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|Title:||Türk Otomotiv Sektöründe Otomobil Grubunun Dağıtım Kanalları Yapısının İncelenmesi|
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Makro açıdan dağıtım, üretim ile tüketim arasında bir bağlantı halkasıdır. Mikro açıdan ide dağıtım, işletmelerin "bir mamulün tüketiciye ulaştığı yollarla ilgili olarak aldıkları kararlar ve davranışları içerir. "Bir malı veya hizmeti ve bunun mülkiyetini üretimden tüketime ulaştırmak üzere girişilen çabaları sağlayan kurumlar zinciri" dağıtım kanalı olarak tanımlanabilir. Türkiye'deki otomobil firmalarında, dünyadaki diğer otomobil şirketlerinde olduğu gibi dağıtım işlemi geleneksel hale gelmiş "bayilik örgütleriyle" gerçekleştirilmektedir. Bağımsız girişimciler otomobil şirketleriyle bir sözleşme yaparak, firmaların ürünlerini satma ayrıcalığını elde ederler. İşletmelerde dağıtım, pazarlama karması içinde ayrı bir yer ve öneme sahiptir. Bu önem, dağıtım yönetimi kararlarının, diğer pazarlama kararlarıyla iç içe olmasından kaynaklanmaktadır. Artan rekabet ve gelişen müşteri istek ve beklentileri karşısında, otomobil firmaları, "müşteri mutluluğu" ilkesi altında diğer birimlerinde olduğu gibi bayilik teşkilatlarında da birtakım düzenleme ve iyileştirme çabalarına girişmişlerdir. Yeni stratejileriyle, müşteri memnuniyetini tam olarak sağlayabilmek, marka imajını yerleştirebilmek için bayi ve yetkili servislerin bulunduğu satış noktalarında yeni bir yapılanmaya gidilmeyi, bayi sahip ve çalışanlarının, aynı zamanda servis personelinin idari, teknik ve ticari konuda eğitimlerini sağlamayı, tüm bayilik ve servis teşkilatlarında bir takım standartlar getirmeyi hedeflemektedirler.|
Distrubution is a dynamic function because it is affected by environmental factors. Quite often, these factors are not controlled by persons who are responsible for distrubution. Strategic planning is designed to take effects into account. The first stage of planning a distribution system is to define the system in broad outline so that strategies for the overall plan can be developed. The first condition of an effective plan is that the overall objective has been defined in terms that describe the general requirements. The variable factors that affect a distribution system include consumer attitudes and preferences, competitive activities, market legislation, new product development and traffic regulations. Some of these factors are predictable but some are not; however, strategic planning must consider both as far as possible. A strategic plan must be flexible so that it can allow for future changes, both internally and externally. A plan is an operational model of the distribution system and it can be tested or modified according to results. Objectives of strategic planning for distribution are five. These are; To provide the service required by customers, delivering the right number of goods, to the right place, at the right time, - To minimize the costs of the complete system while providing the service level desired, - To comply with the overall policies of the company, To make the best use of the resources that are available and to keep investments at a reasonable level, v8 - To plan for future developments and to control the system so that it provides the maximum service for the minumum cost. Stratejic planning must aim at providing a good service to the customers as economically as possible. Comparing alternative strategies for this purpose will help to decide the most effective system. Strategic planning for distribution will supply the answers to many questions concerning the goods to be distributed, the methods of distributing them, the resources that will be used and the efficiency of the system. The fundamental aim of a distribution system is to transfer products from the place of manufacturing to the place of consumption. Distribution channels can be viewed as sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. The distribution channel is vital to a firm for two reasons. First, it is an integral part of the firm's overall marketing strategy, and second, it requires commitments on the part of each channel member. Any business marketing strategy consists of a set of pricing, product selection, communication, market segmentation and distribution decisions. Distribution-channel decisions are among the most critical decisions facing management. The company's chosen channels affect all the other marketing decisions. The firm's sales force and advertising decisions depend on how much training and motivation the dealers need. In the consumer section, distribution channels usually consist of a manufacturer, a wholesaler and a retailer. In industrial goods sector tends to have shorter channels of distribution than the consumer goods sector. That is, there are fewer independent owned firms between the manufacturer of industrial goods and the end user. The length and width of distribution channels concern the number of levels and number of firms in each level. From manufacturer to consumer is an example of a very short distribution channel. Manufacturer to broker Vlll to wholesaler to retailer to consumer is an example of a long distribution channels. There are two reasons why manufacturer sell through independent intermediaries rather than owning distribution channel themselves. First, most firms do not have enough capital to own an entire channel. Second, most manufacturers believe that independent channel members perform distribution functions more effectively than they could themselves. Manufacturers, wholesalers or retailers may act as channel leaders. In the condition of manufacturer leadership; large manufacturers often serve as channel leaders. Their power comes from their vast financial resources. In the conditions of wholesaler leadership; wholesalers can play an important channel-leadership role when manufacturers lack financial and marketing resources and when retailers are small. In the condition of retailer leadership; large retailers can play a strong leadership role. Their power comes from their understanding of the consumer market. Three levels of distribution are recognized: Intensive, exclusive and selective. Intensive distribution is a type of distribution in which a product is sold through as many retail outlets as possible. Exclusive distribution is a type of distribution in which a product is sold through one or only a few outlets within a trading area. Selective distribution is a type of distribution in which a product is sold by many, but not all, retailers in a trading area. The primary determinant of a product's degree of distribution is consumer expectations. Products should be sold where consumers expect to find them. A product's marketing mix is also determined by its degree of distribution. IX Distribution channels can be viewed as the type of the relationship among channel members. Distribution channels can be distinguished as traditional distribution channel and vertical distribution systems. In traditional distribution channels; the trading relationships are not continuous among all channel members. These channels consist of small firms that are administered and owned independently. In vertical distribution system, a member who is the spesific level of channel adds the next or former activities. A vertical distiribution system comprises the producer, wholesaler and retailer acting as a unified system. Either one channel member owns the others of franchises them or has so much power that they all cooperate. The vertical distribution system can be dominated by the producer, the wholesaler or the retailer. There are three major types of vertical distribution systems; Corporate VDS; combines successive stages of production and distribution under single ownership. Administreted VDS; coordinates successive stage of production and distribution not through common ownership but through the size and power of one of the parties. Contractual VDS; consist of independent firms at different levels of production and distribution. Their programs integrate on a contractual basis to obtain more economies and/or sales impact than they could achive alone. Contractual VDS, have expandend the most in recent years and constitude one of most significant developments in the economy. Franchise organizations is a major type among the types of contractual VDS. In franchise organizations; a channel member called a franchiser might link several successive stages in the production-distribution process. Ford, licenses dealers to sell its cars, the dealers being independent businesspeople who agree to meet various conditions of sales snd service. Another channel development is horizontal distribution system. In this system, two or more nonrelated companies put together resources or programs to exploit an emerging marketing opportunity. Each company lacks the capital, know-how, production or X marketing resources to venture alone. The companies may work with each other. Some factors that should be considered when deciding on distribution structure are financial and human resources, competition and availability of distributors. Selecting a distributor is not an easy task. Four potential problem areas deserve special attention; - All firms look closely at the financial position of prospective distributors, - The firm selecting a distributor must be concerned with both the size and the expertise of the distributor's sales force, Manufacturers want distributors to carry enough inventory to meet customers demand, - In the long run, sales are direcly related to the ability of a distributor's management. In the automobile industry, "dealer systems" that has been continuoning from in old days constitutes the distribution systems. Turkish automobile companies followed the dealer system and they licensed dealers to sell their cars, the dealers being independent business people who agree to meet various conditions of sales and service. Each automobile factory has its own marketing company that markets and sell its automobiles. Dealers buy automobiles from these marketing companies and sell the automobiles to costumers. In Turkish automobile market, there are four automibile producer companies and this number will increase with the production of Toyota Corolla in the second half of 1994. Also other foreign investors (Honda, Mazda, Skoda, Volvo) are thinking and planning to come into Turkish automobile market. Added to these, domestic automobile companies are producing new models to serve the market in 1994. Renault is going to put on the market Renault 19, Tofaş is going to put on the market Tipo, GM is going to put on the market Astra in 1994. XI In Turkey, a big competition is being constitued by the rapidly raising consumer demand and foreign investments, foreign cheap brands. Consequently, costumer needs and wants are changing and increasing because of meeting more quality and better automobiles than the existing ones. As a result of this the domestic automobile firm's objectives became "costumer satisfaction" and they changed their own marketing strategies toward the success of this aim. In the past, automobile costumers' who had to buy what they find in the market, satisfaction and gladness became a marketing problem that the firms have to fulfill. Distribution systems have a different importance within the marketing mix, therefore automobile firms begun structural changes and development process within dealer systems. First of all, they aimed to establish integral installations that are called 3S. 3S implies to put together sales, spare parts and service. Therefore, it's possible to give better service to the customer within after sales period like within the sales period. Some physical standarts, that all dealers and service units have to adjust to their installations, exist in these 3S integral installations. These standarts can be summarized as the capasity of showrooms, colours, symbols, signs, the design of places. Another important innovation is that a sales training program added to the technical training program that are for after sales service personnel and it has been existing from the establishment of the automobile factories. Sales training programs are not new. However, firms are developing these programs as giving information about their own product and competitors' s products, marketing principles of the firm. Furthermore, within the sales training program, attitudes and behaviour of dealers and their salespeople are being tried to change. Everything is used to create brand loyalty and costumer satisfaction.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1994|
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1994
|Appears in Collections:||İşletme Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lİsans|
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