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Title: Udi Nevres Bey'in ud icrasının özellikleri
Other Titles: Characteristic features of Udi Nevres Bey
Authors: Torun, Mutlu
Başar, A. Sedat
Performance & Voice
Keywords: Müzik
Müzik aletleri
Nevres Bey
Musical instruments
Nevres Bey
Issue Date: 1995
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Nevres Bey'in ud icrasının araştırıldığı bu tezde; önce Nevres Bey'in hayatı, şahsiyeti incelenmiş, çeşitli röportajlar sunularak bulunabilen eserleri ve derlemelerinin listesi ile notaları verilmiştir. Değişik kaynaklardan elde edilen icraları gösterilerek, icracılığının genel özellikleri incelenmiş, karakteristik olanları notaya alınarak bazılarının analizleri yapılmıştır. Son olarak Nevres Bey'in icracılığı hakkındaki çeşitli görüşler yazılmış ve kendi el yazısı ile yazdığı armoni notlan ile bazı notaları eklemiştir.
In this thesis, the characteristic features of Udi Nevres Bey's (Nevres ORHON) performances with the ud ar examined. Nevres Bey was born in 1873 in the Yeşilyurt district of Malatya. His father, known as Horum Hafız, was a poor workman and a blacksmith, when Nevres Bey was around the age of seven, his father left for Istanbul to seek employment. A few years later, Nevres's mother died from pneumonia, so his father returned to take his son along to Istanbul. Sometime later his father's death followed, and the pasha by whom Nevres Bey's father had been employed decided to take care of and finance the young son's education. He had begun to establish his fame as an ud player before the year 1908, so he was often invited to perform at the fasils held at the residences and mansions of the rich. Within these circles, he came to know many other musicians who affected his musical career. Some of these were the following: Tanburi Cemil Bey (1871-1916), Kemenceci Vasil (1845-1807), Kanuni Hacı Arif Bey (1862-1911), Leon HANCIYAN (1857-1947), Tatyos (Kemani) VIII (1858-1913), Asdik Aga (1840-1913), Bekir Talat Bey, Rauf YEKTA (1871- 1935), Suphi EZGİ (1869-1962), Nubar TEKYAY (1905-1955), Sadi IŞILAY (1899-1969), Şerif Muhiddin TARGAN (1892-1967), Münir Nureddin SELÇUK (1899-1981), ete. During World War I, he went to Germany, and had the opportunity to listen to and observe closely the essence of Western classical music. As a result of his stay, he learned to use the Western note scheme perfectly in addition to his existing knowledge of the Hamparsum note scheme. Nevres Bey was a proud, introverted, meticulous, and touchy character. He used to stand out with his modern attire and attitude. Nevres Bey and his work was also appreciated by Mustafa K. ATATÜRK, and he served as a special secretary to the president for some time. Nevres Bey was also a serious, disciplined man, albeit rather nervous, and too emotional. He had a very sensitive ear, and a strong sense of musical quality. He was not tolerant of the slightest mistake or fault regarding music. He saved his music for his own taste rather than using it as a means of financial support. Nevres Bey also taught some students. Among those who played the ud are: Refik Talat APMAN (1894-1947), Bedriye HOŞGÖR (1889-1968) and a lady named Kevser Hanım. Among those who received vocal training from Nevres Bey are: Lebibe Hanım and Neyire Hanım (pseudonyms: Lale Hanım and Nergis Hanım), Subhi Ziya ÖZBEKKAN (1887-1966), İbrahim ZİYA and Safîye AYLA (1909- ). IX In 1934, he took upon the lastname ORHON. He served as an ud player in the newly founded Istanbul Radio for a short period. He passed away on January 22, 1937. He is buried in the Yakacık Cemetery in Istanbul. RIGHT HAND PLECTRUM TECHNIQUE The most important feature of Nevres Bey's right hand technique is where he applied the plectrum stroke. Nowadays, all ud players prefer to apply the stroke close to the large bridge. Nevres Bey used to prefer the midpoint of the large cage instead. At this point on the ud is generated a soft very romantic tone. The second most important feature of his right hand technique is his grasp and use of the plectrum and the stroke technique at the point mentioned above. Use of the plectrum and the application of the stroke over the cage requires a special, different technique. Nevres Bey's strokes during his performance were both up and under, and very rapid, representing traces of strokes used in playing the tanbur and the lavta. The plectrum he used was made of a kind of stout French leather. LEFT HAND FINGER-PRESS AND POSITION TECHNIQUE Nevres Bey used to use his left hand with just as much skill. He relied especially on position during performance, using closed tones. Nevres Bey used the position changes performed on a single string of the tanbur on every string of the ud without hesitation. He succeeded in this via the first, second, third, and fourth fingers which he could manipulate ever so skillfully and comfortably. ORNAMENTAL FEATURES Nevres Bey applied all ornamental techniques and additions that an ud players used in performance, with great skill and wherever appropriate. These ornamental techniques are Çarpma, Legato, Mordan, Grupetto, and Glissando. DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF HIS PERFORMANCE In order to maintain the high musical quality in his performance, Nevres Bey was sensitive about "tını". Especially in his taksims, he tuned the fifth string to yegah and the sixth string to kaba dügâh, kaba rast, etc. Wherever appropriate, according to the makam. Nevres Bey used to play his instrument as if it were a string instrument played with a bow. For this reason, he felt the need to extend the durations of the sounds in the kalışs in his instrumental solos. He displayed this technique by insisting on the rapid upper and under plecturm passages at the sounds he performed kalışs on. Since he generally played using closed notes and relied on position, he used very different, unique vibratos with these sounds, especially during his taksims. These vibratos are neither those applied on a single note as in XI Western music (as with the guitar), nor are they those performed by sliding the fingers both ways in an exaggerated fashion. Nevres Bey's vibratos were performed just the right amount and in full compliance with musical quality. Regarding where the stroke was applied, he did not play with strong strokes at high volume. Only, he has a style of playing using accent. He also utilized nuance in his performances. ANALYSIS OF HIS PERFORMANCE When analyzed, performance in which he accompanied others, reveal at a glance his mastery of the skill of and the ability to keep in perfect harmony at accompaniment. Especially in works performed by the vocalist Münir Nureddin SELÇUK, Nevres Bey's and his colleauge Kemani Nubar TEKYATs skill at accompaniment is distinctly heard. Another feature of Nevres Bey's art is apparent in pieces he has vocally performed as well as with his instrument. This is the difference between his singing and his playing, (pp. ) ANALYSIS OF HIS TAKSIMS Taksim, as a kind performance in Turkish music, is very important to the string player. A string instrument which can be easily embedded in the harmony of a collection of other instruments performing together, is on its own in a taksim. In addition, a taksim requires skill at composition beyond any performance skills, considering this composition is improvized, created at mat XII very moment. Nevres Bey was not only a skilled ud player, but also a great master of the art of taksim. He did not exceed the limits of the classic style very often. He did not use chords, leaps, broken lines frequently, either. He preferred, instead, a lot of closed notes and frequent use of his position technique. In spite of this, he succeded in avoiding any faults while ascending up to the furthest positions and descending down on even the treble frets. Especially in his bestenigâr, hüzzam, and uşşak taksims, it is easy to note the firmness, the beauty, and the use of the frets he pressed in accord with the relevant makam. It is also apparent that he had an extremely disciplined understanding of the makams. Theoretically, he did whatever was necessary for the makam. He did not give up the classic definition and sense of makam, and did not use marginal melodies. His taksims written in note form are the following: Uşşak taksim Gerdaniye taksim Hicaz taksim Muhayyer taksim Suznak taksim Hüzzam taksim XIII Nevres Bey, as may be deduced from the analyses presented, is the first Turkish ud player to reach the rank of virtuoso with the harmony of his right and left hands, highly develpoed position technique, and mastery of the ud. The softness of his style, the sensitive melodies sparkled with emotions, the accent in his performance are unique. He is among the very few Turkish ud players that have suceeded in gracefully combining technique with a strong sense of emotion. In general, what is desired to be extracted as the essence of Nevres Bey's style is the following: (1) His ability to generate numerous melodies using the plectrum extensively, (2) His style of constructing musical sentences atop each other much like building blocks, and (3) The high musical quality of his performance as derived naturally from his plectrum strokes and his unique technique. Nevres Bey's style and works must be introduced to the ud students at the conservatory. It is the author's opinion that it is of utmost importance to communicate the fact that playing the ud is not purely a mechanical task of performing a piece, especially a taksim without a fault. To play the ud, as inscribed deep in the fundamental principles of Turkish classical music, is to obtain a beatiful sound, a rich tone and to merge this gracefully with emotion to reflect on and thus make the audience feel the same. Naturally, every student at the conservatory should be urged to listen repeatedly and consistently to the recordings of masters such as Yorgo XIV BACANOS, Nubar TEKYAY, Niyazi SAYIN, Münir Nureddin SELÇUK, and especially Tanburi Cemil Bey, begining at the earliest stages of musical education. Thus, as a result of this exposition, the student should be made to grasp the very foundation, the philosophical basis, and the underlying principles of Turkish classical music
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1995
Appears in Collections:Çalgı-Ses(Tezli/Tezsiz) Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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