Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17376
Title: Mevlevi ayinlerinde kullanılan usuller ve kullanış sebepleri
Authors: Atlığ,  nevzad
Gültek, Nermin
53279
Temel Bilimler
Basic Sciences
Keywords: Besteler
Dini müzik
Dini tören
Mevlana Celaleddin-i Rumi
Mevlevilik
Türk müziği
Compositions
Religious music
Ritual
Mevlana Celaleddin-i Rumi
Mawlawiyya
Turkish music
Issue Date: 1996
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: "Mevlevî Âyinlerinde Kullanılan Usûller ve Kullanılış Sebepleri" başlıklı çalışmamızda, bugüne kadar üzerinde durulmayan hususlar ele alınmış, âyîn-i şeriflerin, Mevlevî semâı'na eşlik etmek amacıyla bestelenmiş olmaları gözönünde tutularak konu, Mevlevîlerin dinî töreni olan "mukabele" çerçevesinde incelenmiştir. Araştırmamızda; Konya ve İstanbul'da yapılan Mevlevî mukabelelerinden elde edilen ses ve görüntü kayıtlan, fotoğraflar, âyîn-i şeriflerin notaları ve yazılı kay naklar ile konu hakkında derin bilgi ve tecrübe sahibi üstadlarm görüşleri materyal olarak kullanılarak değerlendirilmiştir. Mevlevîhânelerin faaliyette olduğu dönemde bestelenmiş âyîn-i şerifler ile, Mevlevihane faaliyetlerinin son bulduğu 1925 yılından sonra bestelenmiş âyîn-i şeriflerin notaları üzerinde yapılan incelemede; âyinlerde kullanılan bütün usûller, karakteristik özellikler ve geleneksel uygulamalar tesbit edilmiştir. Bu incelemelerde varılan sonuçlar, sebepleriyle izah edilmiş ve günümüzde bestelenen âyîn-i şeriflerde klâsik âyîn formunun dışmda yapılan farklı uygulamalar belirlenmiştir. Âyîn-i şeriflerin 2. ve 4. Selâmlarında kullanılan Ağır Evfer ile 3. Selâmlarının mısraları son "Tek" lerden giren Yürük Semaî bölümlerinde usûl-vezin münâsebeti de incelenerek, neticeleri ortaya konulmuştur. Âyîn-i şeriflerde belirli usûller kullanılmasının ve geleneksel uygulamaların nedenleri, konunun semâ ile olan ilişkileri, ayrıca; günümüzde yaşanan bazı problemlerin çözümleri hakkında hazırlanan sorularla günümüz kudûmzenleri, âyînhanlan, âyîn-i şerif bestekârları ve semâzenlerine anket uygulanmıştır. Anket sorularına verilen cevaplar değerlendirilerek ortak ve farklı görüşler tesbit edilmiştir. Bu araştırmada elde edilen sonuçların âyîn-i şerif bestelemeye yönelecek bestekârlarımıza ve konuyla ilgili araştırmacılarımıza fayda sağlayacağı ümit edilmektedir.
In my study of the subject of "Usûl" (rythmic pattern) used in the "Mevlevi Âyin" (Mevlevi Ceremony) I have taken up particularities that have not been touched upon up to now. The subject has been examined within the frame of the "Mevlevi Mukabele" (Mevlevi Meeting) keeping in mind that the "Âyîn-i Şerif had been composed to accompany the "Mevlevi Semâ" (Whirling Ceremony). The "Mevlevi" order, whose members are known as "Mevlevi" is a religious order founded in the 13th century by Sultan Veled, the son of the greatest mystic the Turkish Islamic world has ever known, Mevlânâ Jelaledin and based on the later's thinking. In the Mevlevi order, the "Semâ" (Whirling Ceremony) initiated with Hazret-i Mevlânâ and was later further developed and organized. It took its final form during the 15th century under the title of "Mukabele" (the Meeting) at the time of Pîr Abdal Çelebi, a descendant of Mevlânâ. The "Mevlevi Mukabele" (Mevlevi Meeting) has been performed as a religious ceremony for centuries, as it is today, in "Mevlevihane" (Mevlevi lodges) following a certain sequence and in a disciplined way from start to end. As the Mevlevi Semâ grew into a religious ceremony, the "Âyîn-i Şerif (Sacred Ceremony) came into existence. It was set to music by composers almost all of whom were "Mevlevis" (members of the Mevlevi order). Among the oldest Âyîn-i Şerif (Sacred Ceremony) that have been performed and have come down to us with their scores, during the period when the Mevlevihane" (Mevlevi lodges) were in existence is believed to be "Beste-i Kadîm" composed in the second half of the 15th century or the beginning of the 16th century in the Pençgâh, the Dügâh and the Hüseynî makam (mode). After taking its example from the "Beste-i Kadîm" and with time, the Âyîn-i Şerif (Sacred Ceremony) took a certain pattern as well as gaining a classical form of its own that had specific rules. Following the "Miraciye", the Âyîn-i Şerîf, which is the second greatest form in our music, has preserved its characteristic of being a masterpiece. The Âyîn-i Şerîf (Sacred Ceremony), which were originally set to music to accompany the "Mevlevi Semâ" (Whirling Ceremony) as an inseparable part of the "Mevlevi Mukabele" (Mevlevi Meeting) forms a complete whole with the "Semâ" (Whirling Ceremony). Starting with the "Peşrev" (Ouverture piece), then proceeding to a four parts section under the name of "Selâm" (Salutation) and concluding with the "Son Peşrev" (Final ouverture piece) and "Son Yürük Semaî" (Final fast Semaî), each part of the "Âyîn-i Şerîf being linked to the "Semâ" (Whirling Ceremony) carries a mystic XTV significance. It is because of this that the lyrics, the melodies and the "usûl" (rythmic pattern) used in the "Semâ" are of great importance. The Âyîn-i Şerîf (Sacred Ceremony) is divided into seven parts and beside the majestic mystic meaning it carries within itself, the changes in the rythmic pattern, the pleasant chanting, the transition in the "Makam" (mod), the speeding up of the rythm in the third "Selâm" (Salutation) to slow down again in the fourth and gaining speed again in "Son Yürük Semaî" (Final fast Semaî), all these characteristics display its splendor and richness and also charms the performer as well as the viewers. The Âyîn-i Şerîf has been performed at the "Mukabele-i Şerîf' (Sacred Meeting) at Mevlevî lodges to accompany the Semâ (Whirling Ceremony) until 1925. After that year, with the prohibition of 1925 putting an end to the activities of the Mevlevî lodges, the "Semâ" (Whirling Ceremony) were not performed for a long time and the "Âyîn-i Şerîf could not, of necessity, be performed. In 1954 parts of the "Mukabele-i Şerîf (Sacred Meeting) began to be performed by a few semâzen (whirling dervishes) in Konya, even though only for the purpose of demonstration within the framework of the lectures scheduled for the commemoration programs of Mevlânâ. Starting from 1959 it was performed in full and later, with regular performances in Istanbul, it focussed the attention upon itself. In 1979, with the Konya Tourism Society opening a competition for the composition of an "Âyîn-i Şerîf and as other competitions followed, enthusiastic and capable new composers were steered to compose new works or were given the opportunity to publish the "Âyîn-i Şerîf they had previously composed. Today, the number of composers composing "Âyîn-i Şerîf is in the increase and new works are performed by the Turkish Sufi Music choirs as an accompaniment to the "Semâ" (Whirling Ceremony). On the other hand, works pertaining to the "Âyîn-i Şerîf have been recorded on cassettes or CD's and offered to the public. The fact that the Ministry of Culture since 1977 has arranged every year during the Mevlânâ Commemoration week an "Âyîn-i Şerîf concert concurrently with the Istanbul Turkish Classical Music state choir, as well as the fact that concerts are followed by large audiences show that the Âyîn-i Şerîf,in its classical form, has kept its place as a musical entity by itself, outside the "Semâ" (Whirling Ceremony). As to our research on the "Usûl" (Rythmic pattern) used in the "Mevlevî Âyîn" (Mevlevî Ceremony), and as a result of our observation of the "Mevlevî Mukabele" (Mevlevî Meeting) performed since 1982 in Konya and Istanbul, we have evaluated materials consisting of sound and image recordings, photografs, scores of the "Âyîn-i Şerîf, written records, views of experienced masters with profound knowledge on the subject and the results of surveys with present day composers of Âyîn-i Şerîf, "âyînhan" (singers), "kudûmzen" (drum players) and semâzen (whirling dervishes). We have examined the written scores of the Âyîn-i Şerîf (Sacred Ceremony) into two groups. The ones composed and performed during the period when the XV Mevlevi lodges were active in the first group, and the ones composed after 1925, the year that witnessed the end of the activities of the Mevlevi lodges in the second group. The following is the "Âyîn-i Şerif composed during the period the Mevlevi lodges were active and their composers : The following is the "Âyîn-i Şerîf composed after 1925 during the period the Mevlevi lodges were closed and their composers : XVI We have determined the nature of all the "usûl" (rythmic pattern) by examining the Âyîn-i Şerîf composed and performed during the period when the Mevlevi lodges were active as well as the scores of the ones composed after 1925, the year that witnessed the end of the activities of the Mevlevi lodges. Accordingly, it has been observed that the following are the "usûl" (rythmic pattern) most preferred for the respective parts of the Âyîn-i Şerîf : Peşrev (Prelude or Ouverture) First Selâm (Salutation) Second Selâm (Salutation) Third Selâm (Salutation) Fourth Selâm Son Peşrev (Final Prelude) Son Yürük Semaî The Devr-i Kebîr (Grand Cycle) The Devr-i Revân (Walking Cycle) The Evfer rythmic pattern During this "Selâm", three different rythmic patterns : the Devr-i Kebîr, the Aksak Semaî (limping) and the Yürük Semaî (fast) have been used consecutively. The Evfer rythmic pattern The Düyek (two-to-one rythmic pattern) The Yürük Semaî (Fast Semaî) xvn Because of its connection with the "Semâ", the preferential use of the above rythmic patterns in the related parts of the "Âyîn-i Şerîf ' has become traditional. In the Âyîn-i Şerîf composed prior to 1925, in the first "Selâm" a second preference and to a lesser degree the "Düyek" rythmic pattern was used. In the third "Selâm" again as a second preference and to a lesser degree the "Frenkçîn" rythmic pattern was used. Nevertheless these rythmic patterns were preferred because of their convenience for the performance of the "Semâ" (Whirling Ceremony). We have brought out in our research and shown on a chart which usûl (rythmic pattern) and how many times each have been used in the Mevlevi ceremonies. In our examination from the point of view of rythmic patterns we have brought out their characteristic features and their traditional applications. The following stand out : One feature is the entrance from the last five stroke and the ending just in the midst of the usûl (rythmic pattern) and the next poetic line starting also from the middle. Another one is the use of the Evfer rythmic pattern at the beginning of the "Selâm" (Salutation) in the lyrics of the second and fourth salutations of the "Ayîn". On the other hand, in the Persian and to a lesser extent in the Arabic lyrics used after the Turkish quatrain beginning with the words "Ey ki hezâr aferin" the poetic line frequently enters from the last "Tek" of the rythmic pattern, which is a high characteristic feature. In order to research the reason for this application and determine its true nature we have examined the relationship between the prosodic meter of the second and fourth Selâm (Salutation) of the "Âyîn", which makes use of the Evfer rythmic pattern, and the part of "Yürük Semaî (Fast Semaî) rythmic pattern of the third Selâm (Salutation). We have shown on a chart which meter has been used in which proportion by going through the meters of the lyrics entering on the last "Tek" in the rythmic pattern of the third "Selâm" (Salutation) and all the lyrics used in the second and fourth salutations. After 1925, the year the activities of the "MevlevF'lodges were put to an end, we notice that the "Âyîn-i Şerîf' composed during this period follow the traditional rythmic pattern. We have determined in which topics the divers usage are. The line followed in choosing the "usûl" (rythmic pattern) the reason for this choice, and the relationship between these and the "Selâm" (Salutation), as well as the peculiar characteristics of the "Âyîn-i Şerîf together with the answers given to the poll we had prepared in this connection with the problems and solutions relating to that subject have shed light to our research and have played a dominant part in reaching a solution. xvni A twenty-question-survey was arranged for the "kudûmzen" (drum player)), "âyînhan" (singer) and the composers of the Âyîn-i Şerîf (Sacred ceremony). The same twenty questions were set to each group, only the first question, because of its relation to the execution or composition of the Âyîn, is different, the remaining 19 questions are similar. The questions were more concerned with the rythmic patterns used in the Mevlevi ceremonies. But questions have been asked about some of the problems and their solutions, apart from the ones on the rythmic patterns, that have come out in the examination of the Âyîn-i Şerîf comprising the execution of the "Âyîn", the new compositions, and the composers of the "Âyîn-i Şerîf. The puropose in asking some questions apart from the ones concerning rythmic patterns is to draw the attention of researchers to other aspects of the Mevlevî Âyîn that should be examined, and also to benefit from the experience,the views and the knowledge of the people the survey was directed at. A sixteen-question-survey was arranged for the "semâzen" (whirling dervishes). The answers given to the questions have been evaluated in an appraisal section where we have drawn attention to the approach, the common and conflicting views on the topic. The points we have reached as a result of our research have been contrasted with the answers of our survey and the results have been put forward for consideration. The aim of our research and the ensuing results are very important from the standpoint of composers who are inclined preferentially to compose the"Âyîn-i Şerîf. We have indicated in the appraisal section what should be taken into account when setting the "Âyîn-i Şerîf to music, the factors that should be kept in mind when choosing the "usûl" (rythmic pattern), the relationship of the subject with the "Semâ" (Whirling Ceremony), the reason for choosing the traditional "usûl" (rythmic pattern) and the benefit to be gained from the conclusions arrived at. The conclusions that have been reached are of a kind that constitutes a source for the composers who are enclined to set the Âyîn-i Şerîf to music. On the other hand, we have in our research drawn attention to other subjects related to the Âyîn-i Şerîf that need exploring. It is important for our music that the "Âyîn-i Şerîf, together with the aspects that have not been taken into consideration or have not been researched be examined.
Description: Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1996
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17376
Appears in Collections:Temel Bilimler Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora

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