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|Title:||Türkiye'de el ile (tezenesiz) bağlama çalma geleneği ve çalış teknikleri|
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Hazırladığımız Türkiye'de el ile (tezenesiz) bağlama çalma geleneği ve çalış teknikleri adlı çalışma başlıca altı bölümden oluşmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı, kapsamı ve kullanılan yöntemlerin anlatıldığı giriş bölümünden sonra, konu hakkında genel bilgilerin verildiği ikinci bölümde, bağlamanın Anadolu Öncesi ve Anadolu'daki tarihi gelişimi, el ile çalma geleneği ve tekniğinin kaynağı, ayrıca kopuz olarak bilindiği dönemlerden günümüze kadar bağlamada meydana gelen önemli değişimler ve gelişimler ayrıntılı olarak ifade edilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde ise; Anadolu'da el ile bağlama çalma tekniğinin ifadesinde kullanılan terimler derinlemesine incelenmekte ve bu teknikte kullanılan çeşitli sazların morfolojik yapıları, düzenleri anlatılmakta, el ile çalma geleneğinde görülen ezgi türleri incelenmekte ve ayrıca el ile çalma tekniğinde varolan geleneksel çokseslilik anlatılarak, konu notalı örneklerle açıklığa kavuşturulmaktadır. El ile bağlama çalma tekniklerinden başta sağ el teknikleri olmak üzere, iki ele ait kullanıma yönelik incelemeler ve el ile bağlama çalma tekniğinin gelenekten yetişmiş önemli ustaları hakkında verilen bilgiler dördüncü bölümde yer almaktadır. Beşinci bölümde el ile bağlama çalma tekniğinde meydana gelen değişim ve gelişimler ifade edilmiş, bu tekniğin şehirlere taşınması ve sonrasında bu konuda yapılan çalışmalar ile, geliştirdiğimiz yeni vuruş şekilleri ve notasyon tekniği anlatılmıştır. Sonuç bölümünde, bağlama icrasının "el ile" ve "mızraplı (tezeneli)" olmak üzere iki teknikten oluştuğu ancak, el ile çalma tekniğinin esas olduğu, bu tarz çalmanın bağlamanın gerçek kapasitesini, zenginliğini, ifade gücünü ortaya koyduğu ve bu tekniğin bağlamayı uluslararası platforma taşıyacak nitelikte olduğu görüşüne varılmıştır.|
Our prepared study named "Türkiye'de El ile (tesenesiz) Bağlama Çalma Geleneği ve Çalış Teknikleri" are mainly composed of six sections. After the introduction part where is explained the purpose, the cover and the used methods, in the second part that is given general information, historical development of Bağlama in and pre-Anatolia, the source of tradition and technique of playing by hand, the important development and alterations happened to Bağlama since the periods that is known as Kopuz until now are explained in detail. During archaeological excavations in Anatolia, similar instruments to Bağlama had been foımd in the ancient art of Greeks, embosses of Hfttite and Sümer in the periods of BC. But, in spite of ali our effbrts, we couldn't get any information on it and could just only do some visual evaluations about these remains. The reason for this is the existing written information can only be found in the Chinese sources and starting after about AÇ l* century. This is the reason why we determined that Bağlama is originated from Asian oriented Kopuz and moved to Anatolia. Kopuz is a common term for Asian and European cultures. it is also knovvn that Kopuz is in the culture of Shamanism that the kind of belief effected by Asian and Anatolian traditions and custom before islam. it is an oİd tradition playing stringed instruments by bow. We have already determined that many Saz and Bağlama prototypes had been played by bow ör hand. it took a lot of time for the development of Kopuz, which is the father of many instruments with ör without string including Bağlama. Many instruments that belong to Asian and Anatolian culture generated from Kopuz have common characteristics such as morphological form, playing technique ete. String components and specifications are very important for Saz. During our research we determined that the first material used in stringed instruments is horsehair. After a long while usage of horsehair, intestine has been used. Silk strings had also been installed where available. The final material used in stringed instruments is metal string. But, horsehair is very valuable for ali periods of time. Metal string brought many changes to the instruments in the ways of playing techniques and sound. Among some of them are having bigger sizes, using wooden body, and starting to play instruments by plectrum besides hand. ix After 17* century, Kopuz word was replaced by "Bağlama" in Anatolia. But it is stili alive in some particular regions of Anatolia. in Anatolia, "Saz" ör Bağlama" is the term used after Kopuz. The idea of using plectrum had been developed since 14* century after being started to use metal string in and around of Ottoman Palace. This idea had been developed for increasing the volume of instrument that was heard with trouble in crowded gatherings and it was settled after 17* century. Transfer had first started in the Anatolian cities affected by Ottoman Palace Culture and went with the village people. Transfer was diffîcult for Anatolian villages who were very much tradition oriented. Since Anatolian people had some difficulties in finding the metal string, the complete usage of plectrum was delayed until the foundation of Republic. But, there were also experts who continued to play only by hand while some could easily adapted themselves to plectrum like Aşık Veysel although they used to play by hand. After the development of plectrum, There had been some changes in Anatolian instruments and music. After the adaptation to spectrum, the number of strings had been increased, ali strings were made of metal, and wooden sound body was used. A new classification had been used as "Spectrum instruments" and even had been made a terminological mistake by classifying some instruments playing stili by hand as so. After the spectrum concept, beating forms had been shaped and then the general characteristics of music had been locked to this determining control. After a while, playing by hand had been left and the concept of being an instrument playing by spectrum for Bağlama had been settled. There had been considerable changes and developments in Bağlama after the Republic era. Production of Bağlama had been turned out to be a sector after the foundation of radios and music industry. As a result of this, every kind of technique and material had started to being used. With the understanding of radios that aimed to combine many regional music with different characteristics into öne formation, voice pitches at different koma ratios had been connected and this became a habit. in the third part of our study, the terms used in the statement of playing techniques of Bağlama by hand in Anatolia and the morphological accords of various instruments used in this technique are being deeply searched. These are clarified by giving note examples with the explanations of existing traditional multi sound and tüne types that was seen in the tradition of playing by hand. Same with the concept of playing by hand in Anatolia, in Shiism-Bektashi sect, "pençe" and "şelpe" terms were used. Since "Pençe-i Al-i aba" was an important concept, "pençe" term was accepted more important. We couldn't x determine any tenn used in Teke region, which has göt the richest examples in this area. Bağlama used in the tradition of playing by hand had morphologically formed dififerently depending on various effects. Playing melodies of different regions is almost impossible since each carries a regional characteristic. That's why, we developed a three-string Bağlama having common characteristics for the purpose of playing ali kinds of melodies. This Bağlama has a special sound and can be used in tvvelve different accords. Almost ali kind of melodies can be performed with it. Besides, this is the only serious achievement having an improved formation so that ali kinds of techniques can be applied and ali melodies in Anatolia can be originally performed. Playing by hand of Bağlama technique and tradition is stili alive by the leadership of Turkoman members of Teke region in Anatolia which is followed by Shiism-Bektashi communities settled in the middle, the south, and the east of Anatolia. Turkomans in Gaziantep Oğuzeli region have also a little contribution. Playing by hand tradition has also a special form in multi-sound and there has been important examples. Especially the Teke region has the leading examples by havimg interesting melodies and harmony forms. Right hand technique, vvhich is öne of the important playing by hand techniques, research results of using two hands, and information on the important experts that had been grovvn up with this traditional playing by hand techniques are given in the fourth part. Playing by hand of Bağlama has technically and traditionally three different techniques each having different characteristics: ali string tapping, string puUing, and finger tapping. Ali string tapping (şelpe) and string pulling are the old techniques used since the roots of Kopuz and performed by similar ways to Kopuz. On the other hand, finger tapping technique has based on the long and easy giving sound of metal string and developed after the transition to the metal string usage in Kopuz (Bağlama). Şelpe technique is öne of the playing by hand techniques of Bağlama that is done by hand tapping to ali strings up and down, and then dovvn to up. in the eastern regions, it is usually called 'Tence" and "Şelpe" whereas there is no specifîc tenn in Teke region. xi There are two main fünctions like tapping hand to ali strings up and down. These two fiınctions with various characteristics have different meanings, melodies and tapping styles. There are two kinds of tapping from up side down. Öne of them is using ali four but thumb and the other öne is the fast tapping of little, ring, middle and index fîngers in degrees without using of thumb. These tappings are important since they are the first beats. it can be either applied softly ör in many softness degrees varying from a determined intensity to very strong. Another main function of Şelpe technique is the tapping from bottom to top. This tapping is usually used for melody embroidering, rhyme determining, fîlling of places out of tamfor. in the tapping from bottom to top, index finger has a great importance. String pulling is öne of the main techniques of Bağlama. There are some regional differences in this technique, in which having sound by pulling strings with fingers. This technique is being used in eastern regions while performing long Ak and from time to time in rhythmic melodies. Each sound in the melody matches to öne tapping in this technique. But, the typical feature of this technique having a special sound characteristic is tapping a little by right hand while having as much sound as possible by left hand. There are some technical differences in playing of three-string Bağlama in Teke region. Tapping by fingers is a unique traditional way of having sound in playing by hand in Anatolia and only belongs to Turkoman members in Teke Region of Anatolia. The history of this technique starts with the usage of metal string and the technique has based on the long and easy giving sound of metal string. That's why, it couldn't be used in Anatolia widely. Finger tapping technique traditionally means the way of playing by tapping and pulling of strings on ali high quintette voice pitch usually by thumb and sometimes by middle finger. There are two main fünctions as finger tapping and string pulling. String pulling is complementary to the finger tapping. That's why, it is betler to think the finger tapping technique is complete together with finger tapping and string pulling. But the real impressing characteristic of this technique is to having sound wfth right hand by tapping on the voice pitch as well as the left hand playing melodies. While the right hand has only the percussion function by moving out the strings in other techniques, in this technique it functionally having some of melody sounds ie., melody is shared out by right and left hands. in this manner, the fünctions of these two hands are the same. Playing by hand techniques can easily be improved. This original and rich form based on the natural sound of skin and included various expressions can improve the horizon of Bağlama and Music. xii in the fifth part, the developments and alterations in the technique of pkying by hand have been stated and the studies carried out after the movement of this technique to cities, our developed tapping types and notation technique are also explained. it took long time to transfer the finger tapping application on small size three- string Bağlama to bigger size Bağlama, in the end, as a nucleus tradition, this concept has created a rich and wide spectrum. This states this is the solely technique that every melody can be played by. it. Usage of every finger on the right hand and ali voice pitches are the basis of this newly improved technique. Tapping and pulling of ali voice pitches on the handle can make soımd. Two octaves can be heard together in this application of which the melody sounds are shared between right and left hands. High-speed melodies can easily be performed with this technique that is having high ajilite capacity. This technique has features that can improve the harmonic usage and arpeggio style. in the final part, it has been concluded that "playing by hand" is the basic technique. Besides, real capacity, richness, and expressing power of Bağlama are coming out clearly by playing with this technique. it has also been concluded that this technique can carry Bağlama to the international platforms.
|Description:||Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1998|
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1998
|Appears in Collections:||Temel Bilimler Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora|
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