Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17370
Title: Ağıtlarda ritm unsuru
Authors: Ökten, Can Etili
Parlak, Nilgün Akkuş
92579
Temel Bilimler
Basic Sciences
Keywords: Ağıtlar
Folklor
Halk müziği
Ritim
Türk halk müziği
Dirges
Folklore
Folk music
Rhythm
Turkish folk music
Issue Date: 1999
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: "Ağıtlarda Ritm Unsuru" adlı bu çalışma dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı, kapsamı ve kullanılan yöntemlerin anlatıldığı giriş bölümünden sonra ikinci bölümde ağıt yakma geleneğinin tarihçesi, çeşitli Türk topluluklarında ağıt terimi yerine kullanılan terimler ve bu geleneğin Anadolu'daki biçimlenişi anlatılmaktadır. Ağıtlarda konu, edebi yapı, söyleyiş ve yayılış biçimleri, ağıt yakıcının özellikleri hakkındaki bilgiler ve yakılış itibarı ile belli bir gelenek çerçevesinde süregelen ağıt yakma törenleri hakkındaki bilgiler de aynı bölümde yer almaktadır. Müzikte ve Türk Halk Müziğinde ritm kavramına genel bakış ve ağıtların ritm yapısı ile kurulan bağlantı üçüncü bölümde verilmiştir. Ağıtları meydana getiren ritmik doku, ritmik oluşum, ritm kalıplarının özellikleri ve bu kalıpların zamanla ezgi bütününde meydana getirdiği değişimler hakkındaki incelemeler de aynı bölümde verilmektedir. Özellikle "Düzensiz Kalıp Ritmli" ağıtların ritmik ve melodik özellikleri anlatılarak, başta kırık hava ağıtlar olmak üzere birçok türkünün oyun havasının büyük çoğunluğunun kaynağını bu yapılardan aldığı ortaya konulmuştur. Dördüncü bölümünde ise, elde edilen bilgi ve bulguların ışığında varılan sonuçlar maddeler halinde verilerek ağıtların kaynağım ölüm olayından alan, törensel yapı içinde şekillenen müzik ürünleri olmaları nedeniyle daha çok doğaçlama söylenildiği, buna bağlı olarak da ritm yönünden serbest ritimli ifadeye daha yatkın bir durumda, hatta ilk çıkışlarında genellikle serbeste yakın bir karakterde (düzensiz kalıp ritmli) olduğu, zamanla serbest ritmli, düzenli kalıp ritmli veya karma ritmli yapılara dönüşebildiği, bu dönüşümün çeşitli şekillerde olduğu, ritmik ve melodik yönden değişik özellikleri bulunduğu, ritmik ifadenin şekillenmesinin çeşitli nedenlere bağlı olarak geliştiği ve düzensiz kalıp ritmli ağıtların yapısının bilinmesi gereğinin Türk Halk Müziği açısından önemi ortaya konulmuştur.
This study "Rhythm Element in Laments" is comprised of four sections. In introduction part, I outline the aim, scope, and methods of the study. In the second part, my focus is the etymology, meaning, and definitions of the term "ağıt" (lament), other terms used for lament in other Turkic populations, as well as the history of performing lament songs and the creation of lament tradition in Anatolia. In the same section, I also examine the themes, formal structures, creation and diffusion of singing styles, in addition to the characteristics of the lament singers and lamenting rituals, which are the integral part of the lament songs. Fourth part is the conclusion, where I outline the findings of my research for the audience. Etymologically, (ağıt) lament means "crying," and it is performed after the death of a person, or other catastrophes such as the loss of an object or a substance, highlighting the characteristics of the loss and the feelings of the relatives, expressed in free or strict lyrics and melodies. By the virtue of their creation, laments are of ritual origin. Nevertheless, they lose this characteristic throughout time. The tradition of lament songs, as a part of Turkic culture before the rise of Islam, took its forms alongside the experiences of everyday life. Shaman, the most important person in the shamanism, conducted lamenting rituals for the deceased, and other public rituals for different occasions. He was primarily in charge of religious ceremonies, although throughout time, his character has developed into a minstrel, a sorcerer-magician, and a poet. The roots of the lament songs can be traced back to shamanism, the ancient belief system of the Turkic peoples. The term "yuğ" was used in the Orkhun Inscriptions for laments and lamenting ceremonies, as a part of three important rituals of the Turks. Turkic peoples have continued to perform the yuğ ceremonies and to sing lament songs for the deceased, after they accepted Islam. However, the adaptation to the new religion of the Turks, who became Muslim after the 8 century, took a long time. Etymologically, "ağıt" is related to crying, and it is derived from Ag/ and /ag/ roots. We come across with several other terms expressing the tradition of creating and singing lament songs, commonly known as "ağıt yakmak." Among these terms, for "lament," we can include ağat, ağı, ağıtlama, ağıt türkü, ağut, avud, avut, bayatı, beyit, destan, deme, deyiş, deyişat, deyişet, deşet, diyeşet, lavik, lorikli, mersiye, vnı sabu, sagu, savu, sayma, şivan, yakma, yakım, yas, and zılgıt. For the "act of singing lament songs," we can include, ağıt tutmak, ağıt yitirmek, ağıt etmek, ağıt koparmak, ağıt düzmek, ağıt yapmak, ağıtmak, avut avutmak, avut getirmek, avut dökmek,avut yakmak, bayati söylemek, deme demek, diyeşet getirmek, nennilemek, sağu sağmak, sayı kuru ağlamak, şivan etmek, yakım yakmak, yas çağırmak, yas çıkarmak, and yas etmek. In addition to these terms used in Anatolia, there are other terms used among the Turkic population for "lament," such as coktav, cır, ağı, şiven, küy, sazlamağ, mörsiya, marsiya, yığa, taqmaq, matemname, bozlaw. Whichever term might have been employed, lamenting is a deeply rooted tradition, which is still alive among the Turkic peoples. Lament songs embrace a large variety of themes, including songs for the deceased person, natural disasters, or social phenomena. Likewise, "lament song for brides," created for the bride who leaves her home, and in the ritual context can be included in this category. Lament songs primarily focus on "death," however, they are not just sad lyrics sung to a melody for the deceased. In many places in Anatolia, it may still carry this connotation, however, in many regions, its' meaning is expanded and it refers to music, lyrics, and the act of crying at the same time. Lament songs, which are classified thematically, can also be categorized according to their literary form- prose, prose and poetry, and poetry. Laments in the form of poetry are performed in 8 and 1 1 syllabic lines, although we can include poems with or less than 7 syllabic lines in this category. The tradition of lament songs, which take its roots from "death," can be performed in two different ways: as ritual and non-ritual. Using different characteristics of singing, people perform ritual lament songs near by the deceased, or later they show the clothes of the deceased to the people by them. People who perform the lament songs are often those, who were affected by the death to a great extend. If the lament song is performed for a death, usually mothers, sisters, spouse and other relatives of the deceased sing the lament song. This is also true for the bridal laments. Additionally, in some regions, there are professional lament singers. After Islam, performing lament songs was attributed mainly to women performers, rarely can we find male performers as well. Generally speaking, however, professional lament singers are women, and they are known as demeci, aşık bacı, diyeşetçi, or ağıtçı, who perform laments for money or gifts. Female lament performers, who are IX trained through the master-novice relationship, hold an important part in the expressive folk culture. These women know the style and the content of the songs well, and they perform the songs with sincerity, with no exaggeration. It is due to their sincere performance that the deceased looks more important in the eyes of the community, and the person is remembered more compassionately and admirably. The third part of the study focuses on the "rhythm" element in the lament songs. Since lament songs are shaped by the context of "death" and affected by ritual elements, they contain particular elements of lyrics, melody and expression. Because of the ritual character, most laments are improvised and they are more likely to be sung in free-rhythm. Therefore, it would not be wrong to argue that, when laments were first created, they were performed as free rhythm or nearly free rhythm songs. The rhythmic elements in laments are of different forms and characteristics, and they influence the form of the inner-rhythm, as they define the character and enrich the expression of the melody and lyrics. Generally speaking, laments are reflections of the Turkish Folk Music rhythms, and it is quite possible to find free rhythm, strict rhythm, and mixed rhythm in the lament songs. Furthermore, one can find a new structure in lament songs- irregular patterned rhythm (Düzensiz Kalıp Ritmli)- a concept that has been a recent concern for the study of Turkish Folk Music. Laments in the strict rhythm pattern, too, offer many original examples. One of the most important factors, which determines the rhythmic character of the laments is "language." The direct relationship among sound texture, rhythm, accent, stops, and metric patterns is very important, for they shape the rhythmic structure. Another factor, which determines the rhythmic formation of the laments, is the formation of lyrics, dependent upon the characteristics of expression. Lament songs, created in ritual environment and sung by one person related to the deceased or by a professional lament singer, reveal differences in rhythmic expression. The professional lament singer, with total control over the form and sentiment of the lament, can use the traditional melody and rhythm from memory, whenever necessary, and she can improvise. We sense a comfort, coherence, and clarity in the rhythm of the performance. On the other hand, a family member or a relative, who sings the lament songs for the deceased, as a natural reaction has shortcomings in terms of lyrics and rhythm, although it is full of sentiments. In the case of 2-person singing or in-group singing, we can sense a parallel between performers, yet individual differences derived from styles. In the formation of the rhythmic and melodic structure of the lament, the development process of the laments plays an important role. We can discern the melodic and rhythmic structure of the laments created at the death from the later performances. Therefore, as the ritual elements disappear, laments are thought to be musical works, and as a result, rhytmic and melodic structure are fully developed. Therefore, at the end of the process, laments, which survived to day, can even turn into traditional dance tunes, because of the change in rhythmic and melodic structure. The use of instrument accompaniment is another important element, which determines the rhythmic expression of the laments. The accompaniments of instruments, which can be a part of the lament process form the first ritual creation to the final form, influences the regularity and the variation of the rhythms of the melodies. According to their rhythm, laments can grouped into 4: Free-rhythm (Serbest Ritmli), strict-rhythm (Düzenli Kalıp Ritmli), mixed rhythm (Karma Ritmli), and irregular pattern rhythm (Düzensiz Kalıp Ritmli). Free rhythm laments have the characteristics of unmeasured free-rhythm extemporized vocal form- uzun hava. Free-rhythm laments, shaped by the inner-rhythm of the lyrics and the patterns of melody, are very rich in terms of rhythm, however, they may have no regularity and periodic flow. In these laments, the most important matter is expressing the sentiments and feelings freely, without the anxiety of time constraints. Thus, one can see a very rich, yet a free-metric rhythm character in these laments. The strict-rhythm laments, occupies the largest part in the Turkish Folk Music lament repertory in terms of collected materials. These lament melodies can be heard in different regions in Turkey in the forms of türkü, halay, and zeybek, and they generally carry a wide and rich rhythm character. The strict rhythm laments can be seen in two different forms in terms of meter: First, regular and periodic meter, which goes all through the melody, and second, different meter varying in the melody-mixed meter. XI Periodic meter laments, are songs shaped upon completing the development process, as they slowly release the ritual elements. In these laments, there is only one-meter pattern periodically all throughout the melody. These laments, which have the characteristics of the regional musical elements in which they were collected, reveal 2 unit- basic meter, and 4 and 9- unit additive meter. However, we can also find 3-unit basic meter, and 5,6,7,8-unit additive melodies. In the periodic meter laments, in terms of mixed meter, we generally find 10- unit mixed melodies, and they hold a great number in the same group. Rarely, do we find 11,13,14,15, and 17- unit mixed meter examples. There is also a third group of irregular pattern rhythm laments, where rhythmic elements are found in free melodies. These laments sometimes come closer to the free, sometimes to the rhythmic laments, while sometimes the characteristics are equally distributed. Called "irregular pattern rhythmic laments," this characteristic is found at the first creation of the melody, and that makes the determination of the rhythmic character of the melody possible, depending on the expansion and compression of the rhythm. Rhythmic elements, which can cause the melody slow down or speed up, play an important role in the formulation of laments as free or strict meter throughout time. In the fourth part of the study, we include the conclusive remarks, and analyze the data
Description: Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1999
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1999
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17370
Appears in Collections:Temel Bilimler Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora

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