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|Title:||Kalite Çemberleri Ve Türkiye`deki Uygulamadan Örnekler|
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Japonya, II. Dünya harbinden yenik çıkmasına rağmen, gösterdiği güçlü irade, azim ve çabayla, kalite konusuna verdiği önemle bugün dünyanın güvenilir, kaliteli ürünler üreten sayılı ülkeleri arasındadır. Japonya'da kalite aktivitelerinin tarihini gözden geçirdiğimizde, A.B.D.'li kalite uzmanı W.E. Deming ve Juran'm bu konudaki çalışmaları Japonların başarılı sonuçlar almasında önemli bir basamak olmuştur. Tezimin ilk bölümlerinde Dr.Deming'in öncülüğünde başlayan kalite kontrol faaliyetlerinden ve Japon kalite sisteminin özelliklerinden söz etmeye çalıştım. Japon mucizesinin sırrı, Deming zincirleme reaksiyonun işletmelerde uygulanmaya başlamasıyle ve kaliteli ürünlerin ortaya çıkmasıyle ortaya konmuştur. İkinci ve üçüncü bölümlerde Japon mucizesinin oluşmasında büyük önemi olan Japon çalışanlarının geleneksel özelliklerini açıklamaya çalıştım. Japonların ulaştıkları bu başarıda gönüllü olarak işgörenlerden oluşan kalite çemberlerinin payı büyüktür. Japon işletmeleri, müşterisine kaliteli ve güvenilir ürünler sunabilmek için kalite çemberlerini önemle desteklemiştir. Japon işçisi de bu amaca ulaşabilmek için kaliteyi geliştirmeyi bir ibadet gibi görerek işinde yapabileceğinin en mükemmelini gerçekleştirmeyi amaçlamıştır. viii Japon yöneticilerin eğitime verdikleri önem, uygulanan ömür- boyu istihdam politikası, işgörene verilen önem ve sorumluluk işgörenin kalite konusundaki bilincini artırmıştır. Japon insanı, geleneksel değerlerine bağlı, kollektif çalışmaya önem veren, görev bilinç ve sorumluluğu olan bir karaktere sahiptir. Türk insanı da, uyumlu olması, çalışkanlığı ve sabrıyle Japonlara benzer özellikler taşır. Eğer Türk insanı bu olumlu özelliklerini iyi değerlendirebilir ve yeterli eğitime sahip olursa böylece kalite iyileştirme çalışmalarında önemli bir aşama kaydedilebilinir. ı|
Japan was known as the junk merchant of the world, today become a well-known manufacterer of a high-quality products at lower cost. Since 1950's, Japanese electronical products such as radios, tape recorders dominate the market. Many countries began to examine the reasons for its success. There're major reasons underlying Japon's success. 1 -There's a national and individual commitment to product quality. 2-Japanese people traditional characteristics such as hardworking and honesty personality. 3-Employee training and statistical quality control training is most important factor in all level of organization. Japanese managers put an emphazise on training matter. 4-There's a life-time employment system for all employees in Japon. 5-It's necessary to build a quality circle in the organization to be able to be a successful manufacturer. 6-A11 the personeli build teams to be able to decide effectively. Today quality means that which satisfies the customer.The product or service customers want at a price they're willing to pay. Creating quality is not only necessary but is also one of the best ways to improve productivity. As the quality of a product improves, costs will go down and productivity will go up. Quality goes beyond the quality of the product. It must include quality of service.quality of comminication, quality of information, quality of service, quality of information, quality of people and the quality of the organization as a whole. Edward Deming defined what quality means "Your customer determines your quality". Quality circles play an important role for Japon's success. With the help of Dr. Deming and Joseph Juran, Japon began to implement statistical quality control and become a succesful applier of quality circles. It has been aimed at introducing the concept of quality circle concepts.principles and its implementation in Japan and Turkish establishments in this thesis Quality circles consist of a group of volunteers who work for the same working area and who meet reqularly to identify, analyse and solve their work problems. Members in the circles are put forward their ideas in brainstorming sessions.Then, members investigate the problem and collect data about the problem. By arranging the data, members prepare control charts, pareto diagram and cause and effect diagram. Circle members present their recommendations with diagrams to management in formal presentation. The concept of quality circles is an approach, which provides employees to think about problems in a systematic way. Quality circles has many characteristics: a) Quality circles is voluntary for all the employees. h) Quality circles help supervisors and workers to develop their problem solving skills and their abilities. c) Quality circle members cooperate together while they were solving problems in a systematic way. As far as I concerned, quality circles is one of the important concept in an organization. XI All the personeli must be trained before the quality circle implemented. The result of the programme can be taken on the long-run.. 2-Interest of top management towards the matter: Top management must be knowlegable about quality circle philosophy, their advantages and disadvantages, the role of managers expected to play. Programme must begin to implement at the highest level of the organization and continue right down to the first-line supervisor. If top management give interest towards the matter, and help supervisors and workers to build their abilities, quality circle can work together effectively. Quality circles have many benefits. Quality circles increase worker participation and their consciousness about quality, improve coordination between workers and managers and also increase productivitiy and quality. Circle have effect attitude, morale and motivation of the worker. Quality circle can also be an effective tool for improving how a product is produced or service is performed. At the third part of the theisis,1 try toe compare quality control circles in Japan with those in the ABD.There're many differences between Japanese style of management with ABD. management style. These differences are: 1 -Japanese companies put particular emphasis on training but in ABD. companies training is each person's own responsibilty. 2-In Japanese companies, there is a life-long employment system but in ABD. companies employment of people only at times when needed. Xll Quality circle can also be an effective tool for improving how a product is produced or service is performed. At the third part of the theisis,1 try to compare quality control circles in Japan with those in the ABD. There're many differences between Japanese style of management with ABD. management style. These differences are: 1 -Japanese companies put particular emphasis on training but in ABD. companies training Is each person's own responsibilty. 2-In Japanese companies, there is a life-long employment system but in ABD. companies employment of people only at times when needed. 3-In Japan, wage system is based on seniority an age. But in ABD. wages are based on classification and position. If we evaluate this comparison. Japanese have a structure and managerial practices that encourage employees to be concerned and contribute to the company. But ABD.systems appear to encouarage the opposite apathy and lack of commitment. The most important characteristics of the Japanese management is lifetime employment.Thirty-five percent of Japan work force is under lifetime emmployment in large companies. There is a wide range of motives for involvement in quality circles: productivity, cost reduction, quuality of work life, cociallization and interpersonell skills. A major reason for widespread interest in and enthusiasm for quality circles is their success, both in achieving quality and productivity objectives and in increasing worker satisfaction.Successful circle programs has many features. 1 -Voluntary participation:Voluntary participation is a critical importance to successful qc circle. xiu 2-Training for members, leaders, facilitators and managers:Training enchances members problem solving skills and teaches them how to be more effective team players. 3-Problem selection and solution by members : Problem selection process must be done by members of the circle. 4- Teamwork: Working as a team, workers can cooparate together and acheive more success. 5- Positive and visible management support.: A positive and visible support of all levels of management is characteristic of effective quality circle. Quality circle are a unique way of increaasing organization effectiveness and efficiency. To be able to succeed in the quality circle programme time, patience and empathetic understanding are necessary points. Learning the techniques and being a member of group problem-solving process requires on attitude of patience. The quality circle process is a long-term investment in people building and raising the levels of productivity and quality..Japan as a nation is saving of 5$ billion per year as a result of quality circle activity. There're approximately 1 milion circles in operation, and 10 million workers participate in these circles. Quality circle meets the personal needs of today's worker, creating a more involved and creative work force. In Japan and in many several countries school systems, insurance companies, financial institutions, production workers utilize quality circles to make their work and work environment more efficient and productive.So, their quality of goods and services increase. If quality circles can be applied carefully and skillfully in Turkey it can contribute to the development of more effective organization where people's abilities at all levels are recognized.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1995|
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1995
|Appears in Collections:||İşletme Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lİsans|
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