company by the name of "Sinema İşleri" to -VIII- import foreign films to Turkey. This Company was effective until 1928The simulations made of foreign movies at that era, is a proof of influence problem in Turkish cinema from start to our times. The first movements in Turkish cinema has begun with theatre actors getting involved with this business. This period when Muhsin Ertuğrul has started working as a director and the players of Darülbedayi (City) Theatre as actors and actresses has been identified as the "Era of Theatre People". Muhsin Ertuğrul has directed 29 films until the day he left cinema at 1953, and has been the only director at that era. His first movie as a director was the film of "İstanbul'da Bir Facia-i Aşk" (A Love Tragedy in İstanbul) produced by "Kemal Film" at 1922. At 1923 with the orders of Atatürk, for the first time in Turkish history Turkish women players Bedia Muvahhit and Neyyire Neyir went in front of the cameras for Halide Edip Adıvar's scenario "Ateşten Gömlek" (Shirts of Fire). The first sound film "İstanbul Sokaklarında" (On Streets of İstanbul) is a co production of Turkey, Greece and Egypt. The film was shot silent and later on dubbed in Paris Espinay Studios in 1931. In 1933 various films of comedies, vaudevillesand operettas were shot. Famous Turkish poet Nazım Hikmet with nickname Mümtaz Osman wrote scenarios of "Karım Beni Aldatırsa" (If Mx Wife Betrays Me) and "Cici Berber" (Nice Barber). In 1935 Muhsin Ertuğrul shot first Rural film "Bataklı Damın Kızı Aysel" (Aysel, the Daughter of Swamp Roof). Muhsin Ertuğrul's last film is "Halıcı Kız" (Carpet Maker Girl) produced by Doğan Kardeş in 1953. Although this films scenario was written by Mecbure Sami Alevok, and is the first colorued Turkish film, it was a failure and Muhsin Ertuğrul left cinema and decided to concentrate on theatre. Although he was famous as the founder of contemporary Turkish theatre he had a negative effect on Turkish cinema by insisting to work only with theatre people from players to technicians, and obscuring Turkish Cinema to develop a language and technique of it's own. -IX- An intermediate period was witnessed when the influence of theatre was dominant on Turkish film, and when new names emerged with new cinema understanding and new techniques, and new rules of cinema has been applied. Faruk Kenç who has directed "Taş Parçası" (Like a Stone) in 1939 was the first director who did not came out of theatre. In 1940 the first suspense film "Yılmaz Ali" (Ali the Courageous) was also introducing the first "star" Suavi Tedü. In 1947 the influence of Muhsin Ertuğrul was once more dominant with first films of Ferdi Tayfur and Kani Kıpçak. At that time a film produced by Turgut Demirağ, a man out of theatre, "Bir Dağ Masalı" (A Mountain Tale) was the first super production. At these years the first Turkish film contests were started. Another new period started with Ömer Lütfi Akad, who has established his own language and specialitiy to Turkish Cinema. "Vurun Kahpeye" (Kill the Bitch) is a very important cornerstone in Turkish cinema, and shows the first glitters of the new cinema understanding. Between 1951 and 1953 is era of films with a new language (like; Kanun Namına - In the Name of Law) and birth of new stars like Ayhan Işık and Belgin Doruk. In 1954 with Zeki Müren'n "Beklenen Şarkı" (The Song that Was Expected), has started the era of films with songs. After Akad, in the period of 1950-1966 more than 50 directors, some from theatre but great majority directly has worked in cinema. But the cinemaman era has been greatly influenced by foreign influences, political climate, reactionary currents, and economic depressions. Therefore only about a dozen of directors are important enogh to mention. The second phase of cinemaman era started from 1960 to our day started with the same time of a very important political event, the May 27 1960 Revolution. 1955-1960 era was an era of enormous development. But on the contrary 1960-1966 era was an era of going backward for cinema. The era of mature cinemaman has started with the Revolution, a new constitutional order was established, and the freedom that could not be practised in the previous political era has been guaranted by the new -X- constitution. In the beginning of this new era our cinema was maybe at the beginning of it's most productive period. The films shot each year, the number of spectators, number of cinema saloons were constantly increasing. In spite of all these our cinema has fallen in a chaos that has never been witnessed in history. Cinema never practised the freedom of the new constitutionel order. This was an era when the spectators that has been watching Turkish films were repelled from Turkis cinema. This unexpected disappointment were coming that were really interested with cinema, giving it the importance it had earned. Turkish cinema that has been enriched with various contributions including "Arabesk" until 1983, has written that year in it's history as film burning year. In addition woman heroes, and women problem that has been rooted in Turkish cinema in previous years had been emerging as a new tendency. This tendency was positive in terms of drawing women spectators to the saloon s. But this time video had became a real danger and video shows in public places becema a thread to Turkish cinema. The increase in Turkish films in 1984 was a proof that these films were made for video (16 mm. ones). The voice contribution in cinema started with the picture. Thomas Alva Edison has handled this problem with his famous "vitascope". But these efforts were unsuccesful until the invention of Triod Lamp that has caused the development of the radio. Lee De Forest, who invented the Triod Lamp, in that sense made great contributions. In first short metered films there were no players. When players started to be seen in the movies, the problems began. Because of difficulty in finding players, and theatre players transferring to the cinema caused a lot of problems. Theatre players were used to get concentrated to the whole of the play and to play it thoroughly. On the other hand in cinema the film was shot in small plans and seperately. This were ruining the concentration of the players and the resuilts were -XI- undesirable. To solve the problem one of the movie producers tried to make music trough shooting the film. Small bands 3-5 musicians were playing music in accordance with the scene and this were intensifying the concentration of the players. In time these music bands started to enter the cinema saloons. At earliner times these bands were playing popular tunes that everybody knew. But in time they started to play music that were especially composed for that movie. At earliner times music were played in the saloons just to interrupt the silence. But in time it was understood that music was an inseparable part of the movie. In the earlier times of voice movies, sound were used generously and especially in many musicals made in that time. The voice movie in Turkey has started with a Co production of Turkey, Greece and Egypt under direction of Muhsin Ertuğrul in 1931 : "İstanbul Sokaklarında" started it's vision in 1931 in Beyoğlu Melek and Elhamra Cinemas. In the movies that were shot silent and dubbed later for background music Turkish music played with Turkish musical instruments were widely used. Then application of Turkish music to movies were made by composers like Muhittin Sadak and Mesut Cemil Tel, who knew both classical music and Turkish music very well. We can recite Faruk Yener in Classical Music, Muzafer Sarısözen and Sadi Yaver Ataman for Turkish Folk Music and Fecri Ebcioğlu in Pop Music who made conscious contributions in movie music. In 1938, after the Egypt Cinema had entered the Turkish cinema market films with a lot of songs became fashionable. But Turkish spectators started to get bored from long Arabic songs. This problem were solved by applying our conditions to these songs : Merely to rewrite Turkish verses to these songs and having them song by Turkish artists. This is the birth reason of Arabesk Music. Composers like Münir Nurettin Selçuk, Sadi Işılay, Zeki Duygulu, Kadri Şençalar and Şükrü Tunar composed Turkish music to such movies by using Turkish musical forms verses. After a while when producers started to make Turkish movies with Turkish singers without any - XII- artistic Turkish spectators started to like Turkish songs instead of Arabic songs the conditions. The spectators were not looking for good play. They were happy to see and hear precious singers like Safiye Ayla, Müzeyyen Senar, S.T.Gülerman, Zeki Müren. Especially the movies of Zeki Müren with their richness in costumes, songs and clothes was making great business. In 1 950 with Nedim Otyam a new era was starting in Turkish cinema. Special movie music from then on was not a music applied to that movie, but a music composed especially for that movie taking in consideration it's scenario directing and players. After 1952-1953 some of the composers who composed movie music are H. Ferit Alnar, Nezihi Gülcüoğlu, Orhan Barlas, Sebahattin Kalender and Nevit Kodalli. We are very happy that a new generation is coming to us with precious material. Some are making music for the cinema and some are making cinema music.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997|
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1997
|Appears in Collections:||Music Graduate Program - Master Degree|
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