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|Title:||Van Bölgesinde Tarihi Açıdan Halk Kültürünün İncelenmesi|
|Keywords:||Halk Bilimi (Folklor)|
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Bu tez çalışması, Van bölgesinde günümüzde hakim olan geleneksel halk kültürünü, ya da eş bir deyişle Van folklorunu tarihsel arka planı ile birlikte incelemektedir. Bu nedenle, söz konusu çalışma, günümüz Van folklorunun, Van kültür tarihindeki yeri ve önemini tespite yönelik bir çalışmadır. Belli bir kültürel yapının tarih içerisindeki konum ve önemini tespit edebil mek, öncelikli iki gerçeğin ön kabulünü gerektirmektedir. İlki, kültürün doğa karşı sında yaşamı daha katlanılabilir ve daha rahat bir hale getirebilme mücadelesi ola rak bilinçli bir insan faaliyetinin ürünü olduğunu bilmek; ikincisi ise, insani faaliyetin, geçmiş-bugün ve gelecek gibi üç boyutlu bir zaman akışı içinde gerçek leştiğini görmek ve kültürün tarih içerisindeki bu üç boyutluluğunun anlamını kavra mış olmak. Bu önemlidir, zira belli bir zaman ve mekan içerisinde gerçekleştirilen her faaliyet aynı zamanda geçmişten devralman bilgi, deney ve birikimin ışığında, gelecek kuşaklara devredilecek bir kültür mirasını da oluşturma faaliyetidir. Tarih ve kültür ilişkisine böyle bir yorumla bakmak, bir geleneksel halk kültü rünü konu alan bu tez çalışmasının yöntemini de, konu edindiği geleneksel halk kültürü olarak Van folklorunu, kendine öncel bölgesel kültürler içerisinde ele almak şeklinde tayin etmiştir. Yöntemi gereğince, Van bölgesinin yazılı tarih öncesine ait durumunun ele alınmasıyla başlayan bu tez çalışması, bölgenin sırasıyla yaşadığı dönemleri günü müze dek incelemektedir. Bunu takiben, Van bölgesinin kültür tarihine, bölgenin kültürel geçmişine ait bilgiler verilmekte ve son olarak da günümüz Van folkloru nun özellikleri başlıklar altoda aktanlmaktadır.|
This thesis study is prepared to reveal traditional culture of Van Region in its his torical situation. Any cultural situation that is considered as traditional obliges looking at the historical background and development. For this reason, the contents of this study is formed in order to remove such obligatory need. Introductory which is at the beginning of the thesis is written to explain ca usality of the content. At the introductory point of view to the subject and giving meaning to the result thrown out for consideration is attempted to be explained, Van Region is a port of history because of its traditional situation. When we look to the cultural history of Van region, we can see that the cultures are influenced by the other cultures of the region. Also the geographical structure of the region and hard climate are caused that any foreign culture from other regions can not inflvence Van region. So the region of Van can protect its traditional culture from other cultures. During the history we will not see any assimilations in the Region Van. For that reson the people living in Van region and their cultures are very well joint. In the introduce of the thesis are given these comments and afterwords the political adventure of Van and the conquests of the region are narrated in the se- III cond part. We can call this second part as "History of Van", in which the history of the region is described from B.C. till today. As far as we can learn from archeological researchs of Mr.Oktay Belli from University of Istanbul, that the history of Van is going to the beginning of the Calkolitic Age althouhg the researchs are not well enouhg. The first civilisation in the region is between 5500-3000 B.C. in the Calcoli- tic Age. During this age not only materials from stone but also materials from metal like cupper are used, it is called Calcolitic Age: The age of stone and metal. The researches in the region show vs that during this age Van region had a culture and trade relations with North Mesopotamian Region. In the First Age we see Urart and Nuiri Confederation as a first civilized culture. This age s known as Urart and Nuiri Confederation Age. Although Urarts and Nuiris were not friends, they built a confederation togehter agains a possible Asur attack. During 860-580 B.C. Urarts were the leading culture in the region. To estab lish the Urart State had the meaning of changing from confederation to a centra- lizm for the region. 50 Urarts established a great state around Lake Van and rep resented the "Orient World" with Egypt, Babil, Asur and Hitits. The Kingdom of Urarts collapsed after the Meds establishment of a power- full state in the region at 585 B.C. At 550 B.C., The Persion with their Prince Kiros II defeated the King of Med Astiyag. So began Persion and Roman Empire Age in the region. IV The Persion could establish government organisation only during the Empe ror Dareios I (522-485 B.C.). At that time there were 13 military cities around Lake Van. Persion economy begon to collapse, because thay had no coast at Anatolia, so they couldn't make any sea-trade. At 332 B.C. Alexander the Great, Emporer of Makedonia, defeated Darievs and conquered the whole Van region. The Selökid Kingdom, The Kingdom Part and the Roman Empire conquered this region afterwards, hi 241 A.C. Sasans defeated the Romans and began to control the whole region from Van to Antalya. The Region Van was conquered by the Muslims at the time of the Caliph Osman (644-656). The Governor of Syria Muaviye, gave the duty of conquest of East Anatolia to Habib Bin Mesleve. Habib Bin Mesleve defeated a Byzantium army and conquered Ahlat, Erciş and Muradiye. But Ali and Muaviye could not came to an agreement and so began. The civil war. Byzantium conquered the re gion back. But in 661 Muaviye won Ali and then conquered the whole region again. In 11 th century the Turks began to attack to Anatolia. The Selcuks, who were defeated by Karahans and Gaznes moved to the west and controlled the re gion. After Mogol attacks the destroyed region was made by Aleaddin Keykubat again. With the great victory of Mogols against Selçuks in 1243 the region was di vided in two states. Musul and Van. From then on Van was conquered by Kara- koyunlus and then by Timur. In 1402 Timur defeated Yıldırım Bayazit in Ankara War and the region began to be controlled by Karakoyun State. After the dead of The King of Karakoyun State, The State Akkoyun conquered the region. The Ottomans conquered the region in 1534 and Van became an Ottoman State. In 18 th and 19+4 century during the collapsing age of Ottoman, Van was conquered by Russia and Persia. In the first quarter of the 20 th century, Armenia problem appenred in the region. The first Armenia rebellion was in 1896-97. In 1915, Van was conquered by Russia with the leadership of Armenia. In 1918 The Turkish Army conquered Van again. Van has not only such a historical background but also has a very active culturel background. This cultural history is examined in another part of the the sis. In that section the cultural products of Van is told with their characterical specifications. The prehistorical age of the city Van is not known very well. Only some ruins from Urarts (B.C. 1000) are found in the city borders. After the collapsing of Urarts Empire the Persian cultures influenced the region. At the time of the Christian spreading the effects of Syria and Byzantine are seen. With the Arabi ans the region recognized Islamic Culture and ofter the 11 th century the Turks had great influence over the cultural structure of the region. Also some cultural ruins of Van are important. Many prehistorical rocks and inns are found in Tirişin; Çatak, Yeşilala, Yedisalkım, Çapanak, Bıhıri. Also Akdamar church, built in 10 th century, has an important place İn East VI Christian art. Kümbet of Halime Hatun and Big Mosque built by the Turks are some arc hitectural examples for the pre Ottoman age of the region. In the last section of the thesis today's culturel richness of Van is based on its historical culture structure. Under the headline "Folklore of Van" some examples for the traditional cul ture of Van are given in this last section of the thesis. "Aşık Ercişli Emrah" and his traditional stories are good examples for the goetical life and legendary stroies the East Anatolian folkloric life. Also it is interesting that Meher Kapı and Başet Mountain, which are holy today, were holy at Urarts Age. In Van folklore, the traditional Turkish Folk songs and "mani" have a great place. So most of the folkloric games of Van tell a special story and some of them depends on a special Turkish song. These examples show us the traditional culture. So in the folkloric games you can see traditions. For that reason to keep the folkloric games alive, people, living in this region, should saw their traditions from disappearing.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1995|
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1995
|Appears in Collections:||Geleneksel Danslar(Tezli/Tezsiz) Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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