Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17378
Title: Türk halk oyunları oyun müziklerinin çokseslilik açısından değerlendirilmesi
Authors: Değerli, Fikret
Gürler, Engin Şafak
64220
Temel Bilimler
Basic Sciences
Keywords: Music
Games
Turkish folk dances
Polyphony
Music
Games
Turkish folk dances
Polyphony
Issue Date: 1997
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Yedi bölümden oluşan bu çalışma, "Türk Halk Oyunları Oyun Müzikleri'nin Çokseslilik Açısından Değerlendirilmesi" amacı ile yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın; 1. Bölüm'ünde; sorunun belirlenmesi, çalışmanın amacı, önemi, kapsamı ve kullanılan yöntemler ile ilgili bilgiler verilmiş. 2. Bölüm'ünde; Türk Halk Oyunları'nın tarihi gelişimi ve oyunların türleri olan (barlar, halaylar, horonlar, zeybekler, Teke Yöresi Oyunları, bengiler, mengiler, sinsin, hora ve karşılamalar, davullu oyunlar, kaşıklı oyunlar, el çırpmalı oyunlar, vasıtalı oyunlar, gemici oyunları, semahlar) hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. 3. Bölüm'de; Türk Halk Çalgıları, dört ana grupta toplanarak (tezeneli çalgılar, yaylı çalgılar, üflemeli çalgılar, vurmalı çalgılar) konunun anlaşılmasına yardıma olabilmesi açısından anlatılmıştır. 4. Bölüm'de; Türk Halk Oyunları'nda ritm tanımı, usul, düzüm, ölçü, vuruş, vurgu, tempo ve mertebe gibi konulara genel bir bakışla yer verilmiştir. 5. Bölüm'de; Türk Halk Oyunları Çalışmaları, yarışmalar, oyun-müzik ilişkisi, Türk Halk Oyunları'nda otantik kavramı ve icra çeşitleri, tavır ve koreografiden söz edilmiştir. 6. Bölüm'de; genel olarak çokseslilik ve ilkeleri, unsurları ile Türkiye'de çokseslilik anlayışı işlenmiştir. 7. Bölüm'de; Türk Halk Oyunları, Oyun Müziklerinde Çokseslilik değerlendirilmesi yapılmış ve sonuçlan örneklerle kanıtlanmaya çalışılmıştır. Çalışmanın bölüm değerlendirilmelerinde kütüphanelerden, kişisel gözlemlerden ve görüşme verilerinden yararlanılmıştır. Araştırmada, "Türk Halk Oyunları Oyun Müzikleri'nin Çokseslilik Açısından Değerlendirilmesi" sırasında ses sistemi, halk çalgılarında standart sorunu, kavram ve terim kargaşası, kullanılan sazların çoksesli olup olmadığı sorunu gözönüne alındığında, bilimsel dayanaktan yoksun olması nedeni ile Türk Halk Oyunları oyun müziklerinde çokseslilik değerlendirilmesinin yapılmasının doğru olmadığı sonucuna varılmıştır.
Folk dance musics originate from self understanding of the arrangers in a conversational way of its context and applied methods in general. These are new applications which are yet in seeking of the limits of its context and applicable methods. The teacher teaching the folk dance groups should protect the music accompanying the group while dancing. To do that, his/her musical knowledge should be complete in lmaddition to his/her dance knowledge, if he/she doestn't own these wqualities, he/se admit his/herself to the musicians for choosing the instruments accompanying the dance and the melodie to be arranged. As a result of this, musiciansor the person arranging the melodie (if he/she knows the dance) should arrange it so that the dance becomes more important than the music. The arrangement on the notes in the melodie could be contrary to the natural structure of the dance and also of the province of this dance. Dance teachers and musicians should act by thinking the responsibility conscious against the society at first while arranging. Music comes from an individual act and in a time period, it belongs to the society. When music becomes a part of the society, it could be directed in a line of society's feelings and ideas. This individually thinking person applied methods would be according to the society and gained education so if he/she is well educated, the quality of music would be accordingly. Polyphonic music developed and became an art first in European countries. Polyphonic music entered into Turkey first in 1797 when the European artists performed an opera prepared by themselves. In the Republican period, previous development, stopping and receding movements seen in ployphonic music in our country, developed in a possitive direction by the revolutions and general attitude of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and our corintry came in to a higher position in culture and art. On the one side, polyphonic music activies are arranged by inviting the foreign music experts and artists to kour country; on the other side our masters named as the Turkish five were sent to Europe and their gained education and all the artists who gave their heart to this subject, even in a very small number, coused quite possitive results. However, these developments were realized just with the groups having the European style orchestral order named polyponic. The masters made some arrangements without considering traditional musical instrumenst at that time and also later. vn Polyphonic trials which were exposed by appliying harmony and contrascore system on Turkish folk melodies were performed with western musical instruments or as vocal. As above mentioned, traditional musical kinstruments were not considered. Howover, all ythese developments and proud of studies, gained successes are not sufficient if thought generally in nation. These studees lasting just in a few cities addressed just a determined and limited audience society. To reach tomore broader society, Turkish Folk Dance were choosen. Dance musics of folk dance were corrupted by many consciously and un consciously people. It losts its volue. It lost its authenticity and its spirit. There are many unexplainable differences between the studies in Republican period and ofter wards and the studies about dance musics of Turkish folk dances at the presenttime. The applications by trying to immitate the western style of music produces a lot of problems with them. Since Turkey is very chose to the West, it could not be stay uninterested with the western music. However, to think that the western music is the on'y one way to follow it is contemporary is not the way out. To prevent the authenticity of Turkish Folk dances and Turkish folk music byresearching in a priority is a not deniable task. Without giving up, as for corners should be looked into, as many dance types and melodies should be gathered and put into a archives. Cultural gap between the bottom and lthe top are left quite large in our society. In other words, our people could not be developed in musical culture not fully also even not khalf way. There aren't sufficient effort for this. Since the musical culture isn't known not by just our people even by ythe people who are in bureaucratic places, as before mentioned, appearing applications are met the evalunation whether polyphony for some people or multiwinstrumentation for others according to their initiatives. Dance which means that feelings and ideas are explained by the human beings movements ga theres all kinds kof art kand information branches. Folk dance is one of the most important branch of folklore and folk music is also in the same catigory. Dances which are formed by the physical movements in publics entertainments, prayers etc, are exposed by folk artists and public, and are appropriate to the provincial characteristics to address visual aesthetics as well as hearing. Dance musics of Turkish folk dance being originally authentic are in a audial change by making use of the novelty brought by the present technology. Polyphonic and multi-instrumentational trials come into being when used technological musical instruments, western musical instrument and Turkish traditional musical instruments are performed together. vm Singe Turkish folk music and dance musics of Turkish folk dances are originally monophonie, these trials coused a conversation about polyphony and, multi-instrumentation truely or wrongly. Turkish folk ydances are passed on different diminstions without thinking mthe result by presenting to our people with the conscious or unconscious applications in the competitions and festivals at the present time. To make such applications, the Turkish traditional musical instruments should be stable by fitting determined standards on them since our traditional musical instruments do not still have a standart model proportions. As in the West, each instrument doesn't have a determined model proportion although traditional instrument are fit to some model, proportions in a time period which are formed according to each province's self characteristics. If dance music of Turkish folk dances are wanted to be performed polyphonically for surely, it should be arrunged not by ylrandom people but by the members who are trained for this and who are graduated from the composition or musicology depertments of the conservatoires. The most correct way is that the so called compositors not the arrangers should do this duty yby not destraying the polyphonic rules in a scientific way. Who know Turkish traditional musical instruments kand their characteristics well can form the partition characteristics and can follow Turkish folk dances. Turkish folk dances have an elite place in the world's folklore because of its variety and its richness expanding from its costumes to its musics. This subject is selected because there aren't any serious studies about arrangement of dance musics in competitions and festivals which are organised for the purpose of making the unknown sides of rich folk dances clear, widespread and loved by the next coming generations, about the characteristics of a polyphonic and multi instrumental performance emerged by using Turkish traditional musical instruments as well as western musical instruments together, about the criteria of musical arrangements, about the effects of the arranged music on the structure of folk dances. The music and the dance among the other elements forming the cultural characteristics of the nations have been the oldest and the most colourful coalescence mean among the art types occupying all kinds of facilities in social life because of their formation and the expressive richness. Dance which means to express the ideas and feelings through the human beings' movements collects all art and information branches in its essence in the primitive societies. Religious manners, destinies, wishes, heroic acts etc., all get their meanings through it and are animated by it. Music, lyrics, ornaments, magic, entertainment and praying, all come together around it. DC In short, there has been the society with its traditions and customs qhere there has been dance. Dance and music unite theirself in one art. At the present, folk dance should not be thought apart from art events like music and literature. The performers of this art are also folk artists. First folk artists, then good performers and later educated people teach this art. First dances were performed by native people accompanied by authentic traditional musical instruments, then some varieties were looked for with the increase of the festival and competition numbers. Performing authentically played and gathered dancing musics of folk dances in polyphony in competitions and festivals in last years and using the traditional musical instruments other than authentic ones of provincial dances and western musical instrument even electronic intrumentation. Aestetic produces technology and it has a domination over it. Therefore, technology is not a purpose of the art but its mean. Aestetic is the existence of an art and technology is the result of it. The realgoal of the art is expression. Folk dances which is the most important element of folklore becomes o popular show art especially in the Balkan countries and in some other European countries at the present. While it becomes a short, stage, stage art is formed by emerging some elements such as choreography of the dances, lightning, sound systems, decar. When stage art is accomplished, there are people who think mat music accompranying to the dances should also change from uniphony to polyphony. As above mentioned, the authentic musics of dance musics of Turkish folkdances begin to be performed by all kinds of musical instruments when the stage art applications are formed. So, these performances has caused the conversation about polyphony and mullet-instrumentation. Dance is a movement and mimic art. In the meaning, since it cannot be thought apart from music, the broad synthesis of human begins' societies is seen in the existence of these two arts. Folk dances are the reflection and introducing of the physical movements with the accompany of the music to the public. Polyphony in music is not a traditional but a technical dimension. Multinstrumentation in Turkish culture exists in the understandings varying according to the likeness and the acceptance of each province. Multi-instrumental performance in various provinces of Anatolia exists by custom of provincial performens gathering together to play and sing the provincial folk songs (türkü). On the other hand, in folk dances, some samples such as two "zurna" and one drum are played and while one of the "zurna" is playing the melodie, the oilier plays anly the constant sound in tonic and dominant of a "makam" are seen in some provinces. Polyphony which was explored by the Western countries in 9th century and is at the top nowadays is sade with its own rules. However, the studies in the Turkish folk dance competitions under the name of polyphony depend upon the arrangers' initiative wrongly or truely without considering the theoretical knowledge, just visually and sensorially. It is not different from the arrangements of arabesque style which has been seen in audio cassette market for many years and trying to give an orchestral order by sitting all the western musical instruments just like "ince saz" does not form the polyphony but visual and sensorial multiinstrumentation. The rules of polyphony aren't cared about and various trials have emerged according to the initiative and the ability of the performens or the arranger. Since the musical instruments used in dance music have a close relation with the dance's characteristic, they should give the feeling of the province by their melodies and by their stress because what a "zuma" gives, a "bağlama" could not give the some and vice versa. It is impossible to find an other instrument other then the one which is used originally, proper to the music's nature and can give the provincial features. The differences between folk music having a modal system and the western music having a tonal music system and the inexistency of our notes divided into 24 unequal intervals in the western music causes an intonation corruption between the instrument. This intonation corruption lets the manner and peculiarity of the music disappear and also reflects on the performance of the dances by effecting their dynamism and aesthetics. This seven study in done for the aim of "evaluating the dance musics of the Turkish folk dances in a polyphonic sense" The contents of these seven parts are as below. 1. Part : Determination of the problem, the aim of the study, its coverage and used methods. 2. Part : Information about the development of Turkish folk Dances and dance types (bar, halay, horon, zeybek, Teke, bengi, mengi, sinsin, hora and karşılama, dances with drums, dances with spoons, dances with applouse, dances with some instruments, navy dances, semah) are given. 3. Part : Turkish Folk Musical instruments are explained in four groups (instruments with plectrum, stringed instruments, blowing instruments, percussions) to understand the subject more deeply. 4. Part : The subjects such as decsription of rhytm, rhytmic pattern, ryhtmic partion, measure, beat, stress, tempo and grade are given in a general view. 5. Part : Studies about Turkish Folk Dances, competitions, relation between dance and music, concept of authentism and types of performances, manner and choreography are mentioned. 6. Part : The Polyphony understanding in Turkey is treated for general polyphony and its principles and elements. XI 7. Part : Evaluation of dance, musics of Turkish Folk Dances in a polyphonic sense is done and the results are tried to be proved by the samples. Data from libraries, individual observations and interviews are used in the partial evaluations of the study. The message for the future can be obtained by preventing the original which can be obtained by reaching the future wit out leaving the past. Knowing the past is valuable if it adds something to the future. On the other han d, the future is the sole worry of modern human beings or societies. Most of the catastrophes are caused by the poor future visions. The applications in Turkish folk dance competitions for reaching the Western level all at once (stage art, trials of polyphony in dance musics) are in complete confusion. Many elements sue as the places of the competitions, the disorder of the backstage, the corruption's in sound systems etc haven't reached yet in a sufficient level. Performing the dance music's of. Turkish folk dances and any kinds of music should be considered of the manner characteristics of the melody to be performed, should expose these characteristics, the delicacy and the hidden fineness of the melody and should aim to pass the context of the melody and the hidden meaning of it to the audience, so that it would be the most caret and the best performance. The study is resulted in that polyphony in dance musics of the Turkish Folk Dances is incorect because its scientific base is absent when the problem is seen from the point of view of musical system, standardization of folk musical instruments, trial of concept and terminology, the question of polphony of performed musical instruments during the evaluation of dance musics of the Turkish Folk Dances in a polyphonic sense.
Description: Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1997
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17378
Appears in Collections:Temel Bilimler Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora

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