Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17627
Title: Büro Otomasyonu
Other Titles: Office Automation
Authors: Gözlü, Sıtkı
Karadayı, Ece
22844
İşletme
Management
Keywords: İşletme
Büro otomasyonu
Verimlilik
Business Administration
Office automation
Productivity
Issue Date: 1989
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Bu çalışmada büro otomasyonu sistemi, sistemin nasıl yerleştirileceği incelenmiştir. İkinci bölümde, büronun başlıca fonksiyonları, büro otomasyonunun amaçları ve ölçülebilir ve ölçüleme- yen faydaları ele alınmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde, pilot çalışmaların büro otomas yonu açısından önemi ve pilat çalışmalar sırasında iz lenen yollar incelenmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde, olabilirlilik incelemesine ne den ihtiyaç duyulduğu, incelemenin çeşitleri, olabilirlilik çalışmasına hazırlık ve yürütümü anlatılmıştır. Beşinci bölümde, büro otomasyonunun yerleştiril mesinde yönetimin rolü ve sorumlulukları, insan faktö rünün önemi, katılım yaklaşımı ve sonuçları incelenmiştir. Altıncı bölümde, eğitimin büro otomasyonu açısın dan önemine değinilmiş, eğitimin çeşitleri, eğitime tabi tutulacak personelin seçimi, eğitim programının nasıl planlanacağı ve sonuçları ile eğitim programının değer lendirilmesi ele alınmıştır. Yedinci bölümde, verililik incelenmiş, iş ölçü münün amaçları ve sistemin oluşturulması araştırılmış tır. Sekizinci bölümde, büro otomasyonunda kullanıla cak büro analizi ve tetkiki, ETHICS, Isac ve Topscott yöntemlerinin uygulama süreçleri ve aşamaları incelen miştir. Dokuzuncu bölümde, bürolarda kullanılan teknolojiler açıklanmıştır. Son bölüm, Beko Ticaret A.Ş. de gerçekleştirilen uygulama çalışması ve sonuçlarını içermektedir. Çalış ma departman yöneticileri ile yapılan mülakatlar şek linde sürdürülmüş ve büro otomasyonu sisteme geçilirken karşılaşılan aksaklıklar ve yöntemin nasıl yerleştirileceği konusunda sonuçlar oluşturulmaya çalışılmıştır. Uygulama çalışması eğitimin ve katılım yaklaşımının ö- nemi vurgulamıştır.
In this thesis what the office automation is, the importance of feasibility study, pilot projects, office automation implementation, the importance of training, measuring productivity, methodologies which used for office automation and technologies in the office will be discussed. In first chapter, what the office automation is, the goals of office automation and what benefits office automation provide will be discussed. In every organization, the quality of decisions and using information will affect the future of the office. While internal and international competition increase reaching information in a less time will be key factor. Traditional methods are not efficent in order to provide information flow. Office automation helps to decision makers by producing information in a less time and by providing communication more accurate. Result of this, decision making process will be decreased, productivity will be increased. Office is an information center for every organisation. The purpose of an office is to process and communicate information effectively and efficently Office Automation results some benefits either for managers and for office personnel. Benefits for the managers are as follows : 1- Better utilisation of human resources. 2- Increased performance. 3- Increased quality of decisions, work, product and services. 4- Increased efficency. 5- Increased effectiveness. Office Automation helps workers to improve their performance. Benefits of office automation can be divided into two categories: Tangible and intangible. Tangible benefits : - fewer transfers of control over work - decreased need for travel - decreased need for meetings - decreased number of phone calls - elimination of shadow functions - increased output - fewer media transformations - elimination of redundant tasks. Intangible benefits : - better control over work - reduced dependency on other parts of organisation - attitude and morale improvement - decreased dependence upon management style for efficent management improving customer services leads customer satisfaction - quicker decisions - better decisions - more effective and timely communication - higher quality of work - better and timely information Pilot projects is used in order to evaluate new technology, to introduce new disciplines, to justify new system, to develop implementation plans and to adopt new technology to company's environment. The purpose of pilot is to ensure that all major requirements can be met. During pilot phase following goals are conducted : evaluation of the system's impact especially on employee work habits. - developing quidelines for future use of system - monitoring costs and ensuring the system's cost- effective evaluation of system's applications and elimination or minimizing spesific processing problems viii Office automation is complex task and needs a study before implementation. This study is called feasibility study. This study provides the information necessary to establish work standart s and allow management to set objectives based on identified need. Feasibility study is performed by management and employees in a given area. The purpose of feasibility study is to determine if any change in present methods is necessary or not. According to size of the organization feasibility study may be different. For a small office of under 40 employees questionnaires are used for larger organizations interviews, questionnaires, time sheets can be used. In order to conduct a feasibility study there are several alternatives such as hiring an outside consultant or using internal personnel. Conducting the feasibility study for collecting information requires these steps are as follows: - Tour the facility, giving particular attention to the area being studied. - Conduct familiarisation sensions with management. Conduct familiarisation sensions with all personnel. - Conduct personnel interviews with employees and management. - Collect information of existing organization. - Analyse all collected information and verify the results with management of a particular department. - Prepare a detailed written report. - Present the results of study to management. Feasibiliy study helps to gain an overall perspective of the organization and a basis for planning. An office automation project shouldn't carry out without a feasibility study. ix Implementation iş last phase in the system's development process. Implementation is accepting innovation and adapting proposed changes. The role of management is important for implementation. Management's leadership or lack of leadership relates to if the change is accepted or rejected by others. The key factor in implementation is people. Because implementation is related to human beliefs, emotions, perceptions and values. If office automation can be regarded as an uncertanity people may resist the change. In order to lessen resistant management must give information about office automation and establish goals of the organisation. For implementing office automation, participative approach can be used. Participative approach allows employees to involve for operating and using new work system. Participation results more favourable and positive attitudes by satisfying employees and users became more knowledgable about the change. The forms of participation are consultative, democratic and responsible. In consultative participation, participants provide input into the system but decisions are made by other groups. Participants of democratic participation affect system development but implementation of decisions is made by other groups. In responsible participation, participants not only make decisions but also assume responsibility for implementation. x Primary, secondary and tertiary users are involved in participation. Primary users work directly with the system and they are responsible for running and operating of the system such as programmers. Secondary users provide input to and receive output from the system. They don't have power to change it directly such as on-line banking system. Tertiary users neither interact with the system nor affected by it. They only receive some reports such as customers. In order to get the most benefits from the new technology, there is a need to develop and increase skills available within the organization. Traning provides learning. Depending upon the size of the organisation traninig is required. There are many types of traninig. Management must decide which one satisfies company's needs. - pre-employment training - induction training - on-the-job training - traning for specialists' tasks - supplier training - education programmes. Pre-employment training includes qualifications obtained at school or university. Induction traninig provides information about company history, policy, practices, prosedures, office rules. This training takes places in-house. On-the-job training helps employees learn the actual job to be performed in the environment. In other words, training is performed at the workstation. The supervisor observes progress. xi Organization has a training department and training is performed by full-time training specialists. In- house training specialists are sent to seminars and they are responsible for implementation and total planing. Supplier provides initial training for specialised areas such as data processing and operating systems. The other type of training takes place by sending employees to educational courses or seminars. Training is especially effective for development of human, technical and conceptual skills. Benefits of training : - Training creates more positive work environment by understanding goals and plans of the organisation. - Training motives employees and it leads improving quality of work life. - Tranining increases productivity. - Training improves competition power of company. Office automation is important investment to improve the effectiveness of the organization. So measuring financial gains that can be obtained from the investment is necessary. In order to determine extent of improvement in work or a work group, comparansion is used. Work measurement is an comparansion what was done to what should be done. Standart is used for making comparansion. Following standarts are used to measure work. - Time standarts - Work standarts Time standarts can come from outside of firm or can be developed as a result of internal study. Work standarts can be divided into three approachs These are subjective, statistical and engineering ones. xii Subjective approach is based on the experiences and opinions of managers. This approch is not supported or justified both managers and employees. Statistical approach uses historical data, work sampling or time studies. Historical data uses past records about time and amount of work for gathering information. In the work sampling work is observed at random periods or gathered copies of work for determining the amount of work accomplished in a sample period. Time studies is an extension of statistical approach and measures time and motion. Different methodologies can be used for office automation but in this study ISAS Methodology, ETHICS Methodology, TOPSCOTT's User-Driven Methodology OFFICE ANALYSIS AND DIOGNASIS Methodology will be discussed
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1989
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1989
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17627
Appears in Collections:İşletme Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lİsans

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