Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17383
Title: Hacı Arif Bey'in şarkı formu açısından musikimizdeki yeri
Other Titles: The Place of Hacı Arif Bey in our music from viewpoing of song-form
Authors: İçli, Selahaddin
Ünsal, Nermin
22152
Temel Bilimler
Basic Sciences
Keywords: Bestekarlar
Hacı Arif Bey
Türk sanat müziği
Composers
Hacı Arif Bey
Turkish art music
Issue Date: 1992
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Hacı Arif Bey'e gelinceye kadar Şarkı formu genellikle klâsik yapıda, devrinin üslûbu ile bağdaşan ağır ve vakur bir tarzda gelişmiştir. Klâsik devrin bestekârları Şarkıyı ancak Kâr, Beste Ağır ve Yürük Semaîler ile dini formdaki eserlerinin yanında kullanmışlardır. Hacı Arif Bey ise klâsik anlamda mükemmele ulaşan bir mûsikî ortamında sadece şarkı formuna eğilmiştir. Halbuki onun bestekârlıktaki çok yüksek kudreti mûsikînin her dalında varlığını göstermesini gerektirirdi. Şarkıları küçük, hareketli süslü ve çiçekli melodilerden oluşur. Geniş halk kitlelerinin zevkine uygundur. Hacı Arif Bey'in mûsikî dehasını sadece şarkı ile sınırlaması eserlerinin güzelliği ve tesir kabiliyeti ile mûsikîmizi yalnızca şarkıdan ibaret dar bir dünya içine sokması ve kendinden sonra gelenleri bu yolda etkilemesi Türk mûsikîsinin seviye kaybetmesine ve değer ölçülerinin aleyhte değişimine yol açmıştır.
Hacı Arif Bey Mas born at Eyüp district of istanbul in 19Bl.He drew distinction and attention with beautiness of his voice and ability during hymn education in the school. Firstly, he took lessons from Zekai Efendi (master) being 6 years ol der than him who was studying in the same school and then Eyyübi Mehmet Efendi. By observing great capacity and ability in him, his tutor took Arif to Dede Efendi and Dede gave lessons to Arif about för 2 years. Arif registered to Turkish Music Branch of Royal Military Band by help of Eyyübi Mehmed Bey and started to his duty at the Palace as clerk here, he became a student of Hasim Bey being composer and musicolog. When he Mas 19 years old, he dreM the attention of Sultan Abdülmecid and Mas accepted among court chamberlains and awarded the title "Bey = Master". At the same time, he started giving music lessons to concubines in the harem. He executed his first marriage Mİth öne of concubines called Cesm-i Dilber and had tMO children from her. Upon his Mife left him, he returned to his assignment in the Palace.But,this time,he fell in love again Mİth Zülf-i Nigar in the harem and by marrying her, he departed from Palace. After some time his Mife died from tuberculosis. Abdülaziz Mho succeeded to the throne and sovereignty,çalled Arif again to the Palace. After these tMO Medlocks not being in compliance Mith Palace tradition, our composer married to Nigarnik Kalfa again from harem and Mas expelled from Palace and at the same period he Ment on a pilgrimage to Mecca and then,he Mas called "Hadji Arif Bey".He returned to Palace again during the reign of IInd-Abdülhamid, hOMever treatment sustained, by him för the reasons of pride created in him by his fame and his unliked attitude and behavior,caused him to be more ill-tempered and in consequence he Mas imprisoned for 50 days term. As result of this straints and stresses Hacı Arif Bey became unMell from his heart and passed away on 28th of June.1985 Mhen he Mas 54 years old. Hacı Arif Bey is öne of the rnost important composers of Turkish Music. He dreM attention Mİth fineness of his f -nı- voice and physique, powerful memory and musical ability since small ages. in spite of being, born and grown up in district such as Eyüp pertalning to the next world, we have no knowledge and information that he was educated and trained in Religious musical centers such as Lodge o-f Mevlevi dervishes and dervish Lodges. Furthermore, no record was met in sources that he continued his education af ter district school. Hacı Arif Bey was considered as a creator o-F ecol which is the beginning of Romantic period of the Turkish Music which is recently divided into periods and effecting entire period and was greatest composer of song form. Until reaching to Hacı Arif Bey,song never became in leading position of other forms and was not a type being in demand of composers.Classical period composers such as Sultân IHrd Selim, Şahin Ağa, Hammamizade ismail, Dede Efendi used songs along religious ör out of religion works in large form. On the other hand, Tanburi Mustafa Çavuş, Çorlulu ve Denizoglu Ali Bey only composed songs. However, songs of these composers are in conformity of concept of that period, merely made for art in classical structure, selected and diştinquished, original, talented works as others.. in addition, to songs Mith dignified, serious expressions, songs again having higher artistle talent, but being light, elegant, graceful, simple were composed during this period. Song form started with good sdanting and became matured and completed its formation before Arif Bey by reaching to pinnacle through the works created by unattainable genious of Dede Efendi. Although he was present in such excellent Musical environment in classical sense and taken lessons from very good, talented tutors, Hacı Arif Bey exhibited his composing ability and capacity only through song form. being successful great and artistle forms such as Kâr, Mevlevi Rite, dignified and six beats Rhythmic pattern, means without any doubt,' reaching to perfection in that art form. For this reason, wideness of horizon of classical period composors, naturally, brought fort different atmosphere and different expressions to them in their songs. Talent of Hacı Arif Bey, learning from great.ua*> -VIII- masters great capacity in composition, should demostrate its existence at each branch of Music. There are many reasons -For this. As -far as he seems, Hacı Ari-f Bey is extremely sensitive, touchy and Romantic person. Love för ladies caused always great storms in his spirit. He is introvert and liked seclusion. He never asked any thing from anybody. His social relationship was poor. Being trended to his internal world, caused negative results in his relations and affairs with Palace. He was not hapy even in the most important atmosphere of the empire such as Palace, he -Failed to achieve social li-fe whlch his -friends succeeded. The era in which Hacı Ari-F Bey lived is a şilece o-F time when Turkish Community officially turned to the west by 1839 Reforms Firman and co 11 apse o-F Ottoman Empire was so close. Ulesterinization which started earlier in cultural -Field shown itsel-F in literatüre and Music area very soon. Pre-Ference o-F western music, by Sultans being absolute Rulers o-F the Empire since XIX century, their tendency to imported enjoyment and pleasures instead of giving opportunity ta improvement o-F the Turkish music, deprived our music from protection by Palace and without any protector ör patron and caused it to -Fail to streets. Our composers -Falling i nto living straints due to this attitude o-F the Palace, had composed works matching to the pleasures of public in order to continue their living. Majority of them did not attempt to learn Musical knouledge and could not realize what kind of losses were caused to themselves and to our music by going down to pleasure level of common people and were carried away by vulgar, cheap appreciations. Hacı Arif Bey, could not also go out of these conditions and and never shown interest and concern in European Musicial world coming to himself by itself to Palace with Donizetti and Guatelli high officials in the exact way of his contempories as well as he did not have any desire to bring fort a different concept,fresh blood to the Turkish Music- by learning notes and Musical knouledge and found his reputation sufficient gained by songs. During this period when tendencies of populace became foremost important, he attributed to wide public massess by composing songs being incllned to pleasures of people, easily understood, quickly learned and staying - XIX - in mind. He chose his works from well-known, melodic creations and his Musical texts from poems easily understood, addressing to worldly pleasures, and made songs not requiring classical musical training in composition and performance. By combining his effective voice and handsome physique with this, he became celebrity at young age, and was liked and appreciated by wider circles and his fame spead abroad. Most of his songs are enjoyable, sensitive and pretty. They were formed from active, moving and ornamented melodies. In comparision with songs belonging to the classical period, his songs are more colourful and swift. Hacı Arif Bey did not create this style and scale, but became an influential, brilliant representative of style being anonymous during that period. Moreover Hacı Arif Bey was not the brightest song composer of his era. How can Şevki Bey, Kazasker Mustafa izzet Efendi, Nikogos Aga etc. be considered to be behind of Hacı Arif Bey to what extent and degree. Hacı Arif Bey had more easily reached to the fame attained by earlier Music Masters following difficult training which continues for many years at musical centers such as Palace Shool or Mevlevis Lodge provided by grand masters through the influence of his living environment and his popularity. This fame gained only by song composition, stimulated the ambitions for being famous through easier means of succeeding composers and commercial anxiety started. So, demand for other forms of the Turkish Music decreased to great extent. This is obvious indication of unfavourable changes in appreciation values in our Music. Hacı Arif Bey's limitation of his musical genious only to songs is extremely great lost for our music and furthermore entering our music into a narrow world consisting barely and only of songs with beautiness of his works and influencing ability and effecting his successors in such way have caused the Turkish music to lose in quality and level. Although love and affection for songs started with Hacı Arif Bey ensured our music to be spread to a wider section, our music started losing acquired quality by becoming composer in every level of anyone and by time, commercial interests have speeded up this to a large extent. - X - Hacı Arif Bey is a genious. He is a gi-Ft to our Music... Merely his contribution of vitality to Kürdi li- hicazkar melodic creation and attribution, to Turkish Music is worthy to keep his name alive for centuries, however, from another viewpoint, he opened easy way in our music. Music and song form which had reached to the submit of its effort during classical period, was not strenghtened by supporting with a new attempt and Hacı Arif Bey could not erect the building expected from his genious on these foundations. This is one of the significant, missed opportunities on the way to improve and make Turkish music contemporary.
Description: Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1992
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1992
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17383
Appears in Collections:Temel Bilimler Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora

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