Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17528
Title: Enstrümantasyon açısından ud
Other Titles: Examination of the lute with respect of enstrumentation
Authors: Torun, Mutlu
Yaman,Canan
72174
Çalgı-Ses
Performance & Voice
Keywords: Müzik
Müzik aletleri
Ud
Music
Musical instruments
Lute
Issue Date: 1998
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Ud'un tarihi hakkında , her ne kadar Türk dünyasında Farabi'den yola çıkıldıysa da Prof.Muammer Kemal Özergin'in bahsettiği tarih ud hakkında kayda değer bilgiler içermektedir. Bilgilerin yer aldığı kaynağa göre ud'un ilk görüldüğü yer Batı Türkistan'ın doğu kesimidir. Görüldüğü yerin güney batısına doğru da götürülmüştür.Çalgı Fars Kültür Çevresi'nde Di. yüzyılda Arap Kültür Çevresi'nde X. yüzyıla kadar , Endülüs İslam Kültürü'nde IX. yüzyıldan XV. yüzyıl sonlarına kadar Avrupa'nın batı kesiminde de XHI. Yüzyılda görülmeye başlandı. Günümüzde kullanılan ud, beş çift, bir tek tele sahip mızraplı, perdesiz bir enstrümandır. Bombeli bir gövdeye sahiptir. Gövdenin ön yüzü kapak tahtası, arka kısmı da tekneyi oluşturur. Gövdeye bağlı, parmakların basıldığı klavye, düz bir sap halindedir ve sapın ucunda tellerin bağlandığı burguluk bulunur. Ud, Farabi'ye kadar dört telli kullanıldı. Farabi'nin akordu ile beş çift telli olduğu ve teller aşağıdan yukarıya Si bemol (Sünbüle), Fa (Acem), Do (Çargah), Sol (Rast), Re (Yegah)' ye akordlandılar. Farabi'den sonra altıncı tel (bam teli), en ince tel olan birinci telin altına eklendi. Bam teli Sol (Kaba Rast) veya La (Kaba Dügah)'ya akordlandı. Şimdi ise ud ince telden kalma doğru Sol (Gerdaniye), Re (Neva), La (Dügah), Mi (Hüseyni Aşiran), Si (Kaba Buselik), Fa diyez (Geveşt) olarak akord edilir. Fakat Geveşt'in bulunduğu makam sayısının azlığından dolayı altıncı tel olan bam teli, makama göre Sol (Kaba Rast), La (Kaba Dügah), Mi (Kaba Hüseyni Aşiran), Do (Kaba Çargah) olarak da kullanılır. Yazılan sesin bir oktav aşağısını veren bas bir enstrümandır. Teknik özellikler açısından zengindir. Vİbrato, Legato, Staccato, Glissando, Flageolet gibi efektif özellikleri yapabilen bir enstrümandır. Udi Nevres Bey, Yorgo Bacanos, Şerif muhiddin Targan, tanbur icracılarından Tanburi Cemil Bey ve İzzettin Ökte ile ifadesinde zenginlik kazanan tanbur ve kanun ile aynı aileyi paylaşan mızraplı bir Türk Müziği enstrümanıdır. Türk Müziği enstrümanlarını inceleyip, kitap altında toplayan yeterli sayıda çalışma yoktur. Müziğin gelişimini sağlayan unsurların başmda enstrümanların ve icracıların gelişimleri yer alır. Enstrümanlarımız ne kadar incelenir ve tanıtılır ise müziğimiz de o kadar gelişir. Müzik aletlerinin yeterli derecede tanıtılması, kompozitörlere yeni kapılar açacak, yazma tekniklerini kolaylaştıracak ve geliştirecektir.
Lute was fîrst seen in the east part of the west Türkistan . Among small staves , in pictures , there are human figures , holding an instrument of this kind . These remains are estimoted to belong to the 8* century . A few musicans are illustrated in the trinkets of Granddhara, in the wall pictures in East Türkistan and in a freeze which was found in the ruins of Ayır - Tam near the city of Tirmiz . Among these illustrations, there is a woman who plays an instruments, resembling the lute . It is accepled that the work belongs to the 1* century A.C. It is known that the musical art had reached to a high level in the Principality of Kuçar , in East Türkistan and in the Region of Koçiğ , and various kinds of instruments were played in these regions . It is leamed from the mitten sources that, among them there was aninstruments similar to the lute . This instrument was called “ Pipa ” or “ Kopuz ” in East Türkistan . in the 9* century , the name of this instrument was called “ Pipa Kopuz ” among the Turks of Uygur . It is stoted in the Chinese sources that, in the Agr of Göktürk Culture , which covered the 601 and 9* centuries . There were nearly 8 or to types of Pipa in various sizes . Pipa was seen in Japan in the 7* and 8* centuries. The widely adopted instrument is called “ Biwa ” in Japan . Pipa is used in China in our time . Lute was brought to southwest from East Türkistan . It is supposed that , this instrument joined the Persian cultural environment in the 3rd century . Farmer , the English musicolog , gave the name “ Barbat ” to this instrument in that cultural environment . Barbat was widely adapted, developed and matured . Barbat became larger and its chetswas covered with wood again. It is known that , this instrument is four stringed . Barbat become a very popular instrument in the Country of Gassani in regions in the 7* century. It is sald that, Nazr , the son of El - Hariş brought the wooden chest lute from North tothe . Arabia the name Barbat is hardly used in the Arabic cultural environment. Arabics named this instrument “ El - ud ” . Lute was widely adopted and speread this region, which forms the çenter of the Islamic Cultural environment Lute was used as a solo instrument for a long time in the Mediewal Islamic world . When performing , either it was played improvisation or accompanied to a singer. Lute had been four stringed until the 10* century. after they adopted İslam , Turks changed the names of the culture elements, they had since a long time a go , probably in order to be in harmony with the Islamic environment. With this attitude,the name of the instrument, that they had been using for a long time, became the “ Lute ”.Lute was adopted by Greeks too since the last centuıy in the Peninsula of Balkans. There is not enough information about the musical instruments which were used by Turks in the old ages . The source that gives information on this subject is the work of Farabi, named “ Kitab - ül Musiki - ül Kebir ” . This work contains a lot of fundamental information about the shapes and types of the musical instruments which were used by Turks . Ahmetoğlu Şükrullah , who lived in the reign of Sultan Murat the II., flılly described the musical instruments of Turks . He refers to the woods which the lute is made of, measures of the instrument, and its being five - stringed . Abdulkadir Maragi is one of the people who explained the technical features of the instrument , used in the history of the Islamic Music . According to the Maragi, the lute is attached with four pairs of strings that mens eight strings . The strings are tuned in pairs. Lute was seen in Endülüs during the 9* century . It was never given up in the Endülüs Islamic cultural environment which continued from the 9* century to the 15* century. Lute was begun to be seen part of the Europe in 13* century . In the first half of the 15* century, a fifth string was stretched to the four stringed lute . The body of which was sometimes , neck was short and wide , and the pey was lied to the back. The lute - like instrument , the first sample of which was seen in West Türkistan , was brought to East Europe by Turks . It was leamed from the foreign tribes that, Turks called this instrument “ Kopuz ” . This instrument which is stili used in Romania and called Cobza, is in the shape of lute and has a very short neck . Cobza can be attached with various numbers of strings from five to twelve. Today, lute is played with a plectrum , it is not fretted , and has 6 strings. Five of which are double, one of wbich İs single . It consists of the neck thet gives the sounds looked for , the body that powers these sounds , and strings that give sounds . It’s body is wide and shallow. The front part of the body forms the cover board, and the back part forms there is the trough . Connected with the body, there is the fret ( keyboard ) in the form of a straight neck on which the fingers are pressed . The keyboard is in form of an even handle , and there is a gimlet at the end of the gimlet where the strings are wired on. And there is a peg at the end of this neck on which the strings are tied up. Strings , one end of which is tied to the bird bridge , are coiled anound the pegs after the other ends pass över the small peg . The strings are slack ened or stretched by tuming the pegs in their sockets . This the tuning process is realized . The lute , that is used today has 11 strings , five or which are double and one of which is single , and these strings are tuned unision ( same sound ) . They are ranged from bottom to the top , deepening . The first string of the lute is tuned for Sol, second for Re, third for La , fourth for Mi, fifth for Si, sixth for Fa Diyez , and the first five of these strings must be double . The names of these sounds are Gardaniye , Neva , Dügah , Hüseyni, Aşiran , Kaba Buselik , Kaba Geveşt in Turkısh Music . Together with these sounds 5th and 6* strings can be , tuned for Re and sixth for Sol, La, Mi or Fa. The sixth string of lute , called Bam string (the string that gives the lowest sound ) had to be attodred below the thinnest string . It was tuned for La ( Kaba Dügah ) or Sol ( Kaba Rast) and the fifth string was tuned for Re ( Segah). It can be accepted that the deepest sound of today’s lute is Fa Diyez , Kaba Geveşt and the lovvest sound is the best sound, which can be acavired after the end of the neck. This on and can reach to Sol ( Tiz Gerdaniye) or La ( Tiz Muhayyer ) Lute is a bass instrumen which gives one octave lower of the written note . Thanks to the brightness and power of it’s sound , it has the characteristic features of a solo instrument, that is able to express a musical structure as well as it will show a rythmical continvity in on orchestra . As it is played with a plecttrum , a sting resonates very shortly when it is plucked . There fore it is preferred to use short notes in the lute rather than longer ones . His nuance can be determined by the sofhess or hardness of plucking in every zone of it. There are three types of plectrum strike: Uphold Strike: The plectrum resumes its previous positioning by leaning to the lower string after having stricken a double string . With such plectrum the best tone is produced, but the inter transposition between the strings becomes less quick. Wide Strike: The plectrum strikes once a double string and resumes its previous positioning without touching the lower double string. You have a nice tone and quicker inter-strings positioning between strings become available. Short Strike: The plectrum that strikes only one string of a double, resumes its previous positioning without touching the double. The tone is less then the others. But quick works on a single string is adequate. Width the strikes applied on a single string on the once performed in the inter transposition of strings the uphold, wide and short plectrum techniques may be applied by striking up and down with single plectrum. In the musical works edited for ud, the plectrum is identified by an arrow sing placed on the note. In general, although continuous up and down plectrum are used, in the traditional plectrums up-up-down series are more distinct at the note series in the inter transposition of strings. Such plectrum, is different in the strong strikes. However, it is assumed to be highly convenient for quickening strikes. As the upper plectrums are assumed to be strong and the bottom ones semi strong strike, in the up-up-down (Traditional) plectrums will change the strong-strong -semi strong strike forms. When the fingers are laid on the strings, each finger produces half tones. The fingers being in equipose with each half tone constitue the colons. The colons may be assumed the same as the notes in the stringed instruments width notes. The first finger the numberl colon, the second finger the 2“d colon, the third finger the 3rd colon, the forth finger introduces the 4* colon. When the fingers are positioned in such way, the first position is achieved. By sliding the first finger colon by colon the other positions are produced. The instruments included in the Turkish Classical music perform the monotonal music in politonal manner. In the tradition of Turkish music which is performed by the instrumens in polytonal manner, the solo instrument used to take place only during the improvisations. Since the improviser usually remained alone with its instrument, used to display its own style and the style of its instrument. in the later stages, such batch performances tumed out to appear as concerts. In the concerts performed, the instruments have begun the show up as solo performers. Thanks to the methods developed in our new century, the players had more frequent opportunity to dominate their instruments, while achieving remarkable process in technical terms. It is an instrument which can be played with the techniquess of Legato ( connected playing ) , Stoccoto (interval playing ) , Glissando ( sliding playing ). The plectrum is plucked up and down, in order to play more than one sound . This technique can be changed in to the “ İnternal Plectrum ” technique, by plucking the upper side of the lower string and underside of the upper one. In rappid passages, it is difficult to perform this technique , the lottger skipping intervals and in prolonged arpej it is difficult to perform the up and down pluck ingtechnique . It is on instrument which conteins the scate the intervals from double to eight and the technique of playing occurd. Under Such developments the composers and the practitioners have been more equipped with the valuable experience which allowed them to study each instrument individually under its own features so that they could have achieved the works that have been in concordance with such findings. Amongst such works the following samples are worth to mention; The Ud methods, studies and the instrumental semai for Ud and Kanun written by Mutlu Torun; The Ud concerto written by Haşan Ferit Alnar. The performance of Turkish music has been enriched and characterized by adoming the melodies in rhytmical and melodious aspects. Many works in the form of such as; symphonies, concertos, sonatas..etc. have always been performed with the strict clinging to the notes. Everything that are to be played are ali included within the notes. As a matter of rhythm, these may be tolerated by the soloist, conductor and the maestro, but such tolerances are ahvays limiteds to their basic notes. The notes written for Turkish music may differentyl be performed. A simple note may readily be subjected to a rhytmical change. As a matter of rhtyhm and melody The Turkish Music is a very rich of its kind. The practitioners have caused the music to be significantly enriched by the contribution of their own attitudes and style that applied which consequently resulted in different styles. Udi Nevres Bey (Udist Nevres), Tanburi Cemil Bey (Tamburist “lutist” Cemil Bey), izzettin Okte, Yorgo Bascanos, Şerif Muhiddin Targan, Cinucen Tanrikorur have caused the Ud enriched by their contributions. Lute is one of the member of the family of picked instruments , together with the Tanbur and Kanun which are the two of the Turkish musical instruments . The features of performance of Tanbur and lute the similar to each other. Tanbur is a fretted instrument , the neck of which is longer , the body is rounder and the spectrum is horder than Lute . The right hand technique is much quicker for lute in comparasion with Tanbur . Motions quicken more easly because of the softness of plectrum. The Kanun (Traditional Turkish instrument with 72 string played with plectrum) is a technique and tone rich instrument and has deeper tone compared with the Ud and Tanbur. It has almost the same technical features as the Ud does. Ud is rather a bass instrument compared to Kanun. Both of them may accompany the swift strong pieces in concordance to the extend their technical features would permit. Since the practitioner of Kanun is free to use both hands, it has a range of techniques of reaching a wide area which area which is readily available, using the octaves with ease. its tone is sharper than that of the Ud. Under the aforementioned relationships, Ud, Tanbur, and Kanun are included in the Turkish classical music group of instruments which are catagorized under the traditional stringed instruments played with plectrum. The other wind instruments and stringed instruments under the same group of instruments have better capacity of accompanying in rhythmical aspect. The wind instruments such as; Ney, clarient, the stringed instruments such as; classical Kemance (Kemance), Violin, Viola, Violoncello, have playing techniques with longer tones of rhythmical pattem than the traditional stringed instruments played with plectrum. Ud is traditional Turkish instruments played with plectrum and used in the exclusive batch performance of Turkish instruments indentifying itself with its characteristic tone, rhythm and bass. There is notenough study examining and accumulating the Turkish musical instruments in a book . One of the elements . which develops the music , is the improvement of instruments and performers . The musical instruments being introduced adequately , will open new doors to the composers and facilitate and develop the miting techniques . The book of instrumentation is a monval that has to be found in a composer’s assistance . An instruments being bestknown means that the most improved works are written for it. Researches on musical instruments must be attached importance . As a result of these studies a change and development can be seen in music.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1998
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17528
Appears in Collections:Çalgı-Ses(Tezli/Tezsiz) Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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